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In every profession (and psychology is also a profession) there are simply employees, specialists, and extra-class professionals.

Under the workers should be understood employed in this particular field of activity of people who help key specialists to fulfill their main functions. For example, if we keep in mind psychology, they serve the equipment used in their work by a psychologist. Having mathematical training, they can also carry out quantitative processing of an array of experimental data or the results of a one-time examination, which a psychologist receives. Or, say, having an education in the field of computer science and computer technology, workers in collaboration with a psychologist make human learning programs that are locked onto a computer.

A professional specialist is a person who has achieved a high level of fulfillment of his duties in the main area of ​​functioning of the institution in which he works. The basis for the training of such a specialist is laid knowledge, abilities, skills in accordance with the profession of his actions. If we keep in mind the training of a specialist psychologist, then it goes through mastering the disciplines laid down in the curriculum and implemented in the form of lectures, seminars, laboratories and practical classes, various types of training, term papers and dissertations.

Thus, if the concept of “professionalism” is reduced to the concept of a specialist, then the leading (system-forming) quality is the planned, if you like, task assignment.

Behind them, as a rule, are the assimilation by students of the knowledge shown by teachers or perceived from the teaching manuals samples of problem solving, simple adoption of the skills demonstrated by teachers.

Such an initial setting, which the learning process turns out to be oriented to, in fact implies the manifestation by students (whether students or graduate students), of course, if they have responsibility and discipline, the ability to reproduce the teaching material given by teachers. And such a method itself, evaluated as a whole, is nothing more than a coaching.

The practice of training specialists in many areas of labor has shown that the use of such an installation in training gives a fairly high result, expressed in the formation of a specialist at the performing level. However, for the formation of a professional, who, thanks to the developed mental properties of the person, ensures the achievement of the former, a breakthrough into the unknown, and in psychology - the discovery of new phenomena, the discovery of new patterns, the identification of new mechanisms, the development and application of new technologies for successful work with the individual and by communities of people, the above approach is insufficient.

So to speak, canonicalized psychological knowledge, skills, skills that are transformed in the educational process into the student’s, postgraduate’s own knowledge, skills and abilities are just a kind of educational program, over which the training system must be tuned, making an ordinary psychologist, researcher, discoverer, creator.

And the element constituting such a system will be not only teaching students and graduate students to understand psychology to see problems that have not yet been solved by science and think about ways to “close” them, but also necessarily developing their needs and ability to constantly search for answers to questions that are fundamental in their scientific conviction , to which other psychologists have not yet managed to give such answers.

But since the object of study for psychology is a person preparing a professional psychologist, it’s not enough to create an orientation toward creative search and the constant development of creativity as a core characteristic in his intellect aimed at gaining new knowledge about the psychic world. It is still important to achieve the formation of his attitude to man as the highest value. And with such a result, an ever deeper penetration into the laws and mechanisms of the inner world of a person will be determined by a high moral imperative: by their findings, when people use them, make them finally wiser, competently treating both their “I” and the personality of any other person, and therefore become happier.

Thus, the goals of the professional intelligence of a psychologist-researcher and his general humanistic orientation are firmly interlinked with each other. Therefore, V. A. Ponomarenko is completely right when he writes that “for a true professional (we have a professional psychologist — AB), spiritual space is not a metaphor, but the social reality of his relationship with his Conscience. This is the system property that distinguishes a professional from a specialist. ”2

Thinking about the ways of promoting a person who has chosen psychology as the field of activity, from the stage of just a beginner specialist or with experience to the level of high professionalism, one involuntarily comes to the conclusion that people who design and implement this entire process should well understand the whole length of its deployment, substantial content of each of its phases and methodological forms of its implementation.

First of all, it seems that young people with a more developed social intellect, having a tremendous interest in the inner world of another person, for whom this other person is one of the main values ​​of life, and who would like to advance further the study of the psyche or should be enrolled in psychological departments and faculties , as they used to say, souls, in order to more deeply comprehend its essence, to help people more wisely build labor, knowledge, communication.

The aforementioned should not be perceived as a magnanimous appeal, because now people very often go to psychology who are generally contraindicated in working in the human-human sphere.

And further, in the psychological departments and faculties themselves, the content of curricula, closely connected training courses, all types of classes and practices, as well as independent work of students should be combined into a single system, the implementation of which through the educational process would give students knowledge about a person as a whole, as well as in its “hypostases” of the individual, personality, subject of activity, individuality in all their main manifestations, interconnections, with all the dependencies on the main factors that determine their main e characteristics, but it would give not as in school textbooks in which nature, society and man are presented as cognized with an exhaustive fullness of reality, but as everything looks in reality when, along with the problems solved by science related to the study of man and his psyche , there are still a lot of difficult, unresolved problems that await their developers.

