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Acmeology in the system of human sciences

Initially, acmeology was understood and developed as a section of developmental psychology. However, as noted above, its scientific status is acquired as soon as the object is not a wide range of all possible characteristics of a mature person as such, but above all, the mastery of his professional activity, his professionalism, from the point of view of which various acmeology is involved and examined aspects of the adult’s life, characteristics of his psyche, conditions of his upbringing and education, methods and detailed technologies of his professional activity, methods mastering skills and their level of ownership, etc., but now strictly in the perspective of identifying, studying and further practical use of various kinds of factors contributing to the improvement of professional skill, achievement of the peaks of professionalism (A.A. Derkach). Thus, acmeology can no longer be regarded as a branch of developmental psychology; it goes beyond the scope of purely psychological science, referring to the results of scientific research obtained in other fields of knowledge, for example, in sociology and pedagogy, as well as in the study of the theory and technology of specific industries and types professional activities and, integrating them on the basis of the application of their own concepts, the implementation of their own methodological foundation, aimed at achieving specific theoretical and practical objectives are not peculiar to the science taken separately, data which uses Psychology.

It should be noted that professional activity, which is the object of study of acmeology, is also studied by other sciences that consider it in their specific aspects, pursuing their own goals.

General psychology explores the mechanisms of motivation, the characteristics of affective behavior, the patterns of various mental functions of a person: thinking, perception, memory, etc.

Labor psychology identifies the features of mental processes observed in people engaged in specific types of professional activity, and formulates recommendations for optimizing these processes, and also determines the requirements for the training system of future professionals regarding the degree of development of various mental abilities.

The sociology of labor explores professional activity in the aspect of social relations that are developing in its process, patterns and development, ways of diagnosing and influencing the process of their course.

Acmeology occupies a special place in this complex of sciences. Putting as its main task the study of factors affecting the improvement of professional skills and their further application in practice, acmeology conducts its own research and synthesizes data from all the above scientific disciplines based on the key concept of "professionalism". Acmeologists analyze various technologies of specific types of professional activity, identify the most productive of them, develop methodological foundations and methodologies for various ways of introducing the most productive technologies into various areas of professional activity of people, while data from psychology and pedagogy are widely used.

A significant difference between acmeology and these sciences is that acmeology purposefully identifies professionalism and the factors that influence it as the subject of its research and has the task of constructing, developing and improving systems for improving professional skills, for which the concepts of productivity and level of professionalism are key. Acmeology involves the specification of its methods for each particular profession. Research of the profession itself, its technology is a necessary component of acmeological research, without which applied acmeological programs cannot be created.

The connection of acmeology with other sciences, especially with psychology and pedagogy, is complex and diverse. Psychological sciences investigate the patterns of reflection of objective reality in the human psyche, regardless of their profession, professionalism, level of productivity. Acmeology takes into account the conclusions of psychology, but it is used in relation to professionalism.

Pedagogy is a normative science, it formulates principles and rules, defines means, forms, methods of organizing the educational process, i.e. prescribes what to do without answering the question: how to do it? The answer to this question is seeking acmeology.
In addition, pedagogy is largely a descriptive science that has not yet found ways to measure the effectiveness of the educational process, to identify productive technologies for activities, rational methods for improving and correcting activities, since it does not orient a person to the achievement of the heights in his profession. Acmeology has created new technologies in this area, experimentally tested them and received tangible results. Unlike pedagogy, acmeology offers practitioners programs and tools designed to improve and self-improve the professionalism of thinking and activity.

The subject of acmeology is the objective and subjective factors that contribute to and impede the achievement of the peaks of professionalism, creative longevity of specialists, as well as patterns in the organization of training for the professionalism of future specialists, improvement and correction of their activities.

Objective factors include the quality of upbringing and education; subjective - the talent and abilities of a person, his responsibility, competence, ability to effectively solve professional problems.

Acmeology also explores the laws of preventing and resolving the main contradiction of education: between the growing volume of scientific, theoretical and scientific and practical information, on the one hand, and the time required to master it or create new information that provides a productive solution to creative problems, on the other.

Thus, acmeology provides practitioners with not only recommendations on the most desirable parameters of various characteristics of professional activity identified by acmeology itself, but also the actual acmeological product — ways to achieve such parameters that are realized by practicing acmeologists, as well as transferred to the disposal of professionals trained by them for further independent use in order to improve their professionalism.

As a theory of professionalism, acmeology cannot be considered the psychological science of adulthood, but, examining professionalism, turns to its conditions and factors found, distinguished and analyzed at various stages of a person’s life, which, being considered in this case through the prism of professionalism, are understood by it already as stages the formation, development and improvement of professional skills and passing it on to the generation of future professionals. It is this circumstance that brings acmeology closer to another psychological science - to the psychology of the "life path", which also strives for a holistic coverage of all human life.

Acmeology, therefore, is a scientific way to study the maximum possibilities of human nature (it is interested in positive rather than negative achievements). Studying his object and relying on the data of life and culture, history, acmeology not only seeks, like any other science, the patterns of manifestation of maximum human capabilities, but also raises urgent (for politics, education, culture) questions about such a change in people's living conditions, which would give way to talents, would not leave them unrealized. Socio-ecological and practically critical aspects in acmeology should be powerful-sounding, since they reveal how true the general theoretical search is within the framework of fundamental acmeology (A. A. Bodalev).

