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System-wide properties that determine the professional image of the student world

Theoretical and methodological reflection led us to the conclusion that the completeness of the study of personal and professional formation is achieved if we consider it as a form of manifestation of a person’s self-organization as an integral psychological system. Personal and professional formation in the conditions of a person’s real life activity (in the conditions of higher professional education) is manifested in the construction of a professional image of the world, determined by solving problems on the meaning and value of the performed activity for society and itself, as a gradual transformation of a person’s thinking (with its individual characteristics) in professional thinking, which, while remaining a form of cognition, is involved in ensuring the integrity and systematic nature of the emerging professional picture of the world and self-development of self.

Consideration of higher professional education as a psychological and acmeological process, the result of which is the peculiarity of personal and professional formation represented in the image of the world (professional image), made it possible to highlight in particular mental rigidity, which is considered as an indicator of the openness / closeness of the system and is acmeological invariant of professionalism, i.e. It has the property of invariance, which ensures the active self-development of a university student, regardless of the specifics of professional activity.

Thus, at this stage of the study, the need arose to study rigidity as a characteristic of the system and the acmeological invariant of professionalism.

Data on mental rigidity indicators for the sample as a whole (561 subjects) are presented in table 4.

Table 4.

Indicators of mental rigidity of high school students

Analyzing the sample, it should be noted the absence of statistically significant differences between male and female students in all indicators of mental rigidity. So, the average values ​​of actual rigidity in the male sample are 36.01, the female 36.96 with a correlation coefficient of 0.3 and a significance level of 0.585.

Sensitive rigidity in determining statistical differences between female and male samples is represented by average values ​​of 33.08 (men) and 33.47 (women) with a correlation coefficient of 0.04 and a significance level of 0.84. Statistical significance was also not found between male and female samples on installation rigidity. The average values ​​of 37.86 and 38.16 for men and women, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.05 and a significance level of 0.83.

The lack of gender identification indicates the integrative nature of mental rigidity, once again confirming our grounds for considering it as an indicator of the openness / closeness of the system and the acmeological invariant of professionalism. Regardless of gender, mental rigidity provides a basis for analyzing preferences of real life environments, containing various conditions for personal and professional development. To block or open a person’s exits beyond the limits of life circumstances, ensuring the stability and mobility of the system, especially the restructuring of behavior, determines mental rigidity.

Analysis and interpretation of the results on each scale show that no actual rigidity was found in low values. The average values ​​determined by the conditional norm are presented in 53.4% ​​of the subjects, who are characterized by the openness of the channels of exit to the external environment, the expansion of opportunities for self-realization (E.V. Galazhinsky, G.V. Zalevsky, V.A. Nepomnyashchaya, N .V. Kozlova), a change in behavior in the context of situations, an open mind for certain life circumstances related to the emerging opportunities of personal and professional formation on the way to “acme”. High and very high rates of mental rigidity were found in 46.6% of the subjects. Almost half of students experience difficulties in situations requiring the abandonment of stereotyped forms of behavior. They are characterized by blocking the channels of access to the external environment, ignoring the possibility of creative realization (G.V. Zalevsky, N.V. Kozlova), the appearance of behavioral stereotypes in unacceptable conditions for this. Failure, with the objective need to change opinion, attitude, attitude, motives, mode of experience, can lead to difficulties in interpersonal communication and generally negatively affect confidence in the possibility of independent implementation of life choices, effectiveness and quality of personal and professional formation.

It is logical to assume that it is these students who are experiencing difficulties in the conditions of modernization of both society as a whole and education in particular. Not by chance E.V. Galazhinsky notes rigidity as a dynamizing causeless determination of self-realization. Following it, we note that mental rigidity provides the direction of personal and professional formation, determines the possibilities of changing the value-semantic content of the professional image of the world.

Fig. 4.

