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General methodological approaches in scientific research (integrated, systemic, subjective)

A complex approach. The development of an integrated approach in the XX century. It turned out to be connected with the existence of polydeterministic, complexly structured objects and spheres of being. He expressed a tendency to increase the interaction of different fields of knowledge and sciences, the need for interdisciplinary research. Initially, the development of an integrated approach was associated with the emergence of research areas of related sciences of biochemistry, geobiochemistry, psychophysiology. Later, in addition to these new frontier areas of knowledge, problems began to arise that encompassed various spheres of human life, not characterized by the principle of adjacency. Many of these problems were not of a hypothetical abstract nature, but were posed by the practical situation of the development of mankind in the 20th century. These are atomic and environmental disasters, man’s entry into space, the emergence and spread of highly mortal diseases of cancer and AIDS, as well as a steady increase in technological progress, associated with the human factor problem in its most varied aspects and changes.

The development of an integrated approach that led to a new field of human studies is associated with the name of B.G. Ananiev. She responded to his clearly formulated goal of finding a holistic approach to man and integrating knowledge about him into an independent field of knowledge. Comprehensive research organized and led by him met this goal. However, the desired correlations between different parameters of nature and the social essence of man were not based on a general methodological and theoretical model, they were rather ways of searching for this model. Subjecting a retrospective historical and psychological analysis of the features of the integrated approach developed by B.G. Ananyev, his student N.A. Loginova also gave some general definitions of an integrated approach, such as the focus on identifying multidimensionality, multifactoriality, heterogeneity of ontological determinants and ontological components. It is different from a systematic approach, the specificity of which, from its point of view, consists in the knowledge of the integrity, orderliness and organization of an object or field of activity.

Revealing the specifics of an integrated approach in psychology, B.F. Lomov expressed the idea that the tendency of its development is associated with the determination of fundamental fundamental problems requiring a comprehensive study. A number of authors differentiate the summability function of an integrated approach, multidimensionality, problematic.

The paradox of acmeology is that quite general methodological principles and approaches simply find their specificity in it, performing an orienting function, the function of determining its subject. The specificity of the integrated approach in acmeology is that it sets the orientation on the unity of study and real practical improvement of man. He aims at comparing such diverse aspects of modalities as a real and ideal state, spontaneously formed and optimal qualities. It provides a strategy for transforming the present level of development into a higher, optimal one; it combines often fragmented aspects of a person’s functioning and his development. An integrated approach in acmeology opens up the prospect of individuality and as a subject. It combines the idea of ​​personality in life, on the path of life and in activity.

In other words, the integrated approach in acmeology has as its main function the integration of different qualities, properties, states, modalities of human existence. Thus, it can be considered as a direct continuation of Ananiev’s line on the integration of human sciences into a special area of ​​human knowledge. However, if in human science, according to Ananyev, the basis of the complex is man, then in acmeology, the basis of the complex is personality as the most complex and concrete level of human existence.

An integrated approach in acmeology is aimed not so much at the unity of sciences, knowledge about a person, but at revealing the unity and ways of connecting its ontologically different qualities. It plays not so much an epistemological as an ontological role. The most difficult part in the acmeological complex is that research and diagnostics reveal the initial stage of personality development, the operational and practical link of which is its real optimal change. The study is not introduced into practice, as usual, is not confirmed by it, but serves as a functionally independent unit of the complex, the next stage of which is acmeological support. Acmeological support is associated both with the diagnostic and research phase, and with the future optimal model, the optimal state of the personality, which is not yet there. The links of the complex are deployed in real time sequentially and simultaneously in theoretical space.

Systems approach. The development of a systematic approach expresses the main modernist trend of the 20th century, associated with the names of Bertalanffy, Ashby, Parsons (in sociology), with the development of cybernetics, semantics, sociology, psychology. The principle of systemicity was initially implicitly present in the methodologies of the corresponding sciences, expressed in the search for patterns, relationships, structures. At a certain stage in connection with the development of a special field of the methodology of science, he became the subject of reflection, a kind of logic of scientific knowledge. N.F. Ovchinnikov, V.N.Sadovsky, G.P.Shchedrovitsky, E.G. Yudin and other Russian philosophers and methodologists made a huge contribution to understanding and clarifying the principle of systematicity.

The development of the principle of consistency in psychology is associated with the names of L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinshtein, A.N. Leontiev, B.G. Ananiev, who developed its position in unity with the solution of problems of psychology. B.F. Lomov was a classic of a systems approach in Russian psychology, having implemented a certain reflection, formalizing the principle of systematicity. Firstly, he implemented a systematic approach in the functions of ordering, systematizing psychological knowledge. Secondly, thanks to the identification of a number of problems in the categories of a systematic approach, he opened up new promising research areas.

