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STUDYING A MATURE MAN - AN IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE OF SCIENCE

In order to get Russia out of the crisis that has covered all aspects of its existence and give a powerful impetus to the development of its economy, science, education, healthcare, culture, a well-founded and, therefore, leading to success program of action, highly qualified leadership in its implementation and, of course, selfless and creative work of the people. Pulling the children out of the quagmire of the crisis and moving it along the path of building material and spiritual potential will be successful if targeted work is carried out at all levels on the civil-moral and civil-legal education of Russians and raising the level of professionalism of people employed in all areas of material and spiritual production .



The development of moral and legal consciousness and behavior, professionalism, and the high skill of a teacher, doctor, turner, civil engineer, experimental scientist, bank employee, manager and generally an employee of any other field of work are the most important source of improvement in our country.



The problem of bringing a person to a level of deep citizenship, persistent unreasonable humanism in relations with other people, achieving real professionalism in his activity has many aspects not only in the practice of everyday life, but also for science, which is obliged to show what a person has reached prosperity in their physical and mental development, as well as which path each person must overcome in order to rise to the highest level for him in physical perfection and consist I am a bright personality, a truly talented subject of activity, a rich spiritually and very distinctive individuality (B.G. Ananiev wrote about the need to develop these problems almost 30 years ago in his book “Man as an Object of Knowledge.” - L .., 1968 )



At the same time, to understand the most complicated synthesis of signs that is found in a person who has reached the peak of his acme development and to prove that this is really the peak in the development of this person is always an unusually difficult task. It is no less difficult to give an exhaustive answer to the question: what objective and subjective conditions need to be created so that the process of forming a person as an individual, person, subject of activity, designing his personality would really raise him to the stage of acme?



If we take a relatively stable, but, of course, state of man having its own time limits, designated as acme, then his characteristics, along with similarities in all people, will differ in their originality, the influence of the socio-historical conditions of the era in which a person lives, and features his life path, which always means the passage of a person through a system of successive activities and relationships, which turns out to be different for different people. Therefore, for the stage of development of the physical and mental forces of a person, of course, which always has its own specific content and different forms of existence and expression, different people can distinguish not only general, but also individual characteristics.



When comparing the characteristics of people undergoing the highest “peak” in their development as individuals, as individuals, as subjects of activity and as individuals, it is not necessarily revealed that a person simultaneously attains a high level of development of individual, personal, and subject-activity characteristics. On the contrary, more often there is unevenness and non-simultaneity of formation of the above-mentioned properties and qualities in a person whose development reaches the stage of prosperity. For example, as an individual, he can be in the prime of his physical strengths and as a person being a highly moral and law-abiding person and at the same time not yet reach a peak in the manifestation of his creative abilities. At the same time, the level of his physical health may already decline, and his creative potential can still be realized in actions that testify to the power of his intellect and his possession of various means for the successful practical implementation of his socially valuable ideas.



Further, it must be clearly seen that the mismatch in the time to achieve a high level in the development of a person as an individual, as a person, as a subject of activity and revealing it fully as an individual does not at all indicate that it is the positive or negative nature of the change in the state of human health, in his relations to different sides of reality, in his abilities are completely unrelated to each other. No, there are always connections, but they are not strictly unambiguous. In real life, for specific people, their “peak” in development at the maturity stage “hides” a number of possible options for correlating the degree of health, the nature of the formed value orientations, and manifestations of abilities. But it is clear that since this is still the “peak” of development, then the state of health, and relationships - value orientations, and abilities should not go beyond the bounds of a certain optimum.



It is also obvious that the time duration of the acme period, estimated as a whole, and of each small “peak” inside the large “peak”, which means the person’s highest level of health, attitudes to the values ​​of life and culture, manifestations of abilities, is different and, of course, the specific form of this temporal characteristic varies markedly from person to person. And this is a consequence of not only differences between people in their natural inclinations and the peculiarities of the interaction of these people with the natural and social worlds in the time interval preceding their achievement of the maturity period and the “peak” of development in it, but this is always connected with the specific the social situation is a person who has reached the peak in his spiritual and physical development.



Tracing these connections between the characteristics of a person’s acme and the nature of social situations in which he inevitably “falls into”, passing his life's path, it is important to correctly understand the role of the person himself in what the peak of his life will be and when it will be clearly visible to him.



