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Analysis of the impact of character accentuation on personal professional growth

To analyze the impact of character accentuation on the professional growth of a person, we reviewed the biography of Russian writer Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol (1809-1852). N.V. Gogol was born in the town of Great Sorochintsy of the Mirgorod district of the Poltava province in the family of a landowner.

The mother showed great concern for the religious upbringing of her son, which, however, was influenced not so much by the ritual side of Christianity, as by his prophecy about the Last Judgment and the idea of ​​afterlife retribution. (Here you can see such a personality feature as a tendency to anxious fears for your fate, which is inherent in the asthenoneurotic type)

In 1818-1819 Gogol and his brother Ivan studied at the Poltava district school.

In May 1821 he entered the grammar school of higher sciences in Nizhyn. Here he is engaged in painting, participates in performances - as an artist-decorator and as an actor. Tries himself in various literary genres. However, the idea of ​​writing has not yet risen to the mind of Gogol, all his aspirations are connected with the “service of the state”, he dreams of a legal career.

After graduating from high school in 1828, Gogol in December, together with another graduate A. S. Danilevsky (1809-1888), went to St. Petersburg. Experiencing financial difficulties, unsuccessfully bothering about the place, Gogol makes the first literary tests: in early 1829 the poem “Italy” appears, and in the spring of that year under the pseudonym “V. Alov” Gogol types “idyll in the paintings” “Ganz Kuchelgarten”. The poem provoked sharp and mocking reviews by N. A. Polevoi and later an indulgently-sympathetic review by O. M. Somov (1830), which increased Gogol’s grave mood. In July 1829, he burns unsold copies of the book and suddenly leaves abroad, to Germany, and by the end of September, almost as suddenly returns to St. Petersburg. Gogol explained his step as an escape from the love feeling that had unexpectedly seized him. Before going abroad or shortly after his return, Gogol suffers another setback - his attempt to enter the stage as a dramatic actor is unsuccessful. (All these events characterize Gogol as a sensitive type - overly sensitive, impressionable)

At the end of 1829 he managed to determine the service in the department of state economy and public buildings of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From April 1830 to March 1831, he served in the Department of Units (first as a scribe, then as assistant clerk). Staying in the offices caused Gogol deep disappointment in the "service of the state", but it provided rich material for future works, depicting the official life and functioning of the state machine.

By this time, Gogol was devoting more and more time to literary work. Following the first story, Bisavryuk, or Evening on the Eve of Ivan Kupala (1830), Gogol published a number of works of art and articles. The story "Woman" was the first work, signed by the present name of the author. Gogol meets Zhukovsky, P. A. Pletnev, Pushkin.

By the summer of 1831, his relationship with the Pushkin circle became quite close: living in Pavlovsk, Gogol often happens in Tsarskoye Selo near Pushkin and Zhukovsky; performs orders for the publication of "The Belkin's Tale".

From March 1831 he became a history teacher at the Patriotic Institute.

During this period, “Evenings on a farm near Dikanka” (1831–1832) are published. They caused almost universal admiration.

After the release of the 2nd part of the "Evenings" in June 1832, Gogol arrives in Moscow by a famous writer.

The next, 1833, year for Gogol is one of the most intense, filled with painful searches for a further path. Gogol writes the first comedy "Vladimir of the 3rd degree", however, experiencing creative difficulties and anticipating censorship complications, he stops working. (This characterizes Gogol as a carrier of psycho-stenotic characteristics: indecision, suspiciousness)

In the autumn of 1835 he began to write The Inspector, the plot of which was prompted by Pushkin; the work progressed so successfully that on January 18, 1836, he reads a comedy at the evening near Zhukovsky, and in February he is already engaged in her production on the stage of the Alexandria Theater. The premiere of the play took place on April 19th.

The depth of the comedy was not reflected in her first productions, which gave her a touch of vaudeville and farce; the image of Khlestakov, N.O. Dyurov who played this role in Petersburg and D.T. Lensky in Moscow, was especially impoverished. A much greater understanding was found by the critic, who noted the originality of the comedy, calling the author "the great comedian of real life." However, the first in time were the harshly unfriendly comments of F. V. Bulgarin, who accused the writer of slandering Russia, and O. I. Senkovsky, who believed that the comedy was devoid of a serious idea, was not framed in a plot and composition. On Gogol, who had only read these reviews before going abroad, they had a depressing effect.

