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Acmeology in the system of professional sciences

The science of the highest achievements in the field of professional excellence is called "acmeology". The word "acmeology" goes back to the ancient Greek "akme", which, in turn, comes from the word "axis" ("point") and meaning: "the highest degree of something, color, flowering time"; "en akmy einai" (to be in acme) means: "to be in full color, to the highest degree of development" [1]. The ancient Greek doxographers, compiling biographies of the famous sages and philosophers, often indicated not the dates of the beginning and end of their lives, but the time when they showed themselves to the world precisely as sages and philosophers, i.e. the time at which the highest peak of their activity was - the time of their "heyday", acme. So Diogenes Laertius, representing Heraclitus, says that "his heyday was at the 69th Olympiad" [2].

The concept of "acmeology" was first introduced by N. A. Rybnikov in 1928 to denote a special section of developmental psychology - the psychology of maturity or adulthood. B.G. Ananiev in his book "Man as an Object of Knowledge" indicated the place of acmeology thus understood in the system of human sciences, placing it in the series: "pedagogy - acmeology - gerontology".

B.G. Ananiev also set the task of developing a systematic psychological theory of adulthood and maturity - acmeology. He drew attention to the neglect of the fact that the fundamental sections of psychology are mainly associated with the measurement of various characteristics and properties of an adult. Thus, studies of the mental processes and activities of adults form the basis of general psychology, and the study of various types of adult activities and the determination of optimal factors for controlling this or that activity comprise the content of most disciplines of applied psychology. Thus, the psychological characteristics of adults are attributed to the function of a kind of standard in relation to the characteristics of different periods of maturation, formation, growth and aging of a person. At the same time, it was naturally assumed that psychological and psychophysiological variability were not characteristic of the "reference" psychological characteristics of adulthood and maturity. So, J. Piaget, for example, came to the conclusion that the “adult logic” is formed in the teenage period, after which, although many quantitative changes take place, the latter are only an improvement and completion of the structure of the “adult logic” [3].

In the studies conducted by B.G. Ananiev, the subject of which was the age-related variability of the intellectual functions of adults (aged 18 to 40 years), it was shown, however, that the optima of many mental functions fall on the periods of early and middle adulthood. So, it was precisely during these periods that the smallest latent period of reactions to simple, combined and verbal signals, the optima of many modalities of the absolute and difference sensitivity of environmental analyzers [4], the greatest plasticity and switchability in the formation of complex psychomotor and other skills were recorded. It was during this period that the highest speed of RAM and switching attention, as well as solving verbal-logical problems, was noted.

B. G. Ananiev pointed out the paradoxical nature of the situation in psychology in which "early and late ontogenesis was at the center of psychological knowledge of human development, and on the periphery - those phases when a person lives the most productive creative and socially active life" [5] . He put forward the thesis that "a unified scientific theory of individual psychological development cannot be built without a special development of its fundamental department - the age psychology of maturity or adulthood" [6].

Currently understood as a section of developmental psychology, acmeology is further developed. So A.A.Bodalev defines acmeology, speaking of its broad understanding, as follows: “Acmeology comprehensively illuminates the features ... of the most important stage that a person goes through in his development - the stage of maturity. It defines the similar and different in different people and in the same vein, it clarifies the uniqueness of the action of factors that determine the individual picture of maturity "[7].

However, acmeology acquires a completely different scientific status as soon as its object is not a wide range of all possible characteristics of a mature person as such, but first of all - the mastery of his professional activity, his professionalism, from the point of view of which acmeology is involved in various aspects of life an adult, the characteristics of his psyche, the conditions of his upbringing and education, methods and detailed technologies of his professional activity, with mastery skills and their level of ownership, etc. - but now it’s strictly in the perspective of identifying, studying and further practical use of various kinds of factors that contribute to the increase of professional skill, the achievement of the peaks of professionalism. Acmeology, understood in this way, can no longer be regarded only as a section of developmental psychology, but goes beyond the scope of purely psychological science, referring to the results of scientific studies obtained in other fields of knowledge, for example, in sociology and pedagogy, as well as in the study of specific theory and technology. industries and types of professional activity, and integrating them on the basis of applying our own concepts, implementing our own methodological foundation, aimed at achieving specific theories retical and practical goals that are not peculiar to those individual sciences, the data of which are used by acmeology.