Some people are said to have made themselves. And this emphasizes that, subjecting themselves to circumstances, overcoming their weaknesses, crushing the resistance of others' wills, they consistently and persistently went to some big goal and achieved it. And it is clear whether a person will endlessly hold the position of the object of influence on the part of society - a passive consumer of any and all kinds of information, an indiscriminate admirer of mass culture, a conductor of stereotyped, routine behavior, or whether he, knowing reality, participating in various activities, establishing relationships, will constantly to stand in the position of the active subject, this will largely depend on what quality the individual, personal, activity potential he will constantly accumulate in himself, what page tegiyu life as K.A.Abulhanova-Slavskaya says, will implement and, therefore, the premise of it at Acme creates. By the way, the presence of a described active position in relation to the environment from childhood, for example, among V.M. Bekhterev, E.O. Paton, D.I. Mendeleev, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, undoubtedly, was one of the obvious conditions relatively long and fruitfully bright acme in these people.



Continuing to peer into the content and forms of objectification of the acme phenomenon in different people, one cannot help but see that the nature and range of manifestations of it can vary greatly. In one person, a “peak” that can rise far above the average level can be observed during his development as an individual, in another - mainly as an individual, in a third - mainly as a subject of activity. And one can say more: for some people the “peak” in their development is associated with one or two relationships dominating their personality and with one or two narrowly focused activities, for others, the flowering in their development correlates with all universal values ​​that have become their values, and with the same series of interconnected activities, engaging in which they get results that are ahead of the time in which they live (Leonardo da Vinci, M.V. Lomonosov, V.I. Vernadsky, A.L. Chizhevsky and others).



Peering deeper into the development of the physical and mental forces of a person, leading him, so to speak, to “macroacme”, one cannot help but see phases in it when a person’s physical condition, work of his motivational sphere, activity of his behavior, although they are characterized by some fluctuations, but all -so, figuratively speaking, they are more likely to resemble a "plateau" than "peaks". And there are phases in this process that takes a person to the level of macroacme, when peculiar “leaps” are observed in his state, expressed in a sharp activation of the mind, stenic feelings of will, in a significant increase in working capacity. One might think, behind this dynamics, the processes of accumulating quantitative changes and transforming them into qualitative changes are unfolding, which become all expression and more definite when approaching the “top” of human development, after reaching which it is not the same in time again and through the “plateau”, but also through “Micro-falls” begins the process of involution of its individual, personal and subject-activity characteristics.



Important in highlighting the problem of a person reaching the acme level in his development is the question of criteria that would allow us to convincingly assert that changes in a person as an individual, person, subject of activity on completely certain stretches of his life path and in completely certain time intervals are progressive, bring it to the stage of maturity, raise it to the acme level, and then the processes of involution begin, which more slowly embrace some human systems and more quickly others.



As for individual indicators, here the state of the body and the level of functioning of individual organs in it can be established using anthropometric and medical diagnostics and correlating the data with the relevant standards, as well as integrating these data into an integrated system.



It is much more difficult to fix the process in the development of personal characteristics of a person, in his development as a subject of activity, as well as in the relationships between them.
We have already discussed that a person is woven from a relationship. And her attitude to something or someone, as you know, is a mental formation in which the results of her knowledge of this something or someone are accumulated and integrated, their experiences and behavioral responses, and the defining characteristic in this the triad usually turns out to be an emotional component.



A person always has a lot of microrelationships, since each object, person, community, event, phenomenon, process, if reflected by it, evokes an attitude - actively-positive or actively-negative, passively-positive or passively-negative, contradictory-indefinite, indifferent and more. However, gradually, in addition to these microrelations, under the influence of a picture of the world that is being formed on the individual, moral, legal, aesthetic and other principles adopted by her, she arises and strengthens, lining up in a certain hierarchy in her personality structure, more global relations - to nature, to humanity, homeland, property, to work, to people in general, to oneself. And if these relations in their substantive part correspond to universal values ​​and constantly affect the goals that a person sets for himself and which encourage him to be also constantly active in achieving these goals, then the person will steadily advance towards his acme. And the indicators of her potential will be the moral caliber of her actions and the nature of the consequences of these actions, both directly for herself and for society, at the nodal points of her life path, for example, when leaving school, university, when choosing a life partner, when banning a party of which she was a member for many years, when she was appointed to a high post or unexpectedly removed from him, and especially in extreme extreme social situations, for example, in Leningrad during the blockade or in the current conditions of life in Russia after As it was falling apart the great state of the USSR.