Naturally, such a supply of educational material, and it must necessarily be consistently reflected in the style of the educational work of all teachers, means the embodiment in practice of the attitude towards the formation of a creative orientation in the personality of each student. But, of course, the realization of this goal alone is not enough if at the same time students do not join in the implementation of increasingly complex tasks, the process of working on which would not only develop their growing enthusiasm for the solution of the tasks facing them, but would certainly not raise their intellect performer, and a professional researcher who is able to independently see a problem that needs to be resolved, correctly formulate it and find and adequately apply the means that will allow this problem, In other words, take it off. And it will be a big mistake to believe that the prerequisites for the formation in each student of the qualities that a professional psychologist must carry in the understanding that was proposed above will provide only term papers and dissertations, the writing of which is laid down in the curricula of psychological departments and faculties.

Of course, with proper organization, as practice shows, they partially fulfill this role, but for the complete success of the business it is important that each link in the educational process works to develop curiosity, enrich the tools the student needs to solve the tasks that are set for him or which he formulates himself, in no other way, except in an innovatively creative way.

The foregoing should not seem utopian: the experience of B.G. Ananiev, who in precisely this way, both substantively and methodically, built and guided the whole process of training psychologists at the faculty at Leningrad State University, at the head of which he stood, convincingly testifies to the feasibility of this task.

As you know, the scientific psychological school that he created, in which the student’s personality was cut, the entire set of qualities related to the mind, feelings, and will needed by a professional psychologist, was formed very thoughtfully, starting from the moment a student entered the faculty, and often continued until writing his doctoral dissertation, this school gave many psychologists - truly innovators and creators in those areas of psychology in which their main scientific activity proceeded.

Eloquently testifies in confirmation of the truth of what was done in psychology and for psychology by such direct students of B.G. Ananyev as, for example, L.M. Vekker, V.L.Drankov, V.G. Ivanov, T.V. Karsaevskaya, S. V.Kondratyev, E.S. Kuzmin, N.V. Kuzmina, V.N. Kunitsyna, L.N. Landa, N.A. Loginova, B.F. Lomov, N.N. Obozov, V.N. Panferov, N.V. Rybakova, E.F. Rybalko, V.F. Serzhantov, A.A. Stepanov, E.I. Stepanova, G.S. Sukhobskaya, V.A. Tokareva, E.V. Shorokhova, A.B.Sherbo, A.F. Esaulov, etc.

This extraordinary result was achieved by B.G. Ananiev due to the fact that he very well understood that the training of specialists at the university and postgraduate level (in our case, psychologists) would be flawed if it was based on the principle of inertia.

Psychological science and related disciplines during the heyday of B.G. Ananiev's work as a scientist and as the head of a scientific school, and in the following decades, was characterized by a high dynamism of its development. The process of accumulating new facts was going on violently, previously unknown laws were discovered and the range of their application was expanding, the connections of psychology with other areas of human knowledge were intensively comprehended, as well as with the social, natural and technical sciences, deeper than before the dependencies that brought psychology into a multidimensional area of ​​practice were comprehended.

B.G. Ananiev, with his all-encompassing and integrating mind, sensitively followed all these processes and their scientifically meaningful objectification in new urgent problems, in new approaches to coverage, which were considered traditional problems, in previously not former scientific disciplines, in new methods of quantitatively-qualitative analysis of the facts obtained in case studies.

And quickly selecting from this array of the latest knowledge of those materials, the study of which could raise, figuratively speaking, the ceiling of the training of a professional psychologist, he immediately included them in the curriculum, turned it into a subject of discussion at seminars, department meetings, and faculty conferences.

I specifically disclose the principle of dynamism that permeated the actions of B.G. Ananiev, aimed at constantly updating the content of the educational process at the Faculty of Psychology, as this was one of the prerequisites for the qualitative formation of specialists aimed at achieving high professionalism.
And meanwhile, even at the present time in a number of scientific centers of Russia that I know, when preparing psychologists, the sin of inertia is no-no let it make itself felt, but it materializes in the fact that outdated scientific information is sent to students (and sometimes graduate students).

