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The concept of spirit in the works of K.G. Young, A.V. Suvorova D.A. Leontiev
Domestic psychologist B.S. Brother in one of my works (Brosh, 1988) formulated the main contradiction of spirit and spirituality: between the limitedness (temporality) of being of a single person and the unlimitedness (universality) of his generic essence. The unity of these components and their contradiction we took as a basis for comparing the views on spirituality of three very different researchers - the Western philosopher and psychologist K.G. Jung and our compatriots and contemporaries A.V. Suvorova and D.A. Leontiev.
At K.G. Jung's position noted above finds its concrete embodiment in the concepts of "spirit", "archetype", "symbol". Spirit, by K.G. Jung is an autonomous, independent from the “I” -consciousness higher complex, which includes the “I” -consciousness of a particular person. K.G. Jung notes the superiority of the spirit over the "I" consciousness: "Such superiority ... is an essential feature of its (that is, the spirit. - GE) manifestation" (Jung, 1993, p. 291). The spirit consists of those “maxims or ideals that contain the richest life experience and deepest thoughts” (ibid., P. 286). However, in another place K.G. Jung writes that “all the most powerful ideas and representations of mankind are reducible to archetypes” (ibid., P. 133), - therefore, the realm of the spirit, according to K.G. Jung, consists of archetypes 1.
The archetype is defined as “the pure potency of form” (Psychol. Dictionary, p. 20); “The archetype denotes the essence ...” (Dictionary of the Practical Psychologist, p. 34). Surprisingly, but also A.V. Suvorov, and D.A. Leontiev talk about "the essence of
1 The archetype translated from Greek means “beginning” and “image”, that is, the archetype is “prototype, initial image, idea” (Popular Encyclopedia, p. 50). K.G. Jung writes of the role of the archetype: “He who speaks with the prototypes speaks with a thousand voices; he comprehends, overcomes and at the same time builds what he designates from the singular and passing to the sphere of the eternal, he exalts personal destiny to the fate of mankind) (Jung, 1993, p. 59). So through the archetype of K.G. Jung overcomes the contradiction between the limitation, temporality of the human being of a single person and the unlimited, universality of his generic nature.
cabbage soup ”as about“ pure form potency ”. A.V. Suvorov (2001) writes that only a pure, proper form can correspond to the spirit. He talks about the "essence", "essence", that is, the "spirit" of things, the "spirit" of the world, the "spirit" of each of us. YES. Leont'ev also speaks of the “essence of things”: “... the highest level of regulation (human behavior. - GE) is the level at which a person makes decisions in accordance with the essence of things” (2002, p. 26). The essence of things, by YES. Leontiev, "not arbitrary, but imperative." Thus, the archetype of K.G. Jung, and the "essence of things" in YES. Leontiev, and the “spirit of a thing” by A.V. Suvorov allows you to structure the various contents of the psyche and human behavior; structure understanding of the world, yourself and other people. By the way, yes. Leontyev discusses the problem of "understanding the essence of things," thereby putting an equal sign between the development of personality and the development of "understanding" of the essence of things. A.V. Suvorov considers intuition as a mechanism for knowing the "essence", "spirit" of things and speaks of "spirituality" as a human ability and readiness for such an understanding-comprehension.
However, the archetype (and therefore the “spirit”, “the essence of things”), as we have already noted above, “is determined not by content, but by form. In itself, it is empty, empty, but it has the potential to take on a specific form ”(Popular Encyclopedia, p. 50). This particular form of archetype, in the concept of K.G. Jung acquires, that is, it manifests itself in the individual human life as a symbol; the symbol thus fills the archetype with content. Let us turn to the definition of a symbol given in the Philosophical Dictionary (1983). The following is noted here: “The subject image and the deep meaning appear in the structure of the symbol as two poles, inconceivable one without the other, but also divorced from each other ... Turning into a symbol, an image (that is, the archetype of K. G. Jung. - G. E.) becomes “transparent”: meaning “shines through” it, given as semantic depth, semantic perspective ”(Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 607). Thus, according to K.G. Jung’s unity, mutual influence of the limited existence of an individual person and the unlimited nature of his tribal essence: the archetype exercises the influence of the tribal essence of a person on a single human existence (that is, communication from top to bottom): “Any connection with the archetype ... releases a more powerful voice in us than ours own (Jung, 1993, p. 59); at the same time, a symbol exerts the influence of a specific human life on a generic essence (that is, a connection from the bottom up), comprehending it (that is, a generic essence), filling archetypes with “content”: “The meaning of a symbol really exists only within human communication, outside of which only an empty form can be observed ”(Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary, p. 607).
In other words, the meaning of the "essence", the "spirit" of a thing is given by individual human life, human relations. A.V. writes about this. Suvorov, highlighting the “spiritual sphere” —the sphere of the spiritual culture of mankind (the world of religious and philosophical ideas, artistic images) —which, thus, coincides with the concept of “spirit” in K. G. Jung (that is, the "spiritual sphere", "spirit" is a tribal essence), and - separately - the "philosphere" as the sphere of communication of the closest people.