In these latter cases, life puts a person in circumstances when his civic position, the depth of his conviction, readiness for self-sacrifice and a number of other qualities fundamentally important for a socially mature person are fully highlighted. Thus, significant circumstances for a person in which he falls, make visible to all the relationships that he as a person really carries within himself. And at the same time they objectify the content of these relations, as well as the degree of their formation.



And further in the life of each person there comes a moment when the process of narrowing and meaningful impoverishment of his connections with reality begins to take place. For his personality, this means involution, and in more severe cases - its deformation. An essential point in connection with the issue under consideration is the establishment of the level reached by a person as a subject of activity and his subsequent capabilities in this capacity; when a person is evaluated as a subject of activity, the degree of compliance of his mental properties with the requirements of the activity that he performs is usually revealed, and the nature of the results that he is able to achieve in this activity is determined.



The discovery of the periodic law of elements by D.I. Mendeleev is the peak of his works in the field of chemistry. "Reflexes of the brain" is the highest result in the activities of the great physiologist I.M.Sechenov. The frescoes in the Sistine Chapel is truly the greatest of the works of Michelangelo - the painter. The opera Boris Godunov is the highest in the series created by the genius M.P. Mussorgsky. At the same time, these materialized results of the deeds of the great ascetics of science and art are an indicator of the nature and level of their abilities in the fields of activity, which include the creations mentioned above.



At the same time, the study of a person during his life's journey shows that if his involution as an individual and as a personality begins, as a rule, much earlier than the natural end of his life in old age, then the formation and manifestations of the qualities of an active subject of activity in him last until while this activity continues and while people deeply creatively create material and spiritual values ​​(M. Gandhi, V. Goethe, I.P. Pavlov, R. Tagor, L.N. Tolstoy and others).



Tracing the peculiarities of phenomenology, looking for patterns that work when a person manifests himself as a subject of activity, it is extremely important, both for theory and practice, to clarify this phenomenology and the significance of various factors that determine it in the application to the work of a person, which is for him professional, and especially if in this work a person rises to a high level of skill.



Getting an exhaustive answer to the question posed is a complex and multifaceted task. It seems that, in solving it, it is necessary to determine the basic parameters of a professional, first at a hypothetical and then at a research level; to establish the general, special and singular in these parameters among the subjects of activity representing the groups of professions "man - nature", "man - society", "man - technology", "man - market", "man - sign system", "man - images of art ”and others; to trace the main changes that occur in these parameters as the person’s professional skills increase and his level of high professionalism reaches.



It seems that the problem of professional parameters can be solved if the generalized basis of his “model” is an activity model that incorporates the characteristics inherent in all activities. Obviously, using this approach, it will be possible to deal with the problem of professionals in specific areas of work, revealing, in addition to common for all their characteristics of activity, their special features.



The formulated position obliges us to create not a one-sided psychological model of a professional, but an interdisciplinary one, since the activities of modern professional professionals are multifaceted and multifunctional. The search for a solution to this problem must occur at least at four levels - sociological, socio-psychological, general psychological, psychophysiological. When studying at the first level, using statistics, it is necessary to identify the general that characterizes the professionals of this particular group on the part of their status in society, material security, prestige and other similar characteristics. The second level involves the study of the social characteristics of the personality, which significantly affect its activities - social attitudes, value orientations, relationships, beliefs. At the third and fourth levels - the qualities that are necessary for a successful interpretation of the profession should be considered.



В соответствии с намеченным путем освещения проблемы профессионализма человека, нацеливающей на изучение двух равноценных и взаимосвязанных объекта (деятельности и человека), важно выделить те главные характеристики их, которые дадут возможность постичь их суть, а также понять зависимости, которые их связывают друг с другом.