Another condition for laying the prerequisites for the future transformation of a graduate of a university faculty into a true professional is his constant orientation in the state and results of developing the problems of his profile not only at the faculty where he is studying, but also at other scientific schools. And B.G. Ananiev, implementing his system of training psychologists, very well considered the importance of this factor. During the years of his deanhood (1968 - 1972), at his invitation, groups of psychological scientists from Moscow State University (A.N. Leontyev, A.R. Luria, P.Ya. Galperin, and others) came to the Faculty of Psychology of Leningrad University. ), Moscow Psychological Institute (A.A.Smirnov, L.I. Bozhovich, V.A. Krutetskiy, etc.), Georgian Institute of Psychology (A.S. Prangishvili, Sh.A. Nadirashvili, etc.), Kiev Institute Psychology (G.S. Kostyuk, N.A. Vovchik-Blakitna and others), Yerevan Pedagogical Institute (M.A. Mazmanyan, N.T. Milerian and others), Perm Pedagogical Institute (V.S. Merlin, E .A. Klimov et al.), Who spoke in detail about theoretical, experimental, and applied research conducted both by themselves and their colleagues.

Also purposefully, when the opportunity presented itself for this, B.G. Ananiev arranged meetings of students and graduate students of the department and faculty with foreign psychologists who came to Leningrad (my memory kept meetings with D. Moreno and E. Kentril).

Calling one by one the conditions for the formation of students' qualities, without which it is impossible to subsequently turn them into professionals of the first class, you can not pass by the personality of the leader, who heads the faculty and the leading scientific unit in it. For example, the main role in creating, figuratively speaking, the foundation of the structure of qualities needed by a professional psychologist at the University of Leningrad at the time described was undoubtedly played by B. G. Ananiev himself.

Of course, having the nature of the strategist-organizer of the educational process, which in general and in details was subordinate to solving a large-scale problem - creating a system of objective and subjective conditions that all worked together to educate not a specialist psychologist, but to develop a psychologist, the core features in whose personalities were related to another person as the highest value, a broad and constantly replenished horizons in the field of human cognition, a steady desire to creatively learn the inner world of man and, to cognize not for the sake of cognition, but for subsequent optimization, thanks to open laws, in collaboration with other specialists of people’s labor activity, their relationships, deeper comprehension of nature and society by them, B.G. Ananyev first of all introduced himself into this system a unique and inimitable contribution as a talented lecturer, and as an outstanding scientist, and as a skilled scientific adviser for graduate students, post-graduate students and doctoral students.

Lectures B.G. Ananiev read very peculiarly. In the beginning, he formulated a psychological problem that must be solved. Then he revealed the nature of the attempts that science made to achieve this goal, pointed out their weaknesses and advantages, and then showed how to further solve this problem further, using the latest research results related to the essence of the problem and obtained by both domestic and foreign scientists . After that, he certainly formulated questions that, even with the new version of the solution to the problem, remained open.

With this ending, he seemed to emphasize the infinity of the process of cognition of phenomena, in this case, mental, and, in addition, encouraged a new scientific search.

Since B.G. Ananiev was fluent in the method of quick reading from a sheet and had a good memory, he perfectly knew all the new developments obtained in human studies, in social and other sciences and somehow related to the problem that he brought to the audience. While giving lectures on general psychology, he skillfully used these achievements, and his lectures from this became multilevel deep and indescribably panoramic.

It seems that the situation does not require proof that if the head of the faculty, in addition to being a good organizer, a brilliant lecturer, is also an outstanding scientist, then everyone’s constantly felt his desire to set all new research tasks, it is painfully difficult to find ways to solve them, select methodological tools appropriate to the nature of these tasks, conduct and repeat experiments, process and recheck the accumulated materials, sometimes getting not what was supposed to work her hypothesis, start all over again, and then still come to a positive result - all this is a powerful additional incentive for young people (unless, of course, she has a serious desire to learn a profession) follow the example of a mentor.

The range of scientific interests of B.G. Ananiev was extremely wide. Он занимался научной разработкой таких глобальных проблем: человек как предмет познания, человек как предмет воспитания, человек как объект и субъект труда и общения, индивидное, личностное и субъектнодеятельностное развитие человека и их взаимосвязь, онтопсихология, половой деморфизм и его влияние на психофизиологические и психические характеристики людей, межполушарная асимметрия и характер обусловливания ею функционирования психики, психофизика, психофизиология, психология психических процессов, психология чувственного познани и, конечно, акмеология.

В контексте этих больших проблем он настойчиво занимался научным освещением и более частных проблем. Например, его интересовали психологические коллизии, которые возникают у ребенка при переходе из детского сада в школу, из начальных классов в средние, и дальше у подростков и юношей — из средних в старшие и из школы в вуз. Не мало времени он как исследователь потратил на выяснение динамики формирования у учащихся картины мира при усвоении ими все новых учебных предметов, а также на прослеживание взаимозависимостей, которые существуют между развитием основных психических процессов у школьников и студентов.

