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“Conceptual foundations of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior”
The 6th chapter of the thesis contains materials devoted to the substantiation of directions, conditions and recommendations for improving the system of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior. It also presents a structural-functional model and substantiates the principles of psychological and acmeological support for the socialization of adolescents with delinquent behavior.
The structural components, levels and stages of socialization of a teenager’s personality identified in the study are taken as the basis for constructing a model.
The following elements were identified as structural elements of the comprehensive target program: goals, psychological and acmeological information; organization of the escort process; forms, methods, methods of psychocorrection of adolescents with delinquent behavior, taking into account the types of aggressive behavior; the activities of psychologists and heads of special institutions; control and self-control in the process of correction. An important element of the comprehensive target program is psychological and acmeological support for all participants in the process of socialization of adolescents with delinquent behavior (Fig. 12).
The structural diagram of the technology of the program of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior
Along with the above, we have additionally identified as important elements: activities necessary for working with delinquent adolescents during training and after school hours; self-education and self-education of adolescents; analysis and evaluation of the results of their activities, as well as the use of psychocorrection in the form of psychological counseling and group psychological and acmeological trainings.
During the implementation of the comprehensive target program (PCC) of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior, the following four main technologies for its provision are proposed:
- the technology of information and methodological support for all participants in the socialization process, including informing educators and leaders about the value orientations and interests of delinquent adolescents, the conditions of their upbringing, life, family, personality characteristics, committed illegal actions and behavior before arriving at a specialized enterprise, as well as informing adolescents about the conditions of detention, forms and methods of interaction of adolescents and educators in the correction and pedagogical correction of behavior pupils. In addition, this technology includes the methodological support of the elements of the PCC (methodology of psychological counseling, the methodology of psychological and acmeological training, etc.), informing educators on the features and methods of working with delinquent adolescents with various types of aggressive behavior, as well as information support for all participants in the psychological process at all stages of the program;
- technology of psychological support, including psychological diagnostics of the type of aggressive behavior, psychological counseling, psychological and acmeological training; measures to purposefully increase the level of professional skill of educators of a specialized enterprise; individual educational work with adolescents during school and extracurricular hours;
- the technology of organizational support of a comprehensive target program, including the development of organizational solutions (orders, orders, directives, instructions) for the implementation of PCC, socialization of adolescents and monitoring its effectiveness;
- technology for the use of feedback, which provides the ability to quickly obtain the necessary information about the results of the psychological impact and the effectiveness of socialization of adolescents and timely adjust the forms and methods of this impact.
The success of the process of socio-psychological adaptation depends largely on the individual himself, on his desire and desire to be accepted and understood by society, to occupy a worthy position in it, to show his personality, to achieve social maturity.
Currently, it is important to make greater use of psychological knowledge in organizing preventive work to prevent delinquency among young people.
The construction of a model of socialization of adolescents in a personality-oriented system of psychological and acmeological support (Fig. 13) involves the implementation of a certain sequence of design actions: determining the goal; identification of structural components, stages and levels of socialization; the allocation of psychological and pedagogical conditions under which this process will proceed most successfully; determination of the substantive activities of psychologists; development of methods, forms and means by which the process of socialization can be carried out.
Structural and functional model of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior
As part of the practical implementation of the concept of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior, it was revealed that the activity of the psychologist at the production facilities of the “New Generation” allows a more thorough understanding of the lives of adolescents with illegal behavior, to clarify the depth of change in their mental properties, states and processes, as much as possible to promote the development of compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of the psyche of a teenager with various deviations, to justify individually Introduced psycho-correctional and rehabilitation programs with the aim of the quickest socio-psychological adaptation of these contingents.
The activities of specialists of the "New Generation" proceeds in collaboration with "difficult" adolescents.
This determines the need for continuous improvement of the system of psychological and acmeological support in this unit in order to prevent behavioral abnormalities, correct socially undesirable motivations in adolescents, as well as develop optimal interaction skills in adolescent groups and prevent professional burnout from masters and educators directly working with this contingent .
Psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior is a system of measures aimed at preventing and correcting deviant and delinquent behavior in this contingent, as well as assessing their individual psychological characteristics and socio-psychological characteristics in order to prevent the development of maladaptive disorders.
Supervises and organizes the work on psychological and acmeological support for minors, the research laboratory of psychological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior.
The procedure of psychological and acmeological support consists of a socio-psychological study and psychological examination of the contingents of minors and includes: 1) an assessment of the level of development of cognitive mental processes, adaptive abilities of a person (level of neuropsychic resistance and behavioral regulation, communication skills, orientation to existing norms of behavior and team requirements); 2) assessment of socio-psychological characteristics, including professional orientation and motivational attitudes; 3) the study of some additional characteristics determined by the specific features of the educational and working activities.
The tasks of psychological and acmeological support are: 1) the establishment of individual psychological characteristics of the personality of adolescents, the level of their mental, intellectual development, the presence of certain psychophysiological qualities (increased anxiety, suggestibility, impulsivity, etc.) that significantly influenced their behavior ( including in the performance of any professional duties), in psycho-traumatic (criminal) situations of increased complexity; 2) the diagnosis of states of mental tension of a non-pathological nature (anxiety, fear, stress, affect, etc.), which caused unlawful acts and inappropriate behavior; 3) a study of the motivational sphere of personality; 4) the identification of adolescents with signs of a lag in the mental development of the non-pathological nature of the ability to recognize the importance of their actions and manage them; 5) vocational guidance for adolescents and assistance in professional self-determination; 6) determination of optimal training algorithms based on individual psychological characteristics in order to quickly form labor skills by forming an individual style of training and activity to optimize the functional state of minors; 7) the rational distribution of adolescents by training profiles and specializations; 8) an in-depth psychological study of adolescents with signs of difficult adaptation to the educational process and labor activity in order to develop proposals for management and masters to conduct individual work; 9) participation in the acquisition of production groups taking into account psychological compatibility; 10) identification of persons with neuropsychic instability.
Psychological and acmeological support for juvenile offenders is carried out during their admission to the "New Generation", as well as in the process of training and education throughout the entire period of their stay at production sites.
In the framework of the developed concept of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior, it is shown that in the most general form, diagnostic, advisory and corrective work with juvenile offenders for the purpose of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of offenses must be carried out at five most important levels: 1. The psychophysiological level shows the formation components that make up the internal physiological and psychophysiological basis of all systems of a developing subject a. 2. The individual psychological level determines the development of the basic psychological systems (cognitive, emotional, etc.) of the subject. 3. The personal level expresses the specific features of the subject itself as an integrated system, its difference from similar subjects at this stage of development. 4. The microgroup level shows the characteristics of the interaction of the developing subject as an integrated system with other entities and their associations. The social level determines the forms of interaction of the subject with wider social associations and society as a whole.
Based on this, the system of work of psychologists, social workers and teachers in teenage centers and clubs should be built when organizing and conducting work on the prevention of offenses among juvenile offenders as part of their psychological and acmeological support.
Thus, the results of a formative psychological-acmeological study confirmed the effectiveness of the developed criteria, technologies and programs for diagnosing, predicting, correcting and rehabilitating adolescents with delinquent behavior in the conditions of employment at a specialized enterprise.
The results of the study allowed us to confirm the hypothesis of the study, as well as to justify and formulate the following conclusions and practical recommendations.
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“Conceptual foundations of psychological and acmeological support for adolescents with delinquent behavior”
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