home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

INDIVIDUALITY OF HUMAN AND HIS ACME

When we try to understand such a characteristic of a person’s acme as its meaningful originality, range of manifestations, its size, time of achievement, duration, and finally, as a feature of the state of an individual, personal and subject-active acme, we cannot do without tracing the connections of these characteristics with a person’s individuality, considered as a whole, and taking into account its constituent elements.



B. G. Ananiev, summarizing the various approaches to the interpretation of personality in the natural, social, and humanities sciences, insistently emphasized that individuality is the only integration of natural and social characteristics that is found in each individual and completely specific person. And the most significant signs of human individuality, in his opinion, are integrity, isolation, autonomy, originality, a person’s inner self, creativity.



Features inherent in a particular person as a complex organism (an individual, in the terminology of B. G. Ananiev) and, in particular, his nervous system, the properties of higher nervous activity noted in him, manifested in general, and in special, and in partial types of higher nervous activity, as well as in interhemispheric interaction, are always inextricably linked to a picture of his personal manifestations that is completely certain for this person, and also make themselves felt in those qualities in which he claims to be the subject of activity.



The given position is perfectly concretized in a series of experimental works carried out under the direction of B.M. Teplova, BC Merlin, V.D. Nebylitsin, E.A. Blue-eyed, which, developing in breadth and in depth a psychophysiological approach to studying the abilities of each person, manifested in him when interacting with reality, trace a complex of properties on which a person’s individuality depends. When assessing individual differences, these works also objectify the dynamic "relief" of the personality - a set of characteristics that determine the dynamic type of human behavior - his temperament.



This integrity, which individuality bears within itself, constantly appears also in the interconnections and mutual influences of his intellect, feelings and will, temperament, character and abilities, typical for a given person.



Further, when we try to more persistently seek the qualitative characteristics of an individual, we cannot help but notice that the person who possesses it is relatively isolated from other people, from the communities of which he is a member. It may not necessarily carry within itself the traits of introversion, and moreover, to be an extrovert, and it is not at all necessary to be an egoist and an egocentric; on the face.



A man, and even if he is the “bearer” of a bright personality, of course, is included in reality, and he, of course, is a part of it, connected with it by many dependencies, but at the same time it certainly has the quality of autonomy with respect to it.



No matter what mentally normal person we take, it is not clay, not wax, on which external influences are imprinted one-on-one with all their characteristics, and here there is never an extremely simple chain “stimulus – reaction”. Each person refracts any external influence through the experience accumulated by him and in a certain way, and in one way or another, and very selectively, taking into account the subjective significance of this effect for him, reacts to it, in some cases resorting to stereotypical forms of response, in others - sometimes showing remarkable creativity.



And precisely, the brighter the individual’s individuality, the more characteristic only for him and not for anyone else are his actions as a person and actions as a subject of activity. The question arises: coverage of the essential features of which mechanism can help us understand the pattern just indicated?



The fact is that the consciousness and self-consciousness of a person, in which his reflection of objective reality and attitude to it are always closely intertwined, are at the same time the inner world of this person. In this relatively separate from the surrounding and subjective in form internal world of its “owner”, the processes of formation and reformation of value orientations are constantly going on, images and concepts are being formed and rebuilt, in which the person surrounds nature, society, other people and he with all the ambiguous interconnections between them, his assessments and self-esteem change, some claims disappear and others appear, etc.



B.G. Ananiev, bearing in mind these complex and sometimes very contradictory processes, inextricably intertwined with each other unfolding in the inner world of a person, did not cease to emphasize that this “world” is constantly working, and the measure of fundamentality, depth and tension of it work (rethinking of experience under the influence of information that more or less deeply sings the emotional sphere, the birth of previously not former own positions, the correction of beliefs, the development of directions of self-determination and finding ways of embodiment his actions and deeds, not a trivial, painfully difficult search for a creative solution to professional problems, etc.) is an indicator of the spiritual richness of a person’s individuality. The foregoing is directly related to the understanding of the most difficult issue of the causes that affect the characteristics of a person's acme, making it one-of-a-kind and truly unique.



Diaries, notebooks, letters A.A. Blok, F.M. Dostoevsky, M.M. Prishvina, A.V. Suvorova, L.N. Tolstoy, A.A. Ukhtomsky, P.I. Tchaikovsky, A.P. Chekhov and many other prominent cultural figures very vividly, almost, so to speak, from nature and “live” make it possible to see how each of them deeply responded in their own way to large and not very large events taking place in the surrounding social macro- microcosm, how and why he distanced himself from some and accepted others with pain or joy, how, under their influence, he began to express himself in a completely new way in both personal and subjective activity plans.



Thus, we are once again convinced that the features of a large society in which a person passes his life path inevitably impose his stamp on his development as an individual, as a person and as a subject of activity. And the social microenvironment is reflected in it just as strongly, always in its own way accumulating and refracting the influences going to it, and through it to every person from a large society.



However, only that person becomes the bearer of a true individuality, which, after melting in his own inner world of everything reflected by him from the outside, is able to express his unique essence in his own way, participating together with other people in cognition, communication and, of course, work.