The writer's mental state was aggravated by the complication of relations with Pushkin; the reasons for this are not clear enough, but one of them was friction when editing “Sovremennik”, for which Pushkin attracted cooperation to Gogol. (Here we can again evaluate Gogol as a sensitive, sensitive type).

In June 1836, Gogol left St. Petersburg for Germany (in total, he lived abroad for about 12 years). The end of the summer and autumn spends in Switzerland, where it is taken for "Dead Souls". The plot was also suggested by Pushkin.

In November 1836, Gogol moved to Paris, where he met A. Mitskevich. Here in February 1837, in the midst of the work on Dead Souls, he received the news that shook him about the death of Pushkin. In an attack of "unspeakable longing" and bitterness, Gogol feels "the present work" as the poet's "sacred testament" (which underlines his excessive impressionability).

In early March 1837, he first arrived in Rome, where he spends time in the company of the artist A. A. Ivanov, I. S. Shapovalov, and also Princess 3. A. Volkonskaya. At the end of the summer, Gogol is again on the road: Turin, Baden-Baden, Frankfurt, Geneva. In October, he comes again to Rome, where the final stage of work on the 1st volume of the poem unfolded. A number of important new meetings date back to this time: in 1838 in Rome, the writer approaches the amateur composer, Count M. Yu. Vielgorsky and his family; Gogol was especially attached to his son I. M. Vielgorsky, whose early death (in 1839 in Rome) the writer mourned bitterly in the work "Nights in the Villa" (which again characterizes him as a sensitive type).

In September 1839, Gogol arrived in Moscow and began reading the heads of Dead Souls — first in the Aksakovs' house, then, after moving to Petersburg in October — at Zhukovsky and Prokopovich in the presence of his old friends. Total read 6 chapters. Delight was universal.

On May 9, 1840, in the celebration of his birthday, arranged in the Pogodin House in Moscow, Gogol meets with M. Yu. Lermontov. After 9 days, he again leaves Moscow, heading to Italy for final finishing of the 1st volume of Dead Souls.
But at the end of the summer of 1840, in Vienna, where Gogol stopped to continue work on the drama from the Zaporizhzhya history begun in 1839 (“For the shaven mustache”; the author burned the manuscript in 1840), he was suddenly seized by an attack of severe nervous diseases.

From the end of September 1840 to August 1841 Gogol lives in Rome, where he completes the 1st volume of the poem.

In January 1842, the writer, fearing the prohibition of the poem, forwards the manuscript with V. G. Belinsky to the Petersburg Censorship Committee, asking also for assistance from Petersburg friends. (Here, as in the cases of the children's fear of Gogol's Last Judgment, asthenoneurotic traits can be traced, expressed in a tendency to anxious fears for their fate).

On March 9, the book was resolved by the censor A. V. Nikitenko, but with a change of name and without the "Tale of Captain Kopeykin", the text of which Gogol was forced to rework. In May, The Adventures of Chichikov, or the Dead Souls, were published.

After the first, brief, but highly commendable reviews, Gogol’s critics, accusing him of caricature, farce, and slandering reality, intercepted the initiative. Later, N.A.Polevoy made an article bordering on the denunciation. All this controversy took place in the absence of Gogol, who left abroad in June 1842. (Gogol’s departure on the eve of criticism and his possible fear may also be explained by his excessive sensitivity and anxiety for the future — a manifestation of a sensitive, asthenonevratic type)

The three-year anniversary (1842–1845), which followed the writer's departure abroad, was a period of intense and difficult work on the 2nd volume of Dead Souls.

In early 1845, Gogol showed signs of a new mental crisis. The writer travels to rest and "recuperate" in Paris, but in March returns to Frankfurt. The band begins treatment and consultations with various medical celebrities, travels from one resort to another - now in Halle, then in Berlin, then in Dresden, then in Carlsbad. In late June or early July 1845, in a state of acute exacerbation of the disease, Gogol burns the manuscript of the 2nd volume.