The specificity of the systematic approach to acmeology is that its subject does not have a clear level structure, is an ontologically heterogeneous, but functionally unified and motivated to an optimal state system. In the general theory of systems, along with the classification into social, biological and other systems according to the criterion of the field of scientific knowledge, there is a division into artificial and natural systems. Acmeology does not deal with an artificial and not with a natural system, but with the mechanism and method of transition from a spontaneously formed state and quality of the system to optimal, from real to ideal by modeling the essence of the latter and its practical achievement. The acmeological system has a targeted, designed simulated character. An understanding of the essence of this system allows the study of the ideas of M.I.Setrov, who highlighted the aspect of comparing systems in terms of height and degree of organization, focusing on the direction of change in the system. The degree of organization corresponds to a transition to a qualitatively higher level, that is, a change in organization, so to speak, vertically, and the degree of organization to a change within a given quality, i.e., horizontally.

In other words, he does not mean the system as a hierarchy of levels, but the transition of the entire system, its change to the optimal, that is, a more highly organized state. Here, the essence of systemicity in acmeology is concretized by means of the concept of "organization", to which at the time, in the interpretation of A.A. Malinovsky, K.A. It is significant, since we are talking about a personality system, in turn, according to the words of B.G. Ananiev, “inscribed” in the system of society, social relations, the system of labor, professions, own life. The advantage of this concept is that it involves both personality-dependent methods of organization, i.e., self-organization, and independent, conscious and unconscious, objective, as well as external and internal. A new way to organize a system can be simpler, minimizing redundancy, spontaneity, or more complex. In acmeology, it is supposed to achieve a more optimal way of organizing, which will be discussed below when revealing the principle of optimality or optimization. Achieving the optimal state of the system in the process of its change is ensured by the constructiveness of transformations, the presence of algorithms, instrumental and operational means of acmeological assistance.

Subjective approach. If the basis of the complex in acmeology, as was said, is personality, then the backbone factor (in the words of B.F. Lomov) of the acmeological system is the subject, i.e., the personality acting as the subject. This does not mean that acmeology does not consider personality as an object, but only within certain limits: research, diagnostics, and qualifications of its initial state.
The results of a diagnostic examination of a person as an object become reserves, resources of the process of practical, real improvement of personality and as a process of improvement carried out by the subject himself (the basis of reflexive methods of self-improvement, according to I.N.Semenov), and as a process of acmeological support, trainings, game technicians carried out by an acmeologist in collaboration with the subject. Pedagogy is close to acmeology with its effective, operational, formative orientation. But until recently, it was pedagogy that not only did not see the subject of the improvement process in the personality of the subject, but did not even mean it as an object of research, study, in order to link formative influences to the real, existing properties and qualities of the personality.

The principle of the subject is paradigmatic for acmeology. The personality becomes the subject of improvement as direct self-improvement, as well as mediated by its activities and acmeological technologies. The problem of self-improvement is simple only at first glance. According to S.L. Rubinshtein, the substantial world within a person is the result of his life and activity. The same applies in principle to the problem of self-improvement of a person: it is not necessary to do good yourself, but to do something good in life, such should be the goal, and self-improvement is only its result1.

As has been said, the subjective approach or principle is the paradigm of acmeology. The principle of the subject, which has been developing for centuries with a varying degree of intensity in the history of philosophy, has been actualized and developed by S.L.Rubinshtein in its multifaceted and, at the same time, system-forming quality in Russian psychological science. In contrast to the Hegelian understanding of the subject only as a source of activity of consciousness, Rubinstein identified other categories, aspects of its definition. As early as the 1920s, he defined the subject as the center of the organization of life, showing not the parallel but the central position of a person in the world. He revealed his abilities of self-development, self-determination, self-improvement. As the main feature of the subject, he singled out his ability to improve, the ability of a person to achieve the highest optimal level of his development, ideal. From that moment on, the development methodology ceased to boil down to horizontal movement, to stadia. The "vertical" in the development of man, his ascendant character, has opened. Undoubtedly, this aspect of understanding the subject is close to the Western philosophical idea of ​​man as a project, the idea of ​​S. Buler about the innate need of a person for self-realization.