In order to study and analyze professional mastery and develop optimal technologies for the development of professionalism, acmeology conducts comprehensive studies of processes and methods for professional activities by various specialists, synthesizing for this the achievements of other human sciences, primarily philosophy, sociology, psychology, physiology, genetics and pedagogy. Acmeology gains its ontological certainty due to its focus on identifying, describing, analyzing the phenomenology of acme forms in human life, in becoming a professional, psychologically creative and socially successful implementation of professional activities.

Obtained as a result of psychological and acmeological research, scientific knowledge about the laws and methods of reaching the pinnacles of professionalism and creativity is characterized by such an integrative in its sociocultural nature and systemically important ontological attribute as “acmeologicity” of a person’s sociocultural life.
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Acmeology in the system of human sciences

  1. Acmeology in the system of professional sciences
    The science of the highest achievements in the field of professional excellence is called "acmeology". The word "acmeology" goes back to the ancient Greek "akme", which, in turn, comes from the word "axis" ("point") and meaning: "the highest degree of something, color, flowering time"; "en akmy einai" (to be in acme) means: "to be in full color, to the highest degree of development" [1]. Ancient greek
  2. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  3. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  4. The place of valeology in the system of sciences
    Valeology is a complex of sciences, or an interdisciplinary direction, based on the idea of ​​the genetic, psychophysiological reserves of the body systems and the body as a whole, which ensure the stability of physiological, biological, psychological and sociocultural development and preservation of human health under the influence of changing external and internal
  5. The place of psychology in the system of sciences
    In the 19th century, the classification of sciences developed by the creator of the philosophy of positivism, the French scientist O. Comte, was very popular. In Comte's classification, there was no place for psychology at all. The father of positivism believed that psychology had not yet become a positive science. For the first half of the XIX century, this statement was generally fair. • Since then, much has changed: psychology
  6. The place of psychology in the system of other sciences
    The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them drew attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristic
  7. The connection of psychology with other sciences and its place in the system of sciences
    Modern psychology occupies a special place among other scientific disciplines, because combines in a single whole the most diverse knowledge about a person. The Swiss psychologist J. Piaget noted that “... psychology occupies a key position in the system of sciences. On the one hand, psychology depends on all other sciences and sees in psychological life the result of physico-chemical, biological, social,
  8. Acmeology as a highly organized field of knowledge about a person
    The theoretical foundations of acmeology were laid in Russian philosophy, and experimental in domestic medicine, sociology and psychology. Ideas of Akmic can be found at N.I. Pirogov, V.M. Ankylosing spondylitis, P.A. Sorokina et al. Especially vividly the Akmic is presented in literature (N. Gumilev, A. Akhmatova, S. Gorodetsky). A. Akhmatova wrote: “I became an acmeist ... because we felt like people of the twentieth
  9. Psychology and its place with the system of sciences
    Psychology and its place with the system
  10. Relations of Acmeology with the Sciences of Man and Society
    Especially diverse are the connections of acmeology with other areas of modern social science - both applied, social, and fundamental, philosophical. The conjugation with philosophical knowledge is carried out along two main lines: worldview and methodological. In the latter case, philosophy defines the means of constructing acmeology as a complex discipline, which, on the one hand,
  11. PLACE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM OF SCIENCES AND ITS STRUCTURE
    PLACE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM OF SCIENCES AND ITS
  12. Branches of psychology, related disciplines and its place in the system of sciences
    Branches of psychology, related disciplines and its place in the system
  13. The place of acmeology in the system of social science and human science
    Plan 1. Sociocultural context of acmeological knowledge. 2. Scientific and methodological orientations of acmeological research and development. 3. The relationship of acmeology with social studies. 4. The relationship of acmeology with human knowledge, 5. The structure of the reflexive-acmeological approach to the development of professional skill. Key words: acmeology, scientific and methodological
  14. The place of acmeology in the system of social science and human science
    Plan 1. Sociocultural context of acmeological knowledge. 2. Scientific and methodological orientations of acmeological research and development. 3. The relationship of acmeology with social studies. 4. The relationship of acmeology with human knowledge. 5. The structure of the reflexive-acmeological approach to the development of professional mastery. Key words: acmeology, scientific and methodological
  15. ACMEOLOGY - A NEW DIRECTION OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HUMAN RESEARCH
    ACMEOLOGY - A NEW DIRECTION OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
  16. Adulthood and maturity as the most important stage of the human life cycle for acmeology
    Plan 1. General characteristics of human development in ontogenesis. 2. The essence of the problem of the ratio of adulthood and maturity. 3. Chronological, biological, social and psychological ages and possible options for their relationship. 4. The different criteria for maturity and understanding of maturity itself among different peoples and at different historical times. 5. Preservation of the ambiguity of the relationship
  17. Adulthood and maturity as the most important stage of the human life cycle for acmeology
    Plan 1. General characteristics of human development in ontogenesis. 2. The essence of the problem of the ratio of adulthood and maturity. 3. Chronological, biological, social and psychological ages and possible options for their relationship. 4. The different criteria for maturity and understanding of maturity itself among different peoples and at different historical times. 5. Preservation of the ambiguity of the relationship
  18. Adulthood and maturity as the most important stage of the human life cycle for acmeology
    Adulthood and maturity as the most important stage of the life cycle for acmeology
  19. Acmeology as a science of the human knowledge system
    Acmeology as a system science
  20. SYSTEM OF LAWS, METHODS AND METHODS OF ACMEOLOGY
    SYSTEM OF LAWS, METHODS AND METHODS
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