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“Optimization of acmeological formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of subjects of education”

The sixth chapter reveals the content of the phenomena “acmeological formation” and “acmeological development”, analyzes the conditions and factors of acmeological formation and the development of multi-ethnic competence of educational subjects, develops ways to optimize ethnic potential through acmeological programs for all participants in the educational process (pupils and their parents, students, future education specialists, teachers).

Amkeological formation is considered as a process of assimilation by a person of acmeological and ethnopsychological attitudes, values, traditions that allow a person to adequately adapt and function productively in a multi-ethnic environment. Acmeological development is understood as a natural, directed qualitative change and personality formation. In ethnoacmeology, acmeological development programs are aimed not only and not so much at professional achievements, but at the development of multi-ethnic enlightenment, the competence of subjects of education.

It is noted that the ethnic unity of any nation is connected with the commonality of its psyche (A.P. Sadokhin, T.G. Grushevitskaya), and the psychological characteristics of representatives of different ethnic groups cannot but affect the interaction and communication in the field of education. The conditions of acmeological development of subjects of fundamental education, which include a multi-ethnic environment, social demand in polyprofessionals, the presence of acmeology programs focused on multi-ethnic education of future education specialists in universities and advanced training courses, as well as in schools for educational subjects of all ages, are examined in detail.

Ethno-acmeological factors affecting the effectiveness of the author’s system of education specialist activity were identified and described: 1. Expert knowledge of the psychology of child development and the multi-ethnic laws of the collective life of the class, taking into account the age and individual and ethnic characteristics of students. 2. Reflective-perceptive abilities of a teacher to design situations of interpersonal interaction. 3. Highly / sufficiently developed emotional intelligence and ethnic tolerance. 4. Factors of acmeological development of subjects of multiethnic education include the learning process, ethnic relationships, pedagogical professional activity as meta-activity.

It is noted that the main task of the author's acmeological programs is to develop and consolidate in the person’s self-consciousness as a representative of a certain ethnic group the demanded need for self-knowledge, self-development and self-creation.

Based on the theoretical and empirical research, a scientific and practical platform and acmeological programs for all subjects of education have been developed and adapted.

The scientific and practical platform “Polyethnic competence in elementary school” (n = 27) has as its goal: the development of ideas about the diversity of ethnocultures in children and teachers, the development of cooperation skills and ethnic tolerance; creation of prerequisites for the upbringing of the younger generation on a non-violent basis, respect for the rights and dignity of other people, on the basis of civil-patriotic education. The program is designed for 3 years of education in elementary school (grades 1-3).

The aim of the acmeological program "Ethnic Tolerance of a Primary School Student" was to familiarize with the concepts of "tolerance", "tolerant personality", "ethnic tolerance"; discussion of manifestations of tolerance and intolerance in society, development of practical skills of ethnic interaction.

The effectiveness of acmeological programs in elementary school is confirmed by the following results: the most positive changes occurred in the tendency to ethnorelativism, since 24 children (85.1%) (against 74% at the beginning of the experiment) demonstrate positive ethnic identity associated with the recognition of equality and self-worth each ethnic group, and in the behavioral aspect - show ethnic tolerance when interacting with each other, in the establishment of interethnic contacts. Primary school students also “softened” their positions on ethnic dominance (6 people (22.2%) before the start and 3 people (7.4%) after the end of the experiment), which demonstrates a departure from the negative tendency to subordinate, suppress representatives of others ethnic groups. The increase along the axis of assimilation towards ethnoconformism is due to the fact that 2 people appeared in a group of schoolchildren of other nationalities, who thus demonstrate an uncritical readiness to obey the majority and accept the norms of the Russian culture in whose territory they live. Mathematical processing of the results of the study of ethnic identity trends before and after the experiment was carried out using the sign criterion G (McNemara criterion): Gemp = 0, Gcr = 3 (at p? 0.01); Gemp <Gcr. Consequently, a shift towards positive ethnic trends can be considered reliable.

Thus, the analysis of the results showed that the implementation of the acmeological program for the development of multi-ethnic competence and ethnic tolerance of younger students has a positive result. The study proved the feasibility of introducing into the educational process of the elementary school the programs “Polyethnic competence in elementary school” and “Ethnic tolerance of a primary school student”.

In order to develop the ethnic tolerance of adolescents, an acmeological program was developed, which is designed for 5-6 meetings of 4 hours each and includes methods of socio-psychological and acmeological training, a cultural assimilator. The acmeological program “Ethnic tolerance of adolescents” (n = 23) has as its goal the development of resistance to conflicts and behavioral deviations, adherence to the rules of communication with cultural values, awareness of the unversality of basic human values ​​and ideals, development of a high level of social trust, adequate forms of behavior (self-knowledge and the ability to tolerate information about others from oneself), observation, the ability to provide and receive signs of attention. When implementing the program, the psychophysiological characteristics of the adolescent period were taken into account.

Based on the results of applying the acmeological program Ethnic Tolerance of Adolescents, an assessment was made of the characteristics of the manifestation of psychological qualities of the individual before and after the program, aimed at integrating adolescents into a multi-ethnic environment and developing their ethnic identity. The results demonstrate the positive changes that are observed in the tendency towards ethnorelativism (from 67% to 77.2%) and a decrease in the percentage of respondents who show a tendency towards ethno-dominance (from 23.7% to 16.2%).