Severity of rigidity

Sensitive rigidity indicators, reflecting the emotional reaction to the new, to situations requiring any changes, show that 14.7% of respondents have low indicators. This indicates that in new, relevant situations, the subjects demonstrate such flexible behavior in which emotions are not able to maintain the unity of “I” and “not-I”, and therefore the meanings and values ​​that form when the psychological system interacts with the amodal world. High and ultrahigh indicators on the sensitive rigidity scale were found in 36.2% of the subjects, who are characterized by experiencing states of fear, anxiety, stress, distress, fatigue, and bad mood in new, changing circumstances. In turn, this can lead to errors in perception, memory, inadequate reactions to unexpected stimuli, and a narrowing of the volume of attention and range of actions. The data obtained by students G.V. Zalevsky’s findings are confirmed by the fact that the more a person tends to be inflexible in a state of fear and stress, the more he is dissatisfied with the lived part of life and the less able to change it on the path of progressive progressive development. It is this group of students that is prone to suppressing their own activity (humility, fear), which is an obstacle to personal readiness for innovative processes in educational and professional activities. The average indicators of sensitive rigidity are presented in 49.1% of the subjects. For this group, an adequate emotional response to situations of choice, novelty, including uncertainty is characteristic. They are able to reflect on the level of consciousness those phenomena of the world that correspond to their needs and capabilities, as they “really exist” (V.E. Klochko). Performing a system-forming function, they keep the system from decay, expanding the possibilities of enrichment and change of the multidimensional world of students changing in their value-semantic dimensions.

Indicators of installation rigidity are distributed in our sample of subjects as follows:

? High and very high levels of rigidity are characteristic for 69.8% of the subjects. Since this scale reflects the personal level of manifestation of mental rigidity, expressed in position, attitude or attitude towards acceptance - rejection of the new, the number of students who showed low and medium results is understandable. A large number of studies show that in modern socioeconomic conditions, education in many respects does not cope with the tasks of enhancing the development of the spiritual qualities of the person, the ability to holistically see the world, realize the importance of urgent social problems and interpersonal relations, and master a sense of social responsibility. Declaring these basic human categories, including in the universally introduced courses of cultural studies, philosophy, political science, sociology, psychology, etc., the processual environment stimulates a stable increase in the level of material income with a low degree of taking into account moral and ethical principles (Н .A. Khlystova, Bogatyreva M.N., A.A. Gorbachev, etc.).

? the low level of rigidity detected in 1.7% of students (moreover, in women this indicator is equal to zero), and the average (in 28.5%) allows us to consider this group of high school students as having a pronounced personal readiness for the necessary changes themselves, including their self-esteem, level of claims, expanding the image of the world. They are characterized by the presence of creative potential, innovative activity, and as a result - the "openness" of the system, which is considered by V.E. Klochko, G.V. Zalevsky and E.V. Galazhinsky as a condition of its viability and development.

Rigidity as a system-wide property and an acmeological invariant of professionalism makes it possible to predict, according to the degree of its severity, students' preferences for living environments containing various conditions and possibilities of personal-professional formation. And in conditions requiring the resolution of the main contradiction of personal-professional formation, when a multidimensional world changing in its value-semantic dimensions requires a change in the professional image of the world, rigidity acts as a body of readiness for changes in oneself.

The optimal severity of mental rigidity (installation, relevance, sensitive) provides psychological neoplasms, which are meanings and values, polymotivated activity (educational, professional), innovative activity.

High indicators of mental rigidity indicate a neglect of the possibility of progressive translational personal and professional formation, the ultimate impoverishment of the value content of consciousness.

The results obtained allow us to consider rigidity as the most important indicator of the quality of the educational process in the context of modernization, which sets the vector of progressive progressive personal and professional formation on the way to “acme”.

Since the educational environment creates conditions where the human world receives new dimensions - consciousness goes to a new level and lifestyle changes at the same time, becoming adequate to the complicating world and its awareness, and it is education that should provide man with a means to discover meaning - in studying the system-wide properties, we turned to the analysis of the meaning of life orientations of students.
Moreover, we are talking about the "student" age, the prerogative of which is not to be taken for granted, that it makes sense in life, but dare to think about it (A.T. Moskolenko, V.F. Sergeants). Thus, the educational environment as an “acme condition” for the formation of the multidimensional world of a person contributes / prevents the psychological system from reaching the level at which it becomes capable of self-development (the characteristic of “acme”), self-determination of its movement based on its own system of meanings.