At the same time, delving into the contents of this last statement and remembering that such individualities as integrity, isolation, autonomy, originality of the “I”, more or less, creativity are inherent in any individuality, one must constantly be aware that the severity of these characteristics and the specificity of each of them will vary from person to person.



We are in solidarity with I.I.
Rezvitsky, who argues that the principle of life that unites all characteristics in the individual, is the meaning of life, the realization of which turns out to be subordinate to human actions and deeds. What values ​​are projected in this "sense", this has a strong effect on where, in what and how brightly and continuously a person manifests his individual unique "I", where, in what and how purposefully and persistently he is able to not go from the formal the fulfillment of the roles imposed on him, and, stubbornly remaining himself, through the inevitable overcoming of all sorts of different difficulties, more and more definitively approach the results, the essence of which would increasingly correspond to the meaning of life that they understand.



And since for some people this meaning of life is expressed in the increase of spiritual and general cultural wealth accumulated by mankind, in others - in the prosperity of the small community of which they are members, in the third - in the indisputable assertion of themselves over other people, in the fourth - in money-grubbing by any means, etc., then, naturally, this mismatch of the main dominant in the direction of each of them necessarily affects the degree of expression in their personality of a certain set of qualities, their structure and significance.



At the same time, since the phenomenon of “individuality” is always unique in its own way, people even similar to each other in their understanding of the meaning of life, still behave differently in the same social situations and the real results of their activities, for example, even when solving the same professional tasks, in each case they necessarily bear the stamp of individuality, the concrete drawing of which cannot be explained if one does not take into account the natural characteristics of man.



Revealing the essence of a person’s individuality and analyzing its components separately and in interaction with each other, you need to be able to see that it (like everything in the world) is subject to change.



Depending on the macro- and micro-social situations in which the person finds himself, and on how their content and form are superimposed on the nature of his needs, there is a restructuring in the structure of his personality, in a different way than the properties that enter it begin to sound . But again, the magnitude of these changes and the directions of their transformation, which mean the further development of individuality, or, conversely, its regression, turn out to be determined by the degree of a person’s obsession, so to speak, with a moral imperative and a measure of his charge for the irrepressible and truly real work in the field of professional work. Examples of the life of Sergius of Radonezh, the architect V.I. Bazhenov, composer Ludwig Van Beethoven, artist and sculptor Michelangelo Buonarroti, scientist I.P. Pavlov, the statesman and political figure F. Roosevelt and many others, whose high morality and devotion to the main business of life determined their existence, very brightly illuminate not the formal, but the dialectically complex logic of the formation in each case of a completely extraordinary personality.



As you know, a person as a person is an “ensemble” of relations, the most stable of which form his character, and at the same time he always acts as the subject of activity in which his abilities manifest and form. What his connections with reality turn out to be and how rich they are in content, what features carry in themselves the types of activities in which a person is involved, and in what role and how actively he participates in them, the directions, depth and range of changes in his inner world depend on it , and as a consequence of them, the appearance of acts that were not previously noted in him and previously uncharacteristic of his actions in a professional form of work for him, i.e. the development of his personality thus reaches a new level. There is a constant process of forming his own individuality, his own "I". This “I” forces a person to be constantly demanding of himself in his relations with society, as well as in his main type of activity, to critically evaluate what has been achieved, to set innovative and increasingly complex tasks, and in the end, without compromise with conscience, strive for maximum approximation to the given result. The latter actually means not only the development in a person of a stable tendency in highly moral behavior and the same persistent positive professional attitude towards a chosen field of work, but also the creation of the most important subjective prerequisite for a person to reach the acme level. Reaching acme, a person makes his own unique and significant contribution to the universal values ​​of life and culture. Therefore, so that each person, passing his life’s journey, does not take place as a formal performer of the social roles of a citizen, worker, spouse, parent, but as an original, useful to society, truly self-actualizing personality in all respects and as a one-of-a-kind specialist Master, for This requires the provision of objective and subjective conditions for the development of his personality and, of course, this development itself.



But, knowing the large role of objective conditions in the formation of a unique individuality, it is nevertheless necessary to emphasize again and again with all the force that the decisive role in its formation belongs to the person himself, especially when he enters the time of his maturity.



The first half of life, wrote Carl Jung, is an achievement: study, job search, marriage. But in the second half of life there comes a time when he can develop his own unique inner “I”. (63.- S. 121). And Martin Buber spoke more clearly about the individuality and responsibility of the person himself for her education: “Each person born in this world,” he wrote, “is something special, never existed before, new, original, unique. Everyone is obliged to understand all the time that no one like him has ever lived in the world before, and therefore everyone is called upon to carry out his own mission in this world ”(60. - P. 78). And to carry out his mission - this means for a person to take place at the highest possible level for him, living, acting, creating in absolutely specific historical conditions of time and place in only one proper way.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

