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PERSPECTIVE ACMEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS: SITUATIVE-PERSONAL-ACTIVITY CONCEPT AND CONCEPT OF CUMMULATIVE FACTOR CAUSES

The construction of acmeological testing systems, personality studies is based on a number of theoretical principles and concepts.

The most important of these is the concept of cumulative factor factors and the situational-personal-activity concept. The connection between them is the closest. The concept of cumulative factor factors comes from the fact that determinism in psychology is based both on the cumulation of various, sometimes subtle, factors in a particular act of mental reflection, and on relatively homogeneous, fairly strong individual influences (factors): a combination, the ratio of cumulative and factor causes forms the causal field of development of mental phenomena, the functioning of the personality as a whole.

Cumulative causes in their micro-influences are diverse both in time and in space. Factor reasons are updated in a specific situation. But outside the framework of this situation, previously actualized factor causes do not disappear, but, as it were, “removed” go into the category of cumulative, as they settle in the mental, especially in the unconscious.

Thus, cumulative factors and factors have the property, as it were, to pass into each other through specific situations of activity.

The situational-personal-activity concept of personality behavior is multifaceted. It incorporates a personal, activity-oriented approach in psychology, as well as a situational analysis of specific acts of an individual, specific acts of her behavior.

In psychology, the idea that human behavior is determined by the qualities of his personality has long been in the scientific community.

At the level of common sense, this can hardly be denied, to a large extent it is. However, this is not enough. A person’s behavior is also determined by the situation in which he finds himself, and the nature of his activity both before this situation and in it.

And what is surprising: if we take exact mathematical methods and measure the degree of dependence of a person’s behavior on his personal qualities and other factors (situation, activity), then the variability of a person’s behavior is largely explained not by his personal qualities, but by their relationship with these other factors.

So, the most developed acmeological testing systems give prognostic validity at the level of O, 7, no more. Even the most time-consuming mathematical, methodological tricks do not raise the accuracy of the forecast when it comes to a long-term forecast (several years), personality behavior in various conditions, situations of activity. And apparently, in order to predict the behavior of a person under various conditions of activity, this validity is somewhere at the limit of possible accuracy, how a person’s behavior depends not only on his personal qualities, but also on the situations in which he falls and on what kind of activity he he will choose how successful this activity will be in this situation.

In general, the prognostic validity at the O, 7 level is quite high. With such validity, it is possible to create automated acmeological systems of professional psychological selection. Suffice it to say that in most cases, the validity of test batteries for certain professional activities varies at best around O, 2-O, 3. And yet, even the predictive validity of O, 7 gives a determination coefficient (the value of the correlation coefficient squared) less than O, 5. And this suggests that a person’s behavior (in this case, professional activity) is less than 50% dependent on the forecast based on the study of his personality traits, it depends more on the ratios of the situation of the activity the person has fallen into, on the strategy, the type of activity that he chose in this situation and his personal characteristics.

Activity is a powerful system-forming factor in personal characteristics of a person.
The personal qualities of a person have the properties to be rebuilt in different ways, to change their systems depending on the chosen goal, and the meaning-forming motives of activity. And it would seem that from the same initial bricks (personality traits) in each specific situation, in each new type of activity, a slightly different behavior is born. Not only the personality gives rise to certain situations, but also situations modify the personality, determine the variability of its behavior.

Therefore, the forecast for success in certain types of activities should be stipulated in which typical situations this forecast is likely to come true, and in which not. So with an increased pride of a person and a high predisposition to a particular professional activity, success can be predicted if the bosses, the leader does not hurt the pride of this person. If it hurts painfully, then to be confident in the success of professional activity in such situations is simply risky.

But such combinations of personality traits and situations that sharply reduce the effectiveness of a particular activity of a person can be mass. However, this combination lends itself to rational reflection, analysis, formalization, including in expert systems. So we developed an expert system that, based on the test results, can predict in which situations the reliability of a given professional is reduced in relation to the company and its management. For some this can happen in a situation of infringement of pride, for others in a situation of psychological pressure, suggestion from competitors, in the third - in a situation of increased mental tension, in the fourth - in a situation of complex intellectual stress, etc. etc.

The ratio of diverse situations and personal characteristics of a person makes the prognosis of a person’s professional activity more accurate, more specific. This is especially important with typical human accentuations, which are difficult to modify, get around, and compensate for with other personality traits.

Thus, a qualitative increase in the accuracy of the forecast of professional activities is associated not only (and sometimes not so much) with the prediction of a professional disposition, the diagnosis of professionally important personality traits, but also with the isolation of a circle of situations that reduce the effectiveness of the professional activity of a given individual. By choosing this or that strategy, tactics of activity, a specific professional can mitigate or strengthen his shortcomings and advantages, but in principle one cannot be equally resistant to the most diverse situations of professional activity.

In a situation, the factor and cumulative causes of the development and functioning of the mental are, as it were, activated. The combination of stable personality traits with typical situations gives rise to factor factors that make their own adjustments to the success of a person’s professional activity, in a forecast based on the effect of cumulative reasons. Therefore, a forecast based on the effect of cumulative factor factors involves not only an analysis of the past in the individual, not only an account of its potential qualities, but also an analysis of the present, a situational analysis of its activities. Naturally, an unlimited number of situations in which each person actually falls makes any analysis in this area limited. The personality is an open system, the development of the personality as a system does not depend only on the personality itself, human behavior is ultimately the effect of the interaction of the personal and situational, cumulative and factor. The development of acmeology in this direction is the most promising and expedient.
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PERSPECTIVE ACMEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS: SITUATIVE-PERSONAL-ACTIVITY CONCEPT AND CONCEPT OF CUMMULATIVE FACTOR CAUSES

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