The positive effect of the classes is also evidenced by the conversations with the subjects and their questionnaires conducted at their end. Without exception, all adolescents showed interest in the issues of tolerance - intolerance, noted the relevance of this topic in everyday multi-ethnic communication. During the classes, the discussion of issues of discrimination and human rights, the ethnosocial specifics of the Pskov region, and the establishment of socio-economic and cultural contacts, primarily with countries of Northern and Western Europe, aroused particular interest. The results showed that many teenagers believe that everyone is tolerant and that this quality needs to be educated in people. An important event of the acmeological program, in the opinion of the subjects, was a joint discussion of specific interaction situations (cultural assimilator), which helped to reveal the person, better know themselves and their communication partner, and the classes held, as the program participants noted, were really very useful and can to be useful in adulthood, in real communication.
Thus, the results of the study suggest that acmeological programs are an effective means of adolescent personality development.

The aim of the acmeological program “Ethnic Tolerance of Parents” was: the development of adequate ideas of parents about different cultures and psychological characteristics of their carriers, the development of a positive ethnic identity, the realization of one's own role in broadcasting and reinforcing ethnic stereotypes, increased sensitivity to the manifestation of ethnic and racial discrimination, coping with stress , life crises and conflicts in ethnic relations, increasing the level of self-awareness and responsibility as for their own mortar, and for the actions of their children.

The analysis of empirical data showed that the effectiveness of the acmeological program “Ethnic Tolerance of Parents”, first of all, was manifested by the deactivation of the participants in the program of ethnic hypo-and hyperidentity. A significant decrease in indicators was obtained on the scales of ethno-isolationism (from 13 to 9 points for Russians, from 9 to 7 points for representatives of other nationalities), ethno-egoism (from 14 to 11 points and 7 to 4 points, respectively), national fanaticism (from 12 to 7 points for Russians and 11 to 7 points for representatives of other ethnic groups), ethnonihilism (from 13 to 10 points for Russians and from 8 to 7 for parents of other nationalities). The dynamics of ethno-trends of parents is presented in Fig. 15.

Fig. 15.

Dynamics of ethnic trends in parents before and after completion of the program (n = 27)

During the implementation of the acmeological program, efforts were aimed at developing parents' multi-ethnic competence, including the development of both intercultural communication skills and sociocultural strategies to overcome the inevitable ethnic conflicts; development of a positive attitude towards one's and other ethnic groups; development of social susceptibility, trust, empathy, ability to listen to another person; training in intercultural understanding and tolerant behavior in multi-ethnic relations. Of course, it should be borne in mind that the level of tolerance for parents is a derivative of a large number of factors - the media, the activities of public authorities, the dynamics of relations between ethnic groups, etc. In fact, a decrease in hypo- and hyperidentical tendencies in the ethnic identity of the program participants contributed to the development of conflict-free multi-ethnic interaction and tolerance. The statistical significance of differences in mean values ​​was checked using Student's t-test at p = 0.05.

Thus, the program “Ethnic Tolerance of Parents” plays an important role in the development of a positive ethnic identity and ethno-tolerant attitude of parents. Since it is the family that lays the foundation for the multi-ethnicity of the child, it is necessary to optimize the parental position as subjects of a multi-ethnic education.

The study allowed us to determine the psychological and pedagogical conditions for the development of multiethnic competence in the process of studying at the university students, future education specialists, which served as the basis for the development of a passport of professional intra-university multiethnic competence: "The ability and willingness to multiethnic interaction, self-improvement and self-correction in a multiethnic environment." Based on this competency, an acmeological program for the development of professional multi-ethnic competence “Ethnic Youth Tolerance” was developed. The analysis of the effectiveness of the program was carried out: the data obtained in the experimental group qualitatively differ from the results of the control group, which indicates the effectiveness of the inclusion of an acmeological program that develops the experience of ethnic tolerance, based on taking into account both individual-personality and cultural-cognitive and behavioral characteristics of students as future central subjects of the educational process, contributes to the formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of future specialists in education vania.

The development of multiethnic competence of students during their studies at the university is a complex process involving the planned development of all its components. In order to comprehensively develop the multiethnic competence of students, the Psychology Department of Pskov State Pedagogical University was developed and introduced into the work of CM. Kirov following author’s programs: 1) The discipline "Acmeological development of the personality of the future education specialist"; 2) Acmeological training of coping behavior in multi-ethnic interaction; 3) Acmeological training of emotional intelligence; 4) Round table "Ethnic tolerance in modern education." The effectiveness of the implementation of these programs in the learning process of students is proved by statistical-mathematical methods.

An analysis of the results of the developmental experiment showed that the respondents in the experimental group compared with the respondents in the control group experienced significant changes in the main indicators characterizing the level of development of multi-ethnic competence. The reliability of the results was determined by t-student test. A comparative analysis of the results of the development of multi-ethnic competence of students is presented in table 2.

Table 2.

The level of development of multi-ethnic competence among respondents in the experimental and control groups (in%, n = 57)

Positive changes in the level of development of multiethnic competency were noted to a greater extent in such structural components as emotional-volitional, differential psychological and socio-psychological competencies. It can be stated that academic education in universities does not have a specific focus on the development of multiethnic competence and its emotional-volitional potential, on the formation of an ethnocultural mentality and coping behavior in the field of multiethnic interaction. In the learning process, according to the author’s programs (elective discipline, trainings), students developed a high level of all the components of multi-ethnic competence. These indicators are statistically significant (Fig. 16).

Acmeological programs for education specialists have been developed and implemented in the framework of continuing education: “Ethnic tolerance of education specialists”, special seminar: “Acmeological development of personality in multi-ethnic education”, round tables “Ethnic tolerance in modern education”, “Development of the teacher’s emotional intelligence”, etc. , individual consultations of educational specialists on the problems of multi-ethnicity were held.


The dynamics of the personal properties of students in the experimental group before and after acmeological training (n = 22)

It can be concluded that the effectiveness of the implementation of the author’s system of activity has been empirically confirmed, they can be used in education as effective means of optimizing the formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of subjects of education.
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“Optimization of acmeological formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of subjects of education”

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