The results of the study of the meaning of life orientations of students (sample - 561 people) are presented in table 5.

Table 5

Distribution of indicators of life-meaning orientations among students of higher education

The general indicator of life-meaning orientations shows that only 33.3% of male students and 38.7% of female students have a formed worldview, a greater connectedness of the structure of meaningfulness of life, higher productivity, and maturity. They are characterized by the comprehension of their own life experience, which opens up the psychological space for personal and professional development, and the formality of such characteristics of a multidimensional world as openness and meaningfulness. Above and below the norm, 66.6% of men and 61.3% of women have indicators, which indicates the difficulty of focusing on life creation, freedom of choice and responsibility, and the actualization of a sense of emptiness and meaninglessness. This group can be characterized as students with a pronounced deformation of life.

Interpretation of the results on the “Goals in Life” subscale indicates that 43% of students and 12.2% of students have life goals in the future that give meaningfulness, focus and a temporary perspective to their lives. Their semantic formations monitor life activity (B.V. Zeygarnik) and contribute to self-regulation in setting goals and in recognizing their behavior. High scores on this scale were shown by 20.8% of men and 79.2% of women. YES. Leontiev believes that such results can be achieved by both motivated people and projectors, whose plans have no real support in the present and are not supported by personal responsibility for their implementation.

Our conversations with students also show that with a clear statement of life goals - “to become a good specialist”, “to achieve professional heights”, “to be a harmonious personality”, “to earn and live with dignity”, etc. - they experience difficulties in presenting ways, means and methods of achieving their own goals. Quite often, the answers have a stereotypical, formal character - “I will look for a decent job”, “I study well”, “I go to classes in psychology”, “I already work, and when I graduate, I’ll probably be offered something interesting ”,“ I don’t know yet, but it seems to me that I will succeed ”, etc. It should be noted that students reason about the goals of the professional future in the context of possible positions. From our conversations, the desire to be an ordinary employee with a high level of professionalism, social responsibility, and a predisposition to independent creative work was not revealed. More than half of the students surveyed represent their professional future as a leader, while women seek leadership of a small team, and men seek leadership of a large department, enterprise, institution, or higher level.

Along with the pronounced projection tendency of life-meaning orientations, 36.1% of men and 8.5% of women do not think about the future; they live today or yesterday. The life orientations of these students do not include social orientations (focus on achieving the desired social position by inclusion in certain social groups), cultural orientations (adoption of certain cultural patterns) and personal orientations (representations of intimate moments of life). Consequently, they do not reveal the future and impede personal-professional formation. This way of setting goals without their own prospects may indicate social protest.

An analysis of the results on the subscript “The Process of Life”, or interest and emotional richness of life, shows that 26.4% of male students and 1.9% of female students are not satisfied with their life in the present, while they are focused on the future. From the conversations it becomes clear that all the positive expectations are in the future - “I’ll finish the university, then ...”, “Now it’s difficult for me, but then ...”, “the best is yet to come”, “I have great opportunities, and then I will find conditions for their manifestations ”, etc. More than half of the respondents (51.4% of students and 55.7% of students) are inclined to hedonism, to enjoy the present day - “I’m happy with everything, fun, healthy,” “while you can’t think about hard working days,” “I have there are many friends, and I’m fine with them ”,“ I don’t bother at all, I live and enjoy myself. ” Students with norm indicators for this subscale (43% men and 12.2% women), as a rule, choose and implement such a way of life that underlies the life strategy of creativity, i.e. consciously or unconsciously take the position of an active creator of their life. They believe that their life is interesting, emotionally satiated and filled with meaning.