“In this area, the meanings and values of individual lifestyles are formed” (Suvorov, 2001a, p. 70). The “Philosphere” is a concrete-singular, and “the spiritual sphere can be understood only through the philosphere” (ibid., P. 71). Thus, like K.G. Jung, A.V. Suvorov notes the interconnection of the clan and the concrete individual, seeing the influence of the individual human life, of human relations on the clan through the comprehension of the clan, filling it with “content”.
The mutual influence noted by us of the limited existence of an individual person and the unlimited nature of his tribal essence, the “spiritual” sphere and concrete human life poses two problems that V.E. Chudnovsky (2001) singled out in his article “The Fifth Anniversary of the Search” in the Structure of the Problem of the “Meaning of Life”. ” Let us designate these problems as “energy” and “sign”.
The energy problem is visible in the works of all three authors. It is the “spiritual sphere” that gives human life energy. K.G. Jung writes: “An amazing fact: a life that is lived on the basis of only one“ I ”, as a rule, affects asphyxiating not only the person himself, but also the people around him. The fullness of life requires more than just “I”; it needs a spirit ... which, obviously, is the only one who is able to bring to life the manifestation of all those spiritual possibilities that “^” cannot be achieved by consciousness ”(1993, p. 292). Thus, K.G. Jung divides a person’s life according to the presence of “spirit” into “full” and “suffocating”, or flawed: “only that life that is spiritualized is truly valuable” (ibid., P. 294).
For the same reason D.A. Leontyev divides human life into actually human and "subhuman" (that is, "animal" or even "plant existence"), and A.V. Suvorov (by the same principle) - on life and existence. However, at this point and A.V. Suvorov, and D.A. Leontiev noted the impossibility of constantly living, based on the requirements of the spirit. Here D.A. Leont'ev speaks of the theory of the “dotted man”: “The meaning of this image is that a person does not manifest himself as a person throughout the trajectory of his life ... A part of his trajectory goes on a human level, then on a subhuman, then again human, then again on the subhuman - the trajectory of his life is a dashed trajectory. For different people in different situations, this trajectory can have a different configuration, but practically no one has a continuous one ”(Leontyev, 2002, p. 29). A.V. Suvorov noted in this connection: “From this point of view, few people can be unambiguously recognized as a person, and therefore living and not vegetative. Since I am humane - so far as I am a man ... That is, since my humanity is a situational, and not constantly manifested quality, so far I myself am a man is situational, and not constantly ”(2001a, p. 73).
Why is this happening? YES. Leont'ev notes that life, in accordance with the requirements of the “spirit”, requires huge energy costs from a person: “The temptation to subhuman is mainly that subhuman forms of existence are less energy-consuming ...” (Leont'ev, 2002, p. 29) . The life of "non-humans", in the terminology of A.V. Suvorov, that is, a person of "spiritless", is much simpler, or less energy intensive. Where does this energy go? As K.G. notes Jung, “Our mental processes are also energetic” (Jung, 1993, p. 306). In other words, not only “connecting” to the spirit, its “comprehension” provides a person’s life with a certain energy potential, makes the possibilities of man almost limitless (as noted by D.A. Leontyev, K.G. . Suvorov in his works), but vice versa: a person’s life in “harmony” with “spirit” provides this or that spiritual complex with some “energy infusion”. That is why, in our opinion, “spirituality” is such an energy-intensive phenomenon, that’s where energy leaves a person, but this happens “according to the principle of conservation of energy ...” (ibid., P. 36).
K.G. Jung notes that “life ... is necessary for the spirit, for its truth, if it is not viable, means nothing” (ibid., P. 292). This statement leads us to the next problem, which we called “significant”. The influence of “spirit” on a person can be either positive or negative: A.V. Suvorov, quoting the words of the poet Twardowski, remarks: "And the spirit can be different - either dead or alive ...". K.G. Jung also writes: “The way of thinking is different - bright and dark. Therefore, one cannot be deaf to the idea that the spirit is also not absolute, but something relative ... ”(1993, p. 291). In addition, A.V. Suvorov clearly divides the sphere of universal ideas and thoughts into the "spiritual sphere" and the "sphere of insanity." The mutual influence of the clan and the individual is also manifested here, since human life determines the “truth”, “positive” or “negative” essence of the “spirit”, and also - by virtue of the “energy” interaction - gives the energy potential of the idea, archetypes from “do “the sphere of insanity” or the “sphere of insanity”.
Questions of spirit and spirituality require further study and more detailed development within the framework of the problem posed at the beginning of our article of the contradiction between the limited (temporary) being of a single person and the unlimited (universal) nature of his tribal essence, as well as their unity.
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The concept of spirit in the works of K.G. Young, A.V. Suvorova D.A. Leontiev
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