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Criteria of professional “acme” in relation to indicators of professionalism and professional competence

When assessing the presence and nature of professional “acme” in a particular person, it is important to take into account the psychological indicators of professionalism and competence that have developed in this profession and in the professional community, as well as psychological knowledge about professionalism. The identification and assessment of professional “acme” depends on how professionalism is understood, what are the indicators of professionalism and professional competence that have developed in this profession and in concrete historical time.

Professionalism is an integral psychological characteristic of a working person, reflecting the level and nature of a person’s mastery of a profession, meaning that a person performs his labor activity at the level of high standards that have developed in the profession to date.

Professionalism includes providing a person with high labor productivity, the effective implementation of professional activities in collaboration with other people, the presence of professionally important personality traits in a person of work. Therefore, the concept of "professionalism" covers three aspects of labor: professional activity, professional communication, personality of a professional.

Professional activity is a person’s activity aimed at transforming the subject of labor in order to obtain a result that meets social and personal, material and spiritual needs. Professional communication is a person’s activity aimed at establishing interaction and cooperation with other people in the process of transforming the subject of labor; professional communication can be considered as one of the means of increasing the effectiveness of professional activity. The personality of a professional is a combination of mental qualities, properties, and conditions of the person of labor that create opportunities for him to carry out professional activities and at the same time change and improve in the course of labor.

The psychological essence of professionalism can be most fully disclosed based on an analysis of the correlation of levels of professional activity, professional communication and the maturity of a professional’s personality. The personality of a professional determines the value orientations, internal meaning, professional mentality of the person of work. Professional activity reflects the result and the process of labor, the significance of its product for society, the use of modern technology. Professional communication characterizes the climate, the atmosphere of work, which largely determines its effectiveness. The professionalism of a particular person can be achieved due to the high level of development in a person of professional activity, professional communication and maturity of the person (or all of them together), which underlies various types of professional competence.

Professional "acme" may consist in mastering a person high levels of professional activity, professional communication and maturity. Therefore, indicators of the maturity of activity, communication, and the personality of a working person can be considered as criteria for the presence of types and forms of professional “acme”.

Performance indicators of professional activity are:

1. Performance indicators:

- efficiency, feasibility, compliance of the result with the set goals;

- effectiveness - the presence of results in the form of changes in the subject of labor, corresponding to GOST in the profession, the stability of high results;

- profitability, minimizing the costs of resources, time and effort of participants;

- productivity, quantity of products per unit of time;

- optimality, achieving the best result in these conditions with minimal time and effort;

- obtaining results and mastering the methods of activity at the level of high standards, standards of the profession (professional skill);

- setting new tasks, finding non-standard technologies, obtaining a fundamentally new product, going beyond the limits of existing professional experience (professional creativity).

2. Procedural indicators:

- a variety of tasks of professional activity;

- the use of socially acceptable and flexible technologies;

- the formation of the subject of professional activity (the ability of a person to set goals, realize, regulate activities);

- the absence of deformations in professional activities (missing goals, links and operations);

- reliance on past experience accumulated in the profession and personally by a person;

- possession of specific types of activities (specialization);

- possession of several related activities (universalization);

- possession of knowledge, abilities, skills in the profession at the level of requirements for skill levels, categories and categories developed in the profession (qualification).

The criteria for the presence of a socially significant “acme” in professional activity is the achievement of results in the profession that have attracted the attention of fellow professionals. The criteria for a subjectively significant “acme” in professional activity are individual successes of a person, which means for him personally the excess of his previous results and the achievement of the maximum possible result for a given moment.

For one group of workers, professional “acme” are formed in the activity and are manifested in the effectiveness, feasibility, technological effectiveness of work, in accordance with the result of the social order, which ensures the active professional competence of the person.

In another group of workers, professional achievements and, accordingly, professional “acme” are more noticeable in the field of social relations in the professional sphere, in the ability to obtain high results in work on the basis of high levels of professional communication, which determines the general competence of these specialists.

The development indicators of professional communication are:

- the increase in the effectiveness of professional activity in its joint, collective implementation;

- the presence of highly productive professional activities in the professional community, mastery of teamwork;

- designing a new professional environment, creating new forms of business and creative communication;

- ensuring mutual understanding, mutual understanding, mutual correction in joint labor activity;

- creating conditions for mobilizing the reserves of mental development of participants in joint activities;

- a rational distribution of functions and roles in joint work;

- the use of a wide range of communication techniques that exclude the manipulation of other persons;

- conflict-free cooperation with colleagues;

- study in the course of labor of another person, empathy with him;

- analysis of the accumulated in the professional experience of other people ways to effectively obtain the result;

- taking into account the interests of consumers, the results of professional activities and the formation of new consumer needs in labor results (marketing);

- ensuring a positive psychological climate in professional activities, creating psychological well-being, mutual satisfaction of participants in joint activities;

- competitiveness as the ability to identify the best standards of labor activity and the desire to surpass them, presenting the results of their activities (or the results of the organization) in the labor market;

- Compliance with professional ethics, norms and language of communication adopted in this professional environment.