Если сравнивать между собой деятельности, выполняемые представителями профессий, которые выше были разведены в несколько самостоятельных групп, то общим у них является то, что в каждой из них субъектом деятельности выступает человек, всегда имеющий определенный предмет деятельности; осуществляя деятельность, он должен получить определенный результат, для чего он должен задействовать столь же определенную «технологию», а для этого он должен обладать определенными знаниями, умениями, навыками, успешность применения которых всегда зависит от того, какие общие и специальные способности им нажиты и какая мотивация (жизненные установки, потребности, интересы) инициируют его деятельность. Кроме того, понятно, чтобы деятельность состоялась, она должна иметь, как указывалось выше, и соответствующие ее характеру материальные ресурсы.



Далее очевидно, что в зависимости от того, какая область деятельности перед нами («человек — природа», «человек — общество», «человек — техника», «человек — рынок» и другие) будут меняться предмет деятельности, технология ее осуществления, ее результат, знания, умения, навыки, необходимые для ее выполнения, способности, нужные для успешного занятия ею. Будут происходить изменения и в мотивации участников, а также в материальном обеспечении.



Имея в виду все эти характеристики профессиональной деятельности, важно проследить особенности проявления их у профессионалов высокого уровня, подвизающихся в политике, в экономике, в налаживании межнациональных отношений, в промышленности и сельском хозяйстве, в науке, в управлении, в образовании и воспитании, в медицине, в сфере обслуживания, в работе правоохранительных органов, в учреждениях культуры, в деятельности средств массовой информации.



Профессионалом «экстра-класса» и в названных и в не названных, но также социально значимых областях, человек сразу не становится. К этому уровню подводит все его предшествующее развитие на всех ступенях его бытия — и до непосредственной профессиональной подготовки, и в ходе ее, и на этапе практического вхождения в профессию.



Выяснение сходного и различного в системе объективных и субъективных условий, которые оказываются необходимыми для достижения вершин профессионализма самыми разными людьми, — актуальнейшая теоретическая и прикладная задача. С ее решением теснейшим образом сопрягается разработка научно обоснованного инструментария продвижения человека на высокий уровень профессионализма и поддержание его стабильности (при этом имеются в виду и процессы самоопределения, самоорганизации, самообразования, самосовершенствования самого человека).
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ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ЗРЕЛОГО ЧЕЛОВЕКА -ВАЖНАЯ ЗАДАЧА НАУКИ