Professional activity, which is the object of study of acmeology, is also studied by other sciences, considering it in their specific aspects, pursuing their own goals. General psychology, for example, explores the mechanisms of motivation, the characteristics of affective behavior, the laws of various mental functions of a person: thinking, perception, memory, etc. Separate areas of labor psychology, developing on the basis of the provisions of general psychology, reveal the features of mental processes observed in people engaged in specific types of professional activity, and formulate recommendations for optimizing these processes, as well as requirements for the training system of future professionals regarding the degree of development of various mental abilities. Technologies and theories of various areas of professional activity, based on data from specific sciences, study and develop the subject-procedural aspect of professional activity. Their data are the source for vocational education pedagogy, which, being aimed at solving the problem of training new professional personnel, transferring to them the knowledge and skills necessary to carry out a certain type of activity, is engaged in the development of methods and specific teaching methods with the wide use of data from various psychological sciences. The sociology of labor, based on the basis of the general sociological theory, examines professional activity in the aspect of social relations developing in its process, the laws of their development, methods of diagnosis and impact on the process of their course.

Acmeology occupies a special place in this complex of sciences. Putting as its main task the study of factors affecting the increase of professional skills and their further practical application, acmeology conducts its own research and synthesizes data from all the above scientific disciplines based on the key concept of "professionalism". So, for example, if the subject of labor psychology is professional thinking, then acmeology considers the latter from the point of view of the level of professional skill and the identification of various ways to improve it, based on the use of not only psychological, but also pedagogical, sociological, medical, and technological knowledge. To this end, acmeologists analyze various technologies of specific types of professional activity, identify the most productive of them, develop methodological foundations and methodologies for various ways of introducing the most productive technologies into various areas of professional activity of people, while data from psychology and pedagogy are widely used. Thus, acmeology provides practitioners with not only recommendations on the most desirable parameters of various characteristics of professional activity, identified by acmeology itself, as well as within the sciences that the acmeology uses, but also the acmeological product itself - ways to achieve these parameters that are realized by practicing acmeologists , as well as transferred to the disposal of professionals trained by them for further independent use in order to increase the level of their profession nalisma.

Acmeology, therefore, offers various, ready-to-use methods of turning first into an objective technique, and then into really existing skills of professionals - exactly what was previously the lot of only the most gifted people: the ability to be creative, to re-evaluate and restructure their thinking and their skills to achieve a qualitatively higher level of professionalism, the heights of professional activity.

There are deep reasons for the logical and historical order, causing a close interweaving on the one hand of acmeological, and on the other hand, primarily pedagogical and psychological research, which, moreover, makes the task of highlighting actual acmeological research and acmeological knowledge and distinguishing them mainly from pedagogy and psychology.

So, we have already pointed out that even the term "acmeology" has historically been introduced to refer to psychological science - a section of developmental psychology. He did not lose this significance today, so it even makes sense (as A. A. Bodalev does, for example) to talk about acmeology in different meanings: as a psychology of adulthood and as a science that has as its subject factors for improving professional skill. As a theory of professionalism, acmeology can no longer be considered the psychological science of adulthood also because it goes beyond the age limits of adulthood itself, but, examining professionalism, turns to its conditions and factors found, distinguished and analyzed at various stages of human life, which themselves being considered at the same time through the prism of professionalism, it is understood by it already as the stages of formation, development and improvement of professional skill and its transfer to future generations of future professionals.
However, it is this circumstance that brings acmeology closer to another psychological science - to the psychology of the "life path", which also strives for a holistic coverage of the whole human life, but (unlike acmeology) has difficulty finding a basis for understanding this wholeness. Even closer ties exist between acmeology and those psychological sciences that are engaged in research of various types of professional activity, which brings us back to the task of distinguishing acmeology from the complex of psychological sciences.

