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General methodological approaches

A complex approach. The development of an integrated approach in the XX century. It turned out to be connected with the existence of polydeterministic, complexly structured objects and spheres of being. In this approach, a tendency has been expressed to increase the interaction of different fields of knowledge and sciences, and the need for interdisciplinary research. Initially, the development of an integrated approach was associated with the emergence of research areas of related sciences - biochemistry, geobiochemistry, psychophysiology. Later, in addition to these new frontier areas of knowledge, problems began to arise that encompassed various spheres of human life, not characterized by the principle of adjacency.

The development of an integrated approach that led to a new field of science - human studies, is associated with the name of B.G. Ananyeva. She responded to a clearly formulated goal - the search for a holistic approach to a person and the integration of knowledge about him in an independent field of knowledge. Comprehensive research organized and led by him met this goal. However, the desired correlations between different parameters of nature and the social essence of man were not based on a general methodological and theoretical model, they were rather ways of searching for this model. Revealing the specifics of an integrated approach in psychology, B.F. Lomov expressed the idea that the tendency of its development is associated with the identification of fundamental fundamental problems requiring a comprehensive study. A number of authors differentiate the summability function of an integrated approach, multidimensionality, and problematic.

The integrated approach in acmeology has as its main function the integration of different qualities, properties, states, modalities of human life. Thus, it can be considered as a direct continuation of the line of B.G. Ananiev on the integration of human sciences into a special field of human knowledge. However, if in human science, according to Ananiev, the basis of the complex is man, then in acmeology the basis of the complex is personality as the most complex and concrete level of human existence.

Systems approach. The development of a systematic approach expresses the main modernist trend of the 20th century, associated with the names of Bertalanffy, Ashby, Parsons (in sociology), with the development of cybernetics, semantics, sociology, psychology. The principle of systemicity was initially implicitly present in the methodologies of the corresponding sciences, expressed in the search for patterns, relationships, structures.

The development of the principle of consistency in psychology is associated with the names of L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leontiev, B. G. Ananiev, who developed his position in unity with the solution of problems of psychology. B.F. Lomov was a classic of a systems approach in Russian psychology, having implemented a certain reflection, formalizing the principle of systemicity.

The specificity of the systemic approach in acmeology is that its subject does not have a clear level structure, is an ontologically heterogeneous, but functionally unified and motivated to an optimal state system. In the general theory of systems, along with the classification into social, biological and other systems according to the criterion of the field of scientific knowledge, there is a division into artificial and natural systems. Acmeology does not deal with an artificial and not with a natural system, but with the mechanism and method of transition from a spontaneously developed state and quality of the system to optimal, from real to ideal by modeling the essence of the latter and its practical achievement.
The acmeological system has a targeted, designed simulated character. In other words, the system is not meant as a hierarchy of Levels, but the transition of the entire system, its change to an optimal, i.e., a more highly organized state.

Subjective approach. If the basis of the complex in acmeology, as was said, is personality, then the system-forming factor of the acmeological system is the subject, i.e., the personality acting as the subject. This does not mean that acmeology does not consider a person as an object, but this happens only within certain limits: research, diagnostics, and qualifications of its initial state. The subjective approach is paradigmatic for acmeology. The personality becomes the subject of perfection, both non-self-improvement and mediated by activities and acmeological technologies.

The subjective approach is the paradigm of acmeology. The principle of the subject, which has been developing for centuries with a varying degree of intensity in the history of philosophy, was actualized and developed by S.L. in domestic philosophical psychological science. Rubinstein in its multifaceted and at the same time system-forming quality. Back in the 20s. XX century he defined the subject as the center of the organization of being, showing not the parallel but the central position of man in the world. He revealed his abilities of self-development, self-determination, self-improvement. As the main feature of the subject, he singled out his ability to improve, the ability to achieve the highest, optimal level of development, ideal.

For mankind, the principle of subjectivity was expressed in the idea of ​​historical progress. The specificity of the acmeological subjective approach is primarily associated with the resolution of various kinds of contradictions. This is a contradiction between the current state, quality, level of personality development, the way it is organized and coordinated with social and ideal conditions. This is a contradiction between the abilities, personality, peculiarity, needs of a given person and the requirements of society and life, addressed to her. This is a contradiction between the genetically embodied needs of the personality, its potentialities and the measure of their implementation, the degree of self-realization that she managed to achieve. This is a contradiction between the claims and efforts of the individual and their results, etc. By resolving them, the individual reaches its maturity, the quality of the subject.