Analysis of the effectiveness of life passed shows that in the main (31.9% of men and 53.8% of women have average scores on this scale, 44.4% of students and 33.0% of students have high scores), the subjects are satisfied with the length of time they passed - “ I’m studying at a prestigious university ”,“ while everything is going fine, ”“ I’m actively living a student’s life, ”“ I have many friends, ”“ the student’s life is fun and interesting, ”etc. Nevertheless, 23.6% of men and 13.2% of women are dissatisfied with their life, believing that they began to realize themselves not in the wrong areas. The opinions of these students are dominated by negative assessments, mainly of professional choice - “most likely I will not work in my specialty”, “I reassure myself that higher education is necessary everywhere”, “I plan to get another specialty”, “now it's too late change ”, etc.

Наши данные отражают региональные особенности стремлений студентов профессионально реализовываться в области профессионального обучения. Исследования в Барнаульском государственном педагогическом университете показали, что 19,5 % студентов предполагают работать после окончания вуза по другим специальностям.

Результаты по субшкале «Локус контроля – Я» свидетельствуют о том, что большинство студентов (36,1 % и 29,2 % с средними и высокими баллами соответственно в мужской выборке и 40,6 % студенток с средними и 52,8 % высокими баллами) имеют представления о себе как о сильной личности, обладающей достаточной свободой выбора, чтобы построить собственную жизнь в соответствии с поставленными целями и представлениями о смысле собственной жизни. Низкие баллы выяв лены у 34,7 % мужчин и 6,6 % женщин. Для данных студентов характерно неверие в собственные силы, они мало способны контролировать события собственной жизни.

Вторая составляющая «Локус контроля – жизнь» теста СЖО, или управляемость жизни, в высоких и средних значениях выражена у 72,2 % мужчин (20,8 % – средненормативные значения и 51,4 % – выше номы) и у 91,5 % женщин (49,1 % – средненормативные значения и 42,4 % – выше номы). Таким студентам характерно убеждение в том, что им дано контролировать свою жизнь, свободно принимать решения и воплощать их в жизнь. Высокие показатели по этой субшкале отра жают особенности возраста, когда молодое поколение не может принять на себя «неживые» взгляды, а находится в поиске, ищет ответы на во просы. Поиск требует свободного пространства, а не ограничений, им трудно находить способы примерения, отказавшись от убеждения, что они способны к самостоятельному контролю хода своей жизни.

Низкие баллы по субшкале «Локус контроля – жизнь» (27,8 % мужчин и 8,5 % женщин) свидетельствуют об убежденности студентов, что их жизнь неподвластна сознательному контролю, свобода выбора иллюзорна, и бессмысленно загадывать что-либо на будущее. Такие студенты отказываются от поисковой активности, им может быть свойственна «экзистенциальная невостребованность» (Д.А. Леонтьев).

Статистически значимые различия между мужской и женской выборками выявлены по субшкалам «Процесс» (коэффициент корреляции 4,38 при p<0,038) и «Локус контроля – Я» (коэффициент корреляции 4,20 при p<0,042). Таким образом, студенты женского пола статистиче ски достоверно в большей мере, чем мужчины воспринимают процесс собственной жизни как интересный, эмоционально насыщенный и на полненный смыслом. Также женщинам в большей мере характерны представления о том, что они обладают свободой выбора, чтобы построить свою жизнь в соответствии с целями.

В целом, характеризуя выборку студентов, можно отметить, что становление многомерного мира молодых людей в процессе профес сионального образования сопровождается собственной системой смыс ложизненных ориентаций. Студенты обладают возможностью, изменяя образ жизни, стимулировать становление многомерного мира, при этом проявляются индивидуальные особенности и темп. Они не способны адаптивно воспринимать процессы, происходящие в образо вании и обществе, ориентированы на развитие способностей и творче ское отношение к труду. Успешная карьера и связанное с этим благо состояние – ожидаемый мотив социальной активности этих студентов. При этом группа студентов, испытывающая сложности в стимулирова нии многомерного мира, сохраняет старое ценностное сознание. Их жизненная позиция не ориентирована на новые условия, что предпола гает выбор ими сред, мало способствующих реализации потенциала, сохранение стереотипов поиска в узких сферах приложения собственных личностно-профессиональных возможностей.
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