INDIVIDUALITY OF HUMAN AND HIS ACME

  1. "Acme" in the context of individual human development
    Plan 1. Individuality in the system of human qualities and acme. 2. Integral individuality as a result and as a condition for human development. 3. Style as a system of matching individuality of a person with the environment. 4. Typology of styles. Key words: individuality, integral individuality, individual style of activity, style of professional activity. -
  2. "Acme" in the context of individual human development
    Plan 1. Individuality in the system of human qualities and acme. 2. Integral individuality as a result and as a condition for human development. 3. Style as a system of matching individuality of a person with the environment. 4. Typology of styles. Key words: individuality, integral individuality, individual style of activity, style of professional activity. -
  3. Individuality in the system of human qualities and acme
    Acmeology - a science that studies the phenomenology, patterns and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his maturity, when he reaches the highest level of this development; a science that studies the comprehension by man of the meaning of his existence, the achievement by a person of professionalism in activity, the productive manifestation in life of all the essential forces of an individual *. Accordingly, acme is understood
  4. Individuality in the system of human qualities and acme
    Acmeology - a science that studies the phenomenology, patterns and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his maturity, when he reaches the highest level of this development; a science that studies the comprehension by man of the meaning of his existence, the achievement by a person of professionalism in activity, the productive manifestation in life of all the essential forces of an individual1. Accordingly, acme is understood
  5. "Acme" in the context of the development of individuality
    Plan 1. The concept of personality. 2. The essence of autopsychological competence as a way to develop acme in the context of personality. 3. Acmeological components of autopsychological activity. 4. Typologies of personality and character. 5. Types of psychological defenses. 6. Typology of thinking styles. Key words: individuality, autopsychological competence,
  6. "Acme" in the context of the development of individuality
    Plan 1. The concept of personality. 2. The essence of autopsychological competence as a way to develop acme in the context of personality. 3. Acmeological components of autopsychological activity. 4. Typologies of personality and character. 5. Types of psychological defenses. 6. Typology of thinking styles. Key words: individuality, autopsychological competence,
  7. ABOUT PERSONAL ACM OF HUMAN AND THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE IT
    As you know, in psychology there is a widespread understanding of the psychological essence of personality as an “ensemble of relations” (L. I. Bozhovich, I. V. Dubrovina, E. V. Ilyenkov, V. N. Myasishchev, etc.). When the relation is meant, then in its content the connection between something and something, between something and someone and between someone and someone is thought. Moreover, in connection with something and someone, the second component of this connection is “burdened” with psychological
  8. Peaks in the development of man (or his "acme") and their main characteristics
    Peaks in the development of man (or his "acme") and their main
  9. Peaks in the development of man (or his "acme") and their main characteristics
    Peaks in the development of man (or his "acme") and their main
  10. Acme: content role, specificity of manifestation. Acme in the personal development of a person
    The phenomenon of acme and its main characteristics Adulthood in all manifestations of its natural and social nature of man is the peak in its development, followed by old age, old age, which are characterized by a gradual decrease in physical health, weakening civic activity, reduction in the volume and content of parental responsibilities, shutdown
  11. The phenomenon of "acme" and its main characteristics
    Plan 1. "Acme" as one of the basic concepts of a new science. 2. A broader and more narrow-local understanding of "acme" when tracking human development at the stage of adulthood. 3. "Microacme" as intermediate peaks in the development of man, preceding his achievement of "macroacme". 4. The main characteristics of the "acme" of a person. 5. "Pseudoacma" as the antipode of the true peak in human development.
  12. The phenomenon of "acme" and its main characteristics
    Plan 1. "Acme" as one of the basic concepts of a new science. 2. A broader and more narrow-local understanding of "acme" when tracking human development at the stage of adulthood. 3. "Microacme" as intermediate peaks in the development of man, preceding his achievement of "macroacme". 4. The main characteristics of the "acme" of a person. 5. "Pseudoacma" as the antipode of the true peak in human development.
  13. “Acme”, professionalism and social adaptation of a person: periodization of development and typology of human social activity
    The problem of the correlation of giftedness, genius and “norm”, adaptability and reactivity, situational and “supra-situational” activity, biological and social determinants of professional achievements, intervals of age-related sensitivity, personal and professional potential has not arisen in psychology today and periodically declares itself in new and new contexts. In acmeology, she
  14. "Acme" in the professional development of man
    Plan 1. The essence of the phenomenon of "acme" in professional development. 2. Types of professional "acme". 3. The criteria for professional "acme" in relation to the indicators of professionalism and professional competence. 4. Conditions for achieving professional acme. Keywords: professional “acme”, professionalism, professional competence, professional, professional
  15. "Acme" in the professional development of man
    Plan 1. The essence of the phenomenon of "acme" in professional development. 2. Types of professional “acme1.” 3. Criteria for professional “acme” in relation to indicators of professionalism and professional competence. 4. Conditions for achieving professional “acme.” Keywords: professional “acme”, professionalism, professional competence, professional, professional
  16. The essence of autopsychological competence as a way to develop “acme” in the context of personality
    One of the main psychological conditions for activating a person’s personal potential is his autopsychological competence, which provides optimal models of self-organization of life and professional activity. The study of autopsychological competence involves obtaining answers to a number of questions. What is the algorithm for knowing yourself, what you need to know about yourself and to what extent?
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com