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Business communication as an object of psychological and acmeological research

The increasing role of the personality factor in modern production and management in the context of Russian market reforms, changes in the content and structure of human activity caused by the rapid development of information technology, necessitate the study of communication as a specifically human way of organizing activities. In this regard, the psychological and acmeological study of the dependence of the effectiveness of various forms and types of professional activity on the conditions and nature of their mediated business communication is of particular relevance and practical importance. At the same time, the structure of psychological and acmeological problems has still not developed that independent, with clear boundaries of the scope of research, which could be defined as "psychology and acmeology of business communication." At the same time, the abundance of reliable, but conceptually fragmented factual material contained in many studies of related problems can serve as confirmation of the undoubted existence of an independent, psychological-specific phenomenon of business communication that occurs in various situations of joint professional activity.

The main goal of psychological and acmeological research of the indicated problem, which consists in studying business communication as a means of organizing and regulating professional activity and management, can be achieved in the process of solving a number of specific tasks:

1) identify and systematize the main categories and concepts that form the categorical system of psychology and acmeology of business communication;

2) to explore the main phenomenological characteristics of business communication and its properties; to study the dynamics and structure of communicative processes that mediate business interaction; to build a conceptual model that reveals the correlation and interdependence of business communication, on the one hand, and various types and forms of professional activity, on the other;

3) to carry out a comparative analysis of productive and unproductive business communication and determine the nature of their influence on the effectiveness of the processes of joint professional activity, leadership and management;

4) to identify the psychological, acmeological and organizational and managerial conditions for the emergence and prevention of unproductive business communication;

5) to study the structure of the communicative sphere of the individual as a subject of business communication, to study the psychological and acmeological parameters of the professionalism of the personality in the field of communicative activity, to formulate practical recommendations for organizing productive business communication, optimizing communication processes in the business interaction system.

In the conceptual framework for the study of business communication, one can distinguish several main aspects (theoretical, methodological, empirical, methodological, technological, practical) that allow us to study this phenomenon in its entirety of its essential properties and characteristics. In the context of each of these aspects, relevant, previously unexplored areas in the study of business communication are revealed.

The relevance of the study of business communication in the theoretical aspect consists in the need for conceptual systematization and generalization of its problems in a single methodological vein, in the development of an integrative psychological and acmeological concept of business communication, as well as in the implementation of a detailed analysis of its main phenomenological characteristics, in the construction of its structural-dynamic model, conceptual schemes for the study of personal and systemic prerequisites for productive and unproductive business communication and the strategies, styles, techniques and mechanisms that make it effective.

The novelty of the study in the methodological aspect is that the diverse manifestations of the phenomenon of business communication must be considered in the context of a single methodological position - the paradigm of the subject-subject approach. It is shown that the psychological manifestations and mechanisms of business communication are directly related to the peculiarities of the subject's self-realization in the structure of his communicative world, including in the field of business communication. Its subjective component is specified in the system of psychological factors that determine the functions, content, nature and procedural nature of business communication.

The study of business communication in an empirical aspect allows us to obtain new scientific data on the existence of various types and forms of business communication, on the structure and dynamics of the communication process, on the psychological reasons that impede business communication, on the dependence of its productivity on personal and situational premises, as well as on its individual styles and strategies about the relationship between the basic characteristics of the communicative world of the subject with specific mechanisms and manifestations of a productive and unproductive business communications.

The study of the business communication process in its methodological aspect is confirmed by the development and application of original diagnostic methods and techniques, with which you can obtain new theoretical and empirical data on business communication and its basic phenomenological characteristics. The technological aspect of this problem involves the development of psychological and acmeological technologies, techniques, methods and techniques for developing the communicative potential of a person as a subject of business communication, self-action on the communicative sphere, and self-management of communicative activity.

The relevance of the study of the problem of business communication in its practical aspect consists in the development of recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of the state of communication systems of the organization and the processes of business interaction that develop in them, for the development and correction of the communicative sphere of the individual as a subject of business communication in the production and management processes, according to forecast, warning and the regulation of difficult, non-productive, destructive forms of business communication.

Thus, the scientific novelty of the psychological-acmeological study of business communication is determined by a comprehensive, integrative approach, which allows to determine the role and place of business communication in the processes of professional activity of various types and forms in modern conditions of Russian socio-economic transformations.