Psychosocial approach (K.A. Abulkhanova)

The essence of the psychosocial approach is to move to the object being studied not from an a priori model or theory, but from revealing the historical, social, cultural, personal determinants of its real state. The subject of psychosocial research is not an abstract personality, but a person living in a particular - Russian, French or other society, the specificity of her consciousness, determined by the historical, biographical circumstances of her life, life position, national, professional affiliation, age, gender.
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General methodological approaches

  1. General methodological and specific methodological approaches and principles in acmeology
    Plan 1. General methodological approaches in scientific research (integrated, systemic, subjective). 2. General methodological principles of scientific research (determinism, development, humanism). 3. The specific methodological principles of research in acmeology (subject of activity, life activity, potential and relevant, operational-technological, feedback). Key
  2. General methodological and specific methodological approaches and principles in acmeology
    Plan 1. General methodological approaches in scientific research (integrated, systemic, subjective). 2. General methodological principles of scientific research (determinism, development, humanism). 3. The specific methodological principles of research in acmeology (subject of activity, life activity, potential and relevant, operational-technological, feedback). Key
  3. Methodological and theoretical prerequisites for an integrated approach
    The conditions for the development of modern society (the complexity of tasks accomplished by the Armed Forces, their increased social responsibility for the fate of their homeland, the cause of peace, the declining educational and cultural level of young people drafted into the army and navy) require constant improvement of the education process. One of the most important areas of increasing its effectiveness and quality in modern conditions
  4. The main methodological approaches, means and results of military psychological research
    The determination of some initial positions in the methodological and theoretical analysis of military psychological research allows us to turn to identifying the approaches that exist in them. For a military psychologist, this problem is especially significant. Its relevance is determined, firstly, by the needs of practice. The personnel of modern army and navy units is characterized by a huge
  5. Theoretical and methodological foundations and conceptual approaches in diagnosis
    The need for diagnostic research increases in crisis and transitional states of society, when variability and inconsistency in all spheres of life is intensified. Therefore, situations of the emergence of new social phenomena, the processes of self-organization and self-determination of both society and man, the problems of internalization and intercommunicativeness are the most relevant for science
  6. Theoretical and methodological foundations and conceptual approaches in diagnosis
    The need for diagnostic research increases in crisis and transitional states of society, when variability and inconsistency in all spheres of life is intensified. Therefore, situations of the emergence of new social phenomena, the processes of self-organization and self-determination of both society and man, the problems of internalization and intercommunicativeness are the most relevant for science
  7. Methodological principles and approaches in acmeology
    Methodological principles and approaches in
  8. Methodological principles and approaches in acmeology
    Methodological principles and approaches in
  9. Methodological approaches to the treatment of ischemic strokes in the acute period
    The etiotropic orientation of therapy in this period is not always justified. It is clear that, for example, the introduction of drugs that lower cholesterol affects one of the important causes of strokes - atherosclerosis. However, cholesterol levels are reduced for months, and patients die from ischemic cerebral edema within a few hours or days. Antihypertensive therapy in the acute period of stroke
  10. Some methodological approaches to assessing the quality of care
    The changes that have occurred in domestic medicine in recent years relate not only to the results of scientific and technological progress, but also to certain moral problems. For many years, the thesis that everyone has access to all the best that medicine has to offer has dominated everywhere. However, over time, interests began to shift to the issues of resources and the cost of treatment, standardization
  11. Gender Therapy: General Approaches
    As stated in Chapter 1, gender psychology does not attach much importance to detecting differences between the psychological characteristics of men and women, substantiating the feasibility of complementing male and female social roles, and confirming ideas about traditional standards of masculinity and femininity for the formation of the “correct” gender identity. As part of a gender approach in
  12. General laws of the functioning of the psyche as methodological foundations of human developmental psychology
    In modern developmental psychology, there are various approaches to understanding human nature and defining fundamental principles. Of course, for the domestic psychological science, the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity remains one of the most fundamental provisions. Actually, the very understanding of the essence of a person’s mental development is based on this provision introduced in
  13. General approaches to standardization in healthcare
    The concepts of standards or standards for the quality of medical care for the population underlie the methods of analysis of the ILC. Standards can be expressed in different ways, and have a sufficient number of modifications depending on what elements (components, aspects, parameters, etc.) of the medical care system are measured, in which order, in what way, what is the relationship between what measured and by the fact that
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