A.A.Derkach and N.V. Kuzmina, noting the complexity and diversity of the connection between acmeology and psychology, indicate, for example, the following reasons why acmeology "cannot be included in the system of psychological sciences": "Psychological sciences examine the laws of reflection of objective reality in the human psyche, regardless of his profession, professionalism of activity, level of productivity and activity. There are no concepts in them: professionalism of perception, thinking, activity, personality. These are acmeological concepts. Psychol conclusions Psychology considers ology, but uses them in relation to professionalism.

Psychological sciences are analytical. They split the processes of reflection and study the parts: sensation, perception, representation, memory, etc. Acmeology, on the other hand, analyzes holistic professional groups, groups, and individuals that are difficult to interact in the direction of obtaining a common professional result (taking into account the professional role and everyone's contribution to it).

In the psychological sciences, in order not to get distorted data, the research apparatus is hidden from the subjects. Acmeology, on the other hand, proceeds from the fact that man reaches the heights of professionalism himself. Her methods are divided into research and scientific and practical. The latter are passed on to the professionals themselves, because professionalism is achieved by converting scientific methods into practical ones "[8].

These provisions can only partially be agreed. Since in practice the relations of acmeology and related scientific disciplines are much more diverse than - as it may look from a purely logical point of view - simple acmeology performs the function of a synthesizing scientific theory and organizing practical application of projects. Moreover, until recently, acmeological research itself most often acted as only an integral part, only a logically singled out moment of research conducted in various fields of scientific anthropology. On the one hand, this was caused until recently by the situation of the complete organizational lack of formalism of acmeology, as a result of which acmeology developed within the framework of psychological and pedagogical projects and scientific institutes, and on the other, the fact that all scientific disciplines associated with the study of professional activity every time one way or another, when they come to the practical application of their results, they actually deal with factors that increase the level of professional skill.

The essential difference of acmeology from these sciences is rather that acmeology purposefully identifies professionalism and the factors that influence it as the subject of its research and has the task of constructing, developing and improving professional development systems for which the concepts of productivity and level of professionalism are key. Such systems can be specialized, prepared for use within the framework of specific, traditional types of activities (now we can already talk about the existing pedagogical, engineering, vocational, medical areas of acmeology), but can also be performed in a generalized form with in order to be applied to all kinds of activities, i.e. even to those for whom neither a psychological nor even a technological description exists. A.A.Derkach and N.V. Kuzmina distinguish such studies in a special acmeological science - acmeology of improvement and correction of professional activity [9]. Moreover, the concept of professionalism should, of course, be appropriately specified in relation to this type of activity.

Here, in our opinion, the essence of the differences that exist between acmeology and pedagogy is hidden, despite all their obvious proximity. The fact is that acmeology, by its very nature, always involves the specification of its methods for each particular profession. Research of the profession itself, its technologies, is a necessary component of acmeological research, without which applied acmeological programs cannot be created. The latter include general developmental elements as subordinates aimed at a single goal - increasing the level of professionalism in a particular profession, in a specific field of activity, and for acmeology, the so-called “transfer problem” arises every time, i.e. the problem is how much a true professional in this field needs competence in related fields and how freely a professional trained in this program will be able to use the acquired knowledge and skills to master related professions. Further we will see that this problem turned out to be decisive at a certain stage in the history of acmeology and which determined the direction for the further development of this science. But such a problem can generally arise only if the initial task is to prepare a person for a certain type of activity. At the same time, the task of pedagogy, which emerged as the science of children, is rather to educate a comprehensively developed personality, to communicate to it various kinds of knowledge, skills and values ​​for its full integration into society and the subsequent conscious choice of profession.

Pedagogy, for example, in elementary school has an “entrance” student who does not yet have any psychological mechanisms that would allow him to purposefully move to the heights of professional excellence. Here is how this psychological state of yesterday’s preschooler A.K. Dusavitsky describes: "... Here the child sits at the desk, looking at the teacher with a trusting look ... Before that, he was just a boy, now he is a student. He came to learn. But what "He himself can’t say anything about this. He just does not study. He certainly has no interest in the content of knowledge, in methods of cognitive activity. He has experience based on someone else’s and mastered with the help of his parents: it’s time and you have to go to school to study " [10]. In order to arouse interest in knowledge and skills in this student, to help him enter the complex and constantly changing modern world and try to take his place in it, pedagogy has a very extensive toolkit of tools and methods developed independently and proposed to it by related sciences, before total psychology. The essence of the problem solved by pedagogy could be defined as the creation for a young man of a wide arsenal of opportunities and potentials.