Krichevsky R.L.
(Moscow) Social group in the context of the acmeological approach

Although traditionally acmeology as a science about ways to achieve the heights of professionalism, and in the most concentrated (special) expression, as a science that addresses its peak manifestations, so to speak, to superprofessionalism (the term A.K. Markova (1996)), deals with individual nevertheless, the subject, however, and life observations, and the data of the social sciences about a person indicate that the object of attention of acmeology can be collective forms of human behavior, that manifestations of “acme” can be not only individual, but also group cter. In other words, it is quite legitimate to speak of a collective subject of professional activity, which is at the stage of acquiring its “acme," this top quality neoplasm, which, as will be shown later, with respect to the subject under discussion, has well-defined, really fixed characteristics. To prove this, let us turn to the consideration of such a popular object in the managerial literature as a working team (Sundstrom et al, 1990).

As you know, the term "team" found its scientific sound only in recent decades. Largely generated by the practice of effective management, it is used to designate small groups with a pronounced target orientation, intensive interaction of members and high productivity. Moreover, as a rule, we are talking about groups employed in various areas of labor professional activity, it does not matter - managerial or performing. Hence the name - work team.

According to modern scientific ideas (Katzenbach, Smith, 1993a, 1993b), a work team is a small number of people (possible volume - from 2 to 25, but usually no more than 10-12 people), who have complementary skills, connected by a common idea, striving for common goals that share responsibility for their achievement and are characterized by high functioning efficiency. Moreover, the effectiveness of the functioning of the work team (or, equivalently, the effectiveness of the team) is considered by specialists (Sundstrom et al, 1990) in two aspects: firstly, in terms of fulfilling work assignments and, secondly, in terms of ensuring viability teams.

As for the aspect of the life of the team associated with the implementation of tasks, we are talking about its productivity, effectiveness. Another aspect of the life of the team - ensuring its viability - includes such components as satisfaction with membership in the team and maintaining it as a whole, cohesion.

A distinctive feature of groups that belong to the category of work teams is high professionalism, based on their members possessing a number of important applied skills, namely: 1) technical or functional skills (the wider the range of such skills in people, the more successful the team is); 2) the ability to make decisions and solve problems (moreover, at the initial stage of the life of the working team only some of its members can have such skills, the rest develop them in the process of work); 3) interpersonal skills (we are talking about the ability to build relationships with other people, effectively using a variety of communication tools). Thus, the work team can actually be considered as a highly professional subject of joint activity, as a kind of socio-psychological field of group, collective “acme”, and the applied skills presented above as its concrete expression.

Naturally, one should keep in mind the traditional specific attributes of a collective subject, such as collective (or group) norms, values, attitudes, claims, decisions, including the motivational formations described in recent years such as group self-efficacy, collective self-esteem, etc. d. (for more on this, see Krichevschy, Dubovskaya, 2001). This also includes such a value-emotional formation, characteristic of the established groups (really teams), as the experience of their members feeling “we are a group”.

A variety of working teams are operational working groups created by organizations in order to extremely quickly and efficiently make decisions about all kinds of production (that is, related to the work process) problems, in particular, of an innovative type. It is in these types of groups that a highly professional professional product is often created in the form of solutions that are breakthrough in certain areas of human activity.

Specialists (Peter, Waterman, 1986) characterize these groups as follows:

. they are small in volume (usually no more than 10-12 people);

. the level of responsibility of such a group and the rank of its members are directly proportional to the importance of the problem (for example, if the problem is considered large, then almost all members of the group are high-ranking people and the working group reports to the chief leader);

. the life expectancy of a typical operational working group is very limited - no more than six months;

. group membership is usually voluntary;

. if necessary, the group is formed very quickly and, as a rule, without any kind of formal procedures;

. the senior management exercises constant control over the timelines for completing assignments (for example, a report to the leadership of one organization three months after the creation of the group, which stated that nothing was done during this period other than work on the report, was declared unsatisfactory);

. groups have a minor auxiliary apparatus;

. The documentation used in the groups is for the most part informal and often rather scarce (as one leader noted, “working groups are not involved in paper production, their business is to issue solutions to problems”);

. groups of this type are distinguished by intensity, openness of interpersonal communication.

As you know, any work team operates within a particular organization, experiences its influence, bearing the imprint of a number of its specific characteristics. It is they who primarily affect the formation of a collective “acme”, determine the efficiency of the working team. We will go on to consider this kind of organizational characteristics.
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Business communication as an object of psychological and acmeological research

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