Этот перечень проблем, которые он превращал в темы последующей самой тщательной теоретической и экспериментальной проработки, можно было бы продолжать. Но сейчас важнее подчеркнуть другое: в разработку этих проблем, инициируемую мощным творческим интеллектом и волей Б.Г.Ананьева, вовлекались преподаватели и сотрудники факультета, докторанты, аспиранты. И каждый студент тоже находил в этом перечне проблем тему для себя, которая отвечала зреющему в нем профессиональному интересу, а так как Б.Г.Ананьев при всей своей огромной занятости выкраивал время интересоваться, а как идут дела с выполнением исследования у каждого отдельного студента, и еще взял за правило замечать и вслух отмечать все ценное для науки, что сумел найти студент, то это всегда сильнейшим образом способствовало формированию у студента субъективной позиции исследователя, открывателя нового.

В этих случаях, как нельзя лучше находила свое подтверждение мысль К.Д.Ушинского, что личность воспитывается личность. И чем крупнее, духовно богаче личность воспитателя, тем глубже след, который он оставляет в личности воспитанника.

У Б.Г.Ананьева был огромный авторитет ученого, педагога, организатора науки. И под его руководством стремились работать, у него хотели учиться и действительно учились и делали свои первые шаги в психологии как исследователи очень многие. Причем учились не бездумному исполнительству, а при высокой требовательности Б.Г.Ананьева, — вдумчиво ответственному и наполненному постоянным творчеством отношению к сложнейшему труду психолога.

Подводя итог всему сказанному выше и определяя для себя, на какие положения данной работы мне особенно хотелось бы, чтобы обратил свое внимание читатель, я как автор беру на себя смелость сказать следующее: сейчас наблюдается возрастание интереса к психологии. Для подготовки психологов открываются новые факультеты, создаются курсы ускоренной подготовки психологов, входят в моду заочные формы обучения психологов, в психологов переквалифицируются люди, долго работавшие по другой специальности, часто очень далекой от сферы человек—человек.

Первое впечатление от всего этого радужное: у нас будет больше инженеров человеческих душ! Однако пятьдесят лет работы в психологии убедили меня в том, что глубоким профессионалом-психологом может быть далеко не каждый человек. Это, во-первых. А во-вторых, для подготовки настоящего профессионала-психолога, способного действительно понять внутренний мир другого человека, постичь его неповторимость и очень адресно помочь этому человеку успешно решить его проблемы, требуется очень продуманная и в целом, и в деталях система психологического образования и воспитания. У Б.Г.Ананьева была такая система. Сейчас другое время, да и психологов масштаба Ананьева пока тоже не видно, поэтому его систему слепо копировать вряд ли стоит. Но вдуматься в принципы, которым он следовал, работая с психологической молодежью, наверное, полезно всем, кто берется сейчас за труднейшее дело формирования психологов-профессионалов во всем большом значении этого слова.
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  10. В моей семье я занимаюсь всем: домом, закупкой продуктов, детьми, их воспитанием, их образованием. Не понимаю, почему всем этим должна заниматься только я. Мой муж говорит, что когда женщина занимается всем, то это — в порядке вещей. Но ведь и он несет за это ответственность, не так ли?
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    1. Правильный выбор стандарта, соответствующего клинической ситуации. 2. Соответствие квалификации персонала и оснащения уровню оказания помощи. 3. Понимание не только используемого раздела, но и стандарта в целом (включая примечания). 4. Учет специфики неотложного состояния и индивидуальных особенностей больного для внесения обоснованных изменений в схему стандартного лечения. 5.
  12. The concept of compulsory medical professional liability insurance
    The validity of the choice of protecting the professional responsibility of medical workers, as one of the prerequisites for successful reform in the field of legislative support of medical activity, is due to a number of reasons, the main of which, according to the author, are: - uneven public efforts related to the search for legal remedies for legitimate interests and right
  13. Требования к обязательному минимуму содержания дисциплины, определённые ГОС ВПО
    Ветеринарная хирургия Учение о хирургической операции, технология организации и проведения операций, фиксация и фармакологическое обездвиживание животных, профилактика инфекции при хирургических манипуляциях; инъекции и пункции, анестезиология, элементы хирургических и пластических операций, десмургия. Операции на голове и затылке, в вентральной области шеи, в области холки, в
  14. Требования к обязательному минимуму содержания учебных программ и компетенциям по дисциплинам
    Содержание учебной программы дисциплины по каждому циклу представляется в укрупненных дидактических единицах (или учебных модулях), а требования к компетенциям по дисциплине в знаниях и умениях. Цикл социально-гуманитарных дисциплин История Беларуси Концептуальные основы отечественной истории. Цивилизационное наследие Древнего мира и средневековья в истории Беларуси.
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