However, the philosophical definition of the subject given by S.L. Rubinshtein through need and the ability to improve needs psychological and acmeological concretization when it comes to personality. The idea of ​​personal growth, “framing" a person (in the words of V.V. Davydov) does not mean, as was said, a person’s concentration on his “I”, does not imply a reflexive review of his own strengths and weaknesses, does not reduce self-improvement to a direct life goal. L.S. Vygotsky set the most important task of introducing the personality to the culture of mankind, but reduced it to the task of learning, teaching. In fact, the improvement of the personality is not only the mastery of the personality of the human culture, it is the achievement of the personality of the "cultural level", we can say the development of personality culture. This problem can only be solved by the subject himself.

For mankind, the principle of subjectivity was expressed in the idea of ​​historical progress (although history has repeatedly proved that neither rulers nor peoples contribute to the progress of the historical process as a whole). For a person, the achievement of subjectivity is not the achievement of a previously marked bar (although the criteria for a personal culture are already formulated in acmeology and related areas), but a continuous movement towards self-improvement. From this point of view, the concept of “acme” does not mean the final point of life movement and development, but that peak from which new horizons of further movement open. At the same time, the subject is autonomy, independence, initiative and responsibility.

Formulated a lot of different approaches and definitions of the subject. An analysis of various concepts and understandings of the subject in philosophy, culture, psychology of pre-revolutionary, Russian and foreign was undertaken by V.A. Tatenko in the book "Psychology in the subjective dimension". A.V. Brushlinsky, the author of a monograph on the subject's problem in psychology, believes that a person is always a subject.

The specificity of the subject's acmeological principle is not associated with egocentrism, not with self-attitude, not with the ability to reflect, not even with the manifestation of initiative activity and responsibility, but primarily with the resolution of various kinds of contradictions, i.e., with the criterion that identified as the first and main K.A. Abulkhanova in the qualification of the individual as a subject. Resolution of contradictions gives the subject an experience of freedom, confidence, independence, leads to the achievement of proportionality.

What contradictions do you mean? This is a contradiction between the current state, quality, level of personality development, the way it is organized and coordinated with social and ideal conditions. This is a contradiction between the abilities, personality, peculiarity, needs of a given person and the requirements of society and life, addressed to her. This is a contradiction between the genetically embodied needs of the personality, its potentialities and the measure of their implementation, the degree of self-realization that she managed to achieve. This is a contradiction between the claims and efforts of the individual and their results, etc. By resolving them, the individual reaches its maturity, the quality of the subject.

The second criterion of subjectivity for acmeology is the freedom of ownership of the external and internal conditions of one’s life, the ability to build optimal personality development and other people as subjects of relations to a historically mature type of life relationship. The system of life relations of an individual and the general psychological and pedagogical principle of its development.

Finally, the most important criterion for personality subjectivity is the presence of an “I-concept,” which, undoubtedly, represents a basic personality formation, but in its specific architectonics, in its proportionality, it allows one to judge the measure of personality subjectivity. At one time, characterizing in the Fundamentals of General Psychology the main components of a personality structure, Rubinstein included three parameters in its components: what a person wants (these are his needs, motives, claims), what he can (what are his abilities, capabilities, resources), finally, what is he himself (what is his worldview, character, etc.). Personal contradictions result in contradictions with society, if desires do not correspond to abilities, and character does not allow the use of abilities in the direction of the fulfillment of desire. Harmonization of these components provides the superpower of the subject.

The psychosocial approach is quite new for domestic science, methodological in nature, although in foreign works it has been formulated for quite some time. In Russian psychology, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya turned to the development of this principle in connection with conducting cross-cultural studies of the Russian mentality and social thinking.

The essence of the psychosocial approach is to move to the object being studied not from an a priori model or theory, but from revealing the historical, social, cultural, personal determinants of its real state. The subject of psychosocial research is not an abstract personality, but a person living in a particular Russian, French or other society, the specifics of her consciousness, determined by the historical, biographical circumstances of her life, life position, national, professional affiliation, age, gender. It is this type of research that conducts acmeology. Как уже говорилось, ее интересует личность госслужащего, управленца, педагога, социальный, профессиональный статус этой личности, ее образование, профессиональный стаж, возраст и т. д. В чем далее отличие такого типа исследований от классических психологических? Ведь и в психологии исследуются, формируясь в выборки, то учителя, то студенты, то врачи, учитываются возраст и пол. Но в акмеологии выборка служит не основной переменной, а дополнительной, тогда как в психологии это основная, причем комплексная переменная личность как субъект определенного вида профессиональной деятельности во всей совокупности своих параметров.
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Общеметодологические подходы в научном исследовании (комплексный, системный, субъектный)

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