The improvement in the physical condition of Gogol was outlined only by the fall. In October, he is already in Rome. From May to November 1846, Gogol is again on the road. In November, he settled in Naples with S. P. Apraksina, the sister of A. P. Tolstoy. Here the news of the death of N. M. Yazykov (1847) is painful. (Here again we see the manifestation of sensitive traits)

In 1847, "Selected passages from correspondence with friends" were published in Petersburg. The book performed a dual function - and an explanation of why the 2nd volume, and some of its compensation, had not yet been written: Gogol went on to present his main ideas.

The exit of the "Selected Places" brought upon their author a real critical storm. L.V. Brant, Senkovsky, E.F. Rosen and others wrote about Gogol’s defeat, his excessive and unjustified claims. N. F. Pavlov reproached Gogol with contradictions and false foundations. Many of his friends blamed Gogol for treason against his vocation, especially S. T. Aksakov. P. A. Vyazemsky and A. A. Grigoriev wrote about the need for a more cautious approach to the book. The selected places were sharply criticized by VG Belinsky. All these responses overtook the writer on the road: in May 1847 he went from Naples to Paris, then to Germany. Gogol cannot recover from the "blows" received: "My health ... shook from this crushing story for me about my book ... I marvel at myself, as I was still alive." (Manifestation of sensitivity)

In January 1848, Gogol carried out a long-planned pilgrimage to the holy places, by sea sent to Jerusalem.

In mid-October, Gogol lives in Moscow. In 1849–50, Gogol reads the individual chapters of the second volume of Dead Souls to his friends. General approval and enthusiasm inspire a writer who is now working with renewed vigor (which, again, underlines his impressionability, sensitivity).

January 1, 1852 Gogol reports that the 2nd volume is "completely finished." But in the last days of the month, there were clearly signs of a new crisis, the impetus for which was the death of E. M. Khomyakova, the sister of N. M. Yazykov, a man spiritually close to Gogol. (Manifestation of sensitivity)

He is tormented by the premonition of imminent death, aggravated by the renewed doubts about the beneficence of his writing career and the success of the work being done. (Here we again meet with asthenoneurotic features)

In late January - early February, Gogol meets with Father Matvey (Konstantinovsky) who arrived in Moscow; the content of their conversations remained unknown, but there is an indication that Father Matvey advised to destroy part of the chapters of the poem, citing this step by their harmful influence, what they would have. Gogol, for his part, could have misinterpreted his reaction in the sense that the 2nd volume remained artistically unconvincing.

On February 7, Gogol confesses and communes, and on the night of 11-12, he burns the white manuscript of the 2nd volume (the same asthenoneurotic manifestations).

On February 21 in the morning Gogol died in his last apartment in the Talyzin house in Moscow.

Thus, having read Gogol’s biography, we can assume that he was accentuated by a sensitive type (excessive sensitivity, impressionability), which probably was the cause of his nervous disorders. There are also manifestations of features of the asthenoneurotic type (tendency to alarming fears for one’s fate), probably inspired by upbringing, and minor manifestations of the psycho-sthenic type (indecisiveness, tendency to endless reasoning, suspiciousness).

Accentuation of character on a sensitive type, in my opinion, is not a hindrance to literary activity, on the contrary, sensitivity and impressionability are integral features of creative individuals, but only at the moment of creation. But adequate sensitivity to criticism and other difficult moments in life is, of course, very disturbing, and in this regard Gogol felt a great deal of tension, undermining his mental health.

So, it can be said, in this case, the accentuation of character had a negative impact on the professional, creative development of the personality, and even vice versa: it had a detrimental effect on human health.

Of course, in order to preserve his health, Gogol would not recommend public activities, but as we can see from his repeated attempts to prove his literary talent, despite all the criticism, Gogol most likely liked his work, and he sought to achieve success in it.

If you still try to “pick up” for Gogol a type of professional activity more suitable to his accentuations, then you can include less public activities - legal - which he was originally going to devote his life to. By choosing a legal career, Gogol could have lived a completely different life and avoided many psychological traumas caused by the negative aspects of his literary activity.
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