  1. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГИГИЕНЫ КАК НАУКИ И ЕЕ ЗАДАЧИ.
    Гигиена — это наука, изучающая влияние условий труда и быта на здоровье населения. Одна из важнейших задач современной гигиены — разработка гигиенических правил, нормативов и мероприятий по предупреждению отрицательного воздействия различных факторов внешней среды (физических, химических, биологических) и общественно-производственных отношений на организм человека, его работоспособность и
  2. “Psychosocial approach in the context of urgent tasks and the main trends in the development of psychological science in Russia”
    В первой главе представлен авторский взгляд на историю и перспективы развития отечественной психологии в контексте решения актуальных проблем современного российского общества. Показана ограниченность как в методологическом, так и в организационном планах, в современных условиях, исторически сложившейся парадигмальной модели развития психологической науки. The expediency of the transition to
  3. Комплексное изучение развития человека на ступени взрослости
    Акмеология, как было сказано выше, изучает феноменологию, закономерности и механизмы развития человека на ступени его взрослости и особенно при достижении им наиболее высокого уровня в этом развитии, означающего обычно сформированность у него качества зрелости. Ступень зрелости человека и так называемая вершина этой зрелости, или, как ее еще называют, акме, — это многомерное состояние
  4. Комплексное изучение развития человека на ступени взрослости
    Акмеология, как было сказано выше, изучает феноменологию, закономерности и механизмы развития человека на ступени его взрослости и особенно при достижении им наиболее высокого уровня в этом развитии, означающего обычно сформированность у него качества зрелости. Ступень зрелости человека и так называемая вершина этой зрелости, или, как ее еще называют, акме, – это многомерное состояние
  5. Положение о задачах и организации работы комиссий по изучению летальных исходов (КИЛИ)
    (Приложение № 7 к Приказу ГМУ г. Москвы от 15.04.94 г. №182) I. Общие положения. Комиссии по изучению летальных исходов (КИЛИ), созданные во всех лечебно-профилактических учреждениях, являются коллегиальным органом контроля качества лечебно-диагностического процесса на основе материалов, полученных при анализе летальных исходов. Задачами КИЛИ являются: 1. В стационарах изучению на заседаниях КИЛИ
  6. Acmeological approach to the study of man as a subject of development and self-development
    High professionalism and creative skill in its implementation by a variety of specialists is the main human resource, which becomes the most important factor in the optimal solution of pressing problems. In this sociocultural context, acmeology, a new integratively complex science, is of particular importance. It is she who studies the laws and technologies of the development of such peaks
  7. Характеристика валеологии как науки. Основные задачи валеологии
    Основные задачи валеологии : 1. Разработка и реализация представлений о сущности индивидуального здоровья, поиск моделей его изучения, методов оценки и прогнозирования. 2. На основе количественной оценки здоровья индивида разработка систем скрининга и мониторинга за состоянием здоровья населения. 3. Формирование "психологии здоровья". 4. Разработка методологии и методов
  8. Studying the process of mastering a person by profession
    In addition to considering the development of the entire set of characteristics of a person in which his maturity, and in it his acme, expresses acmeology, acmeology scientifically analyzes maturity and acme is more narrowed, meaning only mastery of a person by a profession, achievement of a level of mastery in it. It is clear that comprehension of the essence of professionalism, vision and understanding of the paths leading to it, has not only
  9. Studying the process of mastering a person by profession
    In addition to considering the development of the entire set of characteristics of a person in which his maturity, and in it his acme, expresses acmeology, acmeology scientifically analyzes maturity and acme is more narrowed, meaning only mastery of a person by a profession, achievement of a level of mastery in it. It is clear that comprehension of the essence of professionalism, vision and understanding of the paths leading to it, has not only
  10. Approaches to the study of human life
    The first (and earliest) idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of man emphasized the uniqueness of the individual. The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances. The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as age-related periodization of life
  11. Approaches to the study of human life
    The first (and earliest) (idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of a person emphasized the uniqueness of a person). The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances. The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as age-related periodization of life
  12. Социологический (культурологический) подход к изучению психического развития человека
    Социум как объяснительный принцип во французской социологической школе. Родоначальником социологического направления в психологии принято считать Э.Дюркгейма. Его работы оказали серьезное влияние на развитие психологических исследований взаимоотношений индивида и общества. Решающую роль в развитии ребенка он отводил социальному фактору, основу которого составляют коллективные представление
  13. Предмет изучения валеологии – человек. Костная система и ее функции
    У человека более 200 костей (85 парных и 36 непарных) которые в зависимости от формы и функций делятся на: трубчатые (выполняют в основном защитную и опорную функции – ребра, грудина, позвонки и др.); плоские (кости черепа, таза); смешанные (основание черепа). В состав кости входят органические и неорганические вещества. Эластичность, упругость костей зависит от наличия в них органических
  14. CLINICAL-GENEALOGICAL ANALYSIS AS A METHOD OF STUDYING A HUMAN INHERITANCE
    Since time immemorial, mankind has been using empirical observations of genealogies in which transmission of pathological signs or diseases was noted. So, already in the Talmud it is said that if the relatives of a newborn boy in the family had cases of bleeding, then such a child was released from the initiation rite obligatory for all other children (circumcision of the foreskin).
  15. Bioeconomic approach to the study of the problem of the extreme state of the human body
    Clinicians' appeal to fundamental generalizing categories is motivated by the search for effective ways to solve practical problems. Serious thoughts at the bedside of a seriously ill patient inevitably lead to the conclusion that a certain unifying approach to the analysis of a multi-level disability is necessary. And this approach is persistently associated with the depletion of the internal thermodynamic potential,
  16. ЛЕКЦИЯ №3 ПРЕДМЕТ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ВАЛЕОЛОГИИ – ЧЕЛОВЕК. КОСТНАЯ СИСТЕМА И ЕЕ ФУНКЦИИ
    ЛЕКЦИЯ №3 ПРЕДМЕТ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ ВАЛЕОЛОГИИ – ЧЕЛОВЕК. КОСТНАЯ СИСТЕМА И ЕЕ
  17. Acmeological study of man as an individual, personality, subject of activity
    Acmeological study of man as an individual, person, subject
  18. Acmeological study of man as an individual, personality, subject of activity
    Acmeological study of man as an individual, person, subject
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