To a certain degree, the moment of conscious choice by a student of his future profession and subsequent focused specialization is a turning point. This complex mental process at the organizational level of the education system must correspond to a system of vocational guidance. The problem of career guidance is logically the first acmeological problem proper. The solution to this problem by a young man poses a lot of new problems for him, grouped around the main task - the task of mastering a chosen profession. But for the training of this profession, for improvement in it, and, all the more, for reaching the heights of professionalism, a substantially different development strategy is needed, aimed at mastering a completely specific activity and justified by the exclusively achieved level of productivity in this activity, the level of professionalism. (By the way, it is precisely with the presence of such a strict reference point in acmeology that the fact that, as A.A. Derkach and N.V. Kuzmina point out, pedagogy, unlike acmeology, "has not found to date ways to measure the effectiveness of the educational process " [eleven].)

Thus, the essence of the task facing acmeology and solved by it, in contrast to pedagogy, is to create future professionals with relevant knowledge and skills, i.e. directly applicable in the context of a real situation of a specific professional activity, which - already because of the limited time that any person can devote to his education - is always inevitably associated with a narrowing of the individual's range of possibilities for choosing various types of activity.

* * *

So, acmeology, having as its object professional activity, considers and studies it from the point of view of the problem of increasing its productivity, identifying patterns and factors of improvement and achieving the heights of professional excellence. The central category of acmeology, outlining the subject area of ​​its research, is the category of professionalism of activity, revealed through the concepts of productivity, activity efficiency, etc., which make up the conceptual apparatus of acmeological science. Being aimed at implementing projects that have a specific area of ​​its practical application, acmeology develops new approaches and methods for improving professional skills in various areas of professional activity, explores the laws of this process, develops methods for determining the level of effectiveness of professional development systems aimed at achieving the highest level of professionalism.

Thus, the presentation of the theoretical potential of acmeological science and the development of concrete theoretical problems within its framework should go along the path of revealing the concept of professionalism of activity.
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Acmeology in the system of professional sciences

  1. Acmeology in the system of human sciences
    Initially, acmeology was understood and developed as a section of developmental psychology. However, as noted above, its scientific status is acquired as soon as the object is not a wide range of all possible characteristics of a mature person as such, but above all, the mastery of his professional activity, his professionalism, from the point of view of which acmeology is involved in
  2. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  3. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  4. Improving the style of professional activity, optimizing the relationship between individual groups of professional skills, increasing the number of "degrees of freedom" of the subject of professional activity
    This performance criterion is a unique criterion for acmeological training program-oriented, since this training is aimed at fulfilling the task of improving professional skills as a whole and has sufficient methodological potential to solve it. In addition to increasing the level of possession of individual skills and psycho-correction of the current state
  5. Improving the style of professional activity, increasing the number of "degrees of freedom" of the subject of professional activity.
    We also conducted a repeated study on the construction of a group acme space for professional management activities after the participation of group members in the acmeological training program-oriented. The study was conducted using the same methodological tools that were necessary to ensure comparability of the results. The hypothesis of this study was
  6. The place of psychology in the system of sciences
    In the 19th century, the classification of sciences developed by the creator of the philosophy of positivism, the French scientist O. Comte, was very popular. In Comte's classification, there was no place for psychology at all. The father of positivism believed that psychology had not yet become a positive science. For the first half of the XIX century, this statement was generally fair. • Since then, much has changed: psychology
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  8. The place of psychology in the system of other sciences
    The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them drew attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristic
  9. The specifics of the professional activity of a medical worker, his professionally important qualities
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  10. The specifics of the professional activity of a medical worker, his professionally important qualities
    Medical activities are carried out in the following areas: diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases - and requires the skills to formulate a diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive task. This process, as a rule, is carried out in the conditions of variability of the initial data (symptoms and syndromes can appear and disappear, combine in different ways), lack of time (with
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