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Stages of development of acmeology as a science

A person's awareness of his place in the world forms his worldview. “From the very beginning of the cultural development of mankind, ideas about the development of man developed, the idea was put forward that in the development of the individual there is a certain top, a high degree of perfection” [5, p. 9], it should be noted, experts write that “the concept of human acme - not fiction. Akmeologichnost pervades the whole history of man, which shows many patterns in a wide variety of activities ”[5, p. 9].

Researchers believe that the scientific premise of acmeology was developed 144 BC Appolodor, representative of the Alexandria school.

Acmeology considered maximum perfection as the peak in the development of activity, and the peak in Greek is called ???? Moreover, by “acme” was meant the state of the individual in which the highest result of his activity (“finest hour”) is achieved, and not the process of moving to this state. Appolodor, developing the doctrine of acme, designated the highest point of development as the culmination of activity and introduced the Latin definition ???? (acme), like floruit- (heyday).

In the development of acmeology, several stages can be distinguished [7, p.134-135].

The first is latent, when historical, cultural, social, philosophical, scientific, practical, pedagogical prerequisites were formed for distinguishing in scientific knowledge a new sphere of human science. One of the first ideas of the study of man as a holistic phenomenon put forward and began to implement V.M. Bekhterev. He created a school, which in practice was engaged in solving this problem.

The second stage is nomination, when the social need for this kind of knowledge was realized and identified by the introduction of N. Rybnikov in 1928 of the special concept of acmeology, as the science of the development of mature people.

The third stage is incubation. In the middle of the XX century. Outstanding Russian psychologist B.G. Ananiev found a place in acmeology in the system of sciences, focusing on the study of the age and phases of human life as an individual and person. He defined acme as a period of active development and mastery of the full range of social and professional functions of an adult.

In the 70s of the XX century. B.G. Ananyev together with E.I. Stepanova and N.N. Obozov, considered reality not only as patterns of reflection of objective reality by a person, but as part of the improvement of creative activity.

Another direction in the development of acmeology is the work of N.V. Kuzmina studying the influence of the abilities of an adult on a measure of productive activity when achieving a result.

Acmeology as a science is divided into classical acmeology, fundamental (basic) acmeology and applied (industry) acmeology (classification by N. V. Kuzmina) [1, p. 8].

Classical acmeology, whose origins are N. A. Rybnikov, B. G. Ananiev, is one of the sections of developmental psychology along with pedology, juvenology and gerontology.

Fundamental (basic) acmeology considers a person as an integral system.

Its subject is patterns, conditions, factors, incentives for the self-realization of the creative potentials of mature people on the way to the heights of productivity and professionalism in creative activity in new conditions throughout the life and professional activity of the subject.

Fundamental (basic) acmeology is a new interdisciplinary science that integrates knowledge of philosophy, psychology, mathematics, pedagogy and other sciences, leading to the heights of knowledge and achievement of results in each of them. If the central concept of psychology is “reflection”, then acmeology is “creation” as the leading activity of a mature person.

In psychology, the subject of research was activities such as play, learning, labor (according to S.L. Rubinshtein), as well as communication, cognition, work (according to B.G.
Ananiev), but the final result was never considered - the product of labor.

Applied (industry) acmeology considers ways to achieve results in specific branches of scientific knowledge, such as professional, managerial, political, military acmeology, education acmeology, pedagogical and others. The emergence of applied acmeology was due to the search for ways to integrate the psychology of pedagogy and the field of special knowledge taught, presenting its requirements to both teachers and students who absorb them.

90s of the twentieth century. - organizational and methodological stage - the creation of acmeological theory. Two points are characteristic of him:

The first is A.A. Bodalev and A.A. Dergach created the first department of acmeology and psychology of professional activity at the Russian Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, formed a research team consisting of prominent scientists psychologists, philosophers and sociologists - academician of the Russian Academy of Education K.A. Abulkhanova - Slavskoy, EA Klimova, doctors of sciences O.S. Anisimova, A.A. Aseeva, N.N. Zazykina, A.K. Markova, I.N. Stepanova, E.A. Yablokova and others who carried out the scientific and methodological substantiation of the subject of acmeology.

In 1991, July 15, acmeology was registered in the USSR State Committee for Science and Technology as a new field of knowledge in the system of human sciences [1, p. 7].

The highest stage of the scientific and methodological activity of acmeologists is the preparation and publication since 2002 of the new scientific and practical journal "Acmeology".

The second - at the same time, in St. Petersburg, under the direction of the corresponding member of RAO N.V. Kuzmina, academician of RAO A.A. Dergach and doctor of psychological sciences A.M. Zimichev created the first scientific institution, the Russian Academy of Acmeological Sciences and the first educational institution, the St. Petersburg Acmeological Academy under the direction of A.M. Zimicheva and A.I. Vatulina. Since 1996, under the leadership of N.V. Kuzmina, A.M. Zimicheva published a collection of scientific articles "Acmeology".

The beginning of the 21st century is the philosophical substantiation of the subject of acmeology, which considers the issues of achieving concrete results in the process of improving the individual and society. V.P. Bransky, V.V. Ilyin, S.D. Pozharsky gave an understanding of acmeological knowledge. Historiosophical approach V.P. Bransky and S.D. Pozharsky allowed us to trace the integrative approach and the relationship of acmeology with cultural studies, with philosophical anthropology, ethnoacmeology.

V.V. Ilyin and S.D. Pozharsky analyzed the development of acme as an element of philosophical knowledge in the history of philosophy [5].

Under the direction of N.V. Kuzmina formed a school that explored a fundamental problem: the development of human abilities and their impact on productive activities in all spheres of life.

These stages of development of acmeology as a science allow us to conclude a new qualitative leap in acmeological knowledge. The subject and tasks of the scientific direction have been determined, dozens of monographs have been published, the scientific and practical journal “Akmeology” has been created, the publication of the collection of articles “Acmeology” has been ongoing for 10 years, textbooks and teaching aids have been created.

Departments of developmental psychology and acmeology were created in 20 universities of Russia.

The stage of practical application of acmeological knowledge and the acmeological method has begun, both in classical (psychological) acmeology and at the level of applied acmeology.

Thus, one of the directions, improving the education system, is the development of fundamental science about improving a person to achieve specific results - acmeology, and mastering practical methods of personality development and professional skill, in difficult socio-cultural conditions.
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Stages of development of acmeology as a science

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