“Acme” in professional communication can consist in the described abilities, as well as in the ability to unite fellow professionals to solve a new range of tasks in professional activity, in creating various kinds of effective professional communities.

Professional maturity indicators may include:

- understanding of the system of moral values, the mentality of the profession;

- the ability to accumulate and analyze their own professional experience;

- designing yourself as a professional, the ability to build an optimal scenario for your professional development and follow it;

- maximum use by a person of his capabilities and their compensation;

- development of an individual style of professional activity as a combination of professional tasks and methods of activity that meet the capabilities of a person;

- the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of behavioral professional actions, blocking labor activity in cases when a person exceeds his abilities, with a threat to self-preservation;

- the ability to maximize mobilize their capabilities, concentrate efforts;

- the ability to combine high mobilization and concentration of efforts in labor, taking into account the available capabilities, to prevent overloads;

- the ability to maintain job satisfaction, a positive attitude towards oneself as a professional;

- the use of each new opportunity for professional improvement, high sensitivity to new opportunities, the responsibility of the individual for an unused chance;

- the ability to develop an individual professional optimum;

- awareness of the world of professions and the necessary personality traits;

- Awareness of the multitude of their professional development, the possibility of achieving success at different levels and in various forms of activity and communication;

- proximity to the professional type of personality and a combination of professionally important qualities, the most appropriate for this work;

- lack of personality deformations;

- mastery of the techniques of building an individual program of movement to the heights of professionalism, compilation of acmeogram.

The criterion for the presence of the ability to achieve individually significant acme in the development of a professional’s personality is the ability of a person to ensure the presence of a progressive, upward vector in his development, its predominance over a regressive vector.

High levels of professional activity, professional communication, professional personality of a person create the basis for the development of different areas and types of professional competence.

Professional competence is a person’s ability to solve a certain range of professional tasks.
Professionalism consists of many types of professional competence. Competencies are sometimes distinguished within competencies as abilities for something, depending both on knowledge, skills, and on the degree of conviction and the need to use this ability (Yu.Skzhipchak) *.

* See: Professional competencies of adult teachers: Conference proceedings. M., 2000



Groups of professional competence (competence in professional activity, competence in professional communication and competence in realizing the personality of a professional) and types of professional competence within each group can be distinguished.

Competence in professional activities and its types:

- special (knowledge of their craft);

- technological;

- subjective;

- professiological (awareness in the world of professions);

- legal;

- economic, etc.

Competence in professional communication and its types:

- communicative, community-based (ability to cooperate);

- socio-perceptual (ability to perceive another person);

- differential psychological;

- diagnostic (ability to study another person);

- ethical;

- empathic;

- intercultural, sociocultural (tolerance for other cultures);

- conflict, etc.

Competence in the development of a professional personality and its types:

- psychological (the ability to learn another person);

- individual, autopsychological (ability to study oneself);

- cultural (the ability to assimilate the cultural norms accepted in this society as standards for the development of their personality),

- reflective, etc.

Professional “acme” first appears within the boundaries of professionalism and competence that have developed in the profession at a given historical time. Later, higher levels of professional acme can be achieved, which means professional creativity, going beyond the experience of the profession, enriching it with new tasks, methods and results.

During professionalization, a person can achieve a variety of professional “acme”. An important tool for assessing and stimulating professional acme is the professiogram and acmeogram. At the same time, professional achievements, manifested in professional skill and creativity, are conveniently analyzed and evaluated with the help of a professiogram, and professional achievements that mean a person’s creativity in relation to himself - with the help of an acmeogram.

A professiogram is a document in which the requirements for professional activity and for the personality of a specialist are fixed, which are necessary for a person to achieve a socially set result, a socially acceptable quality of a labor product. The professiogram reveals the necessary professional tasks, tools, techniques and technologies, the result of labor, as well as the desirable qualities of the employee’s personality.

An acmeogram is a document that reflects the requirements for the activity and personality of a successful specialist. It notes the types of professional activity and personality traits that lead not only to a person receiving a socially desired result, but also ensure the ongoing development and professional development of the specialist himself, his advancement to high levels of professionalism.

The acmeogram may include: goals (final and intermediate); development model selection; determination of acmeological technologies; possible individual indicators of professionalism, planned as development results.
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Criteria of professional “acme” in relation to indicators of professionalism and professional competence

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