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Approaches to the study of human life

The first (and earliest) idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of man emphasized the uniqueness of the individual.

The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances.

The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as an age periodization of a person’s life, common to all people.

The fourth - emphasized the decisive role of childhood (and sexual relations with parents) (Z. Freud and others) or the role of the innate need for self-actualization (S. Buhler, A. Maslow and others), which determines the personality and its life path. At the same time, Buhler makes an attempt to present the life path as a regular process - an “individual history” and singles out external and internal events as its units. But, bypassing the personality, she was not able to connect them.

Fifth - the most vividly represented by the epigenetic concept of E. Erickson - revealed the features of personality development and neoplasm that arise in each age period through the resolution of eight crises associated with it. However, Erickson also recognizes the role of psychosocial, cultural, historical and social conditions, and determines the development of personality through methods of interaction with an ever-expanding circle of people and the context of life.

The sixth approach is associated with the development of B.P. Ananiev, a category of "life cycle", is valuable by the desire to combine age and social periodization (mature age is represented by the roles, status, professional career) of an individual's life. Including the latter in the historical context and events, methods of upbringing, etc., B. Pananiev investigated the regular complex relationships of the development of various mental functions, considered the personality as a system inscribed in the social system and the systems of social groups. His approach is distinguished by its empirical nature and the introduction into the field of psychology and psychologists of the problems of an adult personality (since most of the specific studies of the personality had as their object the personality of a child), its maturity, the achievement of its peaks in its life - acme, the disclosure of personality as the highest level of development, and finally , the inclusion (recognition) of the problem of old age as a regular stage of human life, requiring its study and understanding (since the concept of gerontology in domestic science is practically tstvovalo). He highlighted the interesting stages of youthful “start” and “finish” achieved in old age.

Ideas B.G. Ananyeva about the personality of an adult, about maturity as its special quality, about acme as its highest achievements in life, opened the prospect of the emergence of a modern complex scientific discipline - acmeology. It integrates all the concepts of the individual level of human being - "individual", "personality", "individuality", "subject" - setting as its task the optimization of human development in all qualities.
An important role in the future was played by his selection as special forms of human activity, the concepts of "subject of activity", "subject of knowledge", "subject of life." Paying attention to the development of man as an individual, he made a fundamental distinction between human and animal biology, the laws of the higher nervous activity of which were transferred by I.P. Pavlov and his followers directly on the person (for example, the second signaling system).

The seventh approach is qualitatively different from the previous ones, because, firstly, the personality itself is not defined as isolated, cash, given substantively, but continually, that is, in the space-time of the life path, its contradictions and ways to solve them; self-expression and self-actualization are two of the most important characteristics of a personality. This is a way of objectification of personality in forms and circumstances, contradictions of life. In other words, a person is what she managed to make herself out of the given life conditions, and life is what she managed to make a person of her with her efforts, will and consciousness, contrary to life circumstances. Two methods of determination and organization are inherent in a personality as a developing system - objective, independent of it, and subjective, inherent in it as a subject.

The life path itself is considered not indifferently (according to one or another theoretical model of one or another psychologist), but depending on the personality, level of its activity, consciousness, its personality maturity, responsibility, ability to make decisions and organize time. The person chooses the direction (sphere) of the life path, changes its direction, organizes and coordinates its events and situations.

S.L. Rubinstein develops the concept of "subject of life's journey", which (only under certain conditions) acts as a person. If the life path is traditionally divided into the past, present and future, then the personality as a subject has the ability to connect them in a certain way with his consciousness, experience and actions. The criteria of a person as a subject of life are:

1) the ability to coordinate internal organization and conditions, requirements, circumstances of life. This is the way of life, developed and implemented by the subject in accordance with their individual typological characteristics;

2) the ability to optimally resolve life contradictions and develop as a personal result of these decisions;

3) the ability to move along the life path "ascending", that is, to development as improvement.
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Approaches to the study of human life

  1. Approaches to the study of human life
    The first (and earliest) (idiographic approach to life as a fate independent of a person emphasized the uniqueness of a person). The second - (biographical), close to the first in its phenomenological descriptive character, also revealed a unique ensemble of life circumstances. The third (ontogenetic) - has developed in age psychology as age-related periodization of life
  2. "Acme" in the context of human life
    Plan 1. Approaches to the study of human life. 2. The structure of the life path. 3. Personality as a subject of life. 4. Higher achievements ("acme") in the life path of a person. Keywords: life path, life position, life line, life perspective, the meaning of life, personality as a subject of the life path, life strategy, “acme”. - life path - concept,
  3. "Acme" in the context of human life
    Plan 1. Approaches to the study of human life. 2. The structure of the life path. 3. Personality as a subject of life. 4. Higher achievements ("acme") in the life path of a person. Keywords: life path, life position, life line, life perspective, the meaning of life, personality as a subject of the life path, life strategy, “acme”. - life path - concept,
  4. Self-actualization in the context of a person’s life path
    Having examined the history of development, the structure and the main elements of the theory of self-actualization, as well as some theoretical and practical problems associated with this theory and its practice, it is necessary to dwell on the question of the place of the process of self-actualization in a person’s life path. We will be interested in the general characteristics of a person’s life path and the meaning of the concepts used for his
  5. Acmeological approach to the study of man as a subject of development and self-development
    High professionalism and creative skill in its implementation by a variety of specialists is the main human resource, which becomes the most important factor in the optimal solution of pressing problems. In this sociocultural context, acmeology, a new integratively complex science, is of particular importance. It is she who studies the laws and technologies of the development of such peaks
  6. Sociological (cultural) approach to the study of human mental development
    Socium as an explanatory principle in the French sociological school. The founder of the sociological trend in psychology is considered to be E. Durkheim. His work had a serious impact on the development of psychological research on the relationship between the individual and society. He assigned a decisive role in the development of the child to a social factor, the basis of which is collective representation
  7. Phenomenology and content of the concept of life perspective as a component of psychological time and life path of an individual
    The problem of “life prospects” has become a subject of study in connection with the theoretical and practical development of the scientific problems of psychological time and the life path of an individual. The study of this problem provides an opportunity to look at how an individual perceives and represents his future, how this future is related to the past and present, what place the future holds in the subjective
  8. Bioeconomic approach to the study of the problem of the extreme state of the human body
    Clinicians' appeal to fundamental generalizing categories is motivated by the search for effective ways to solve practical problems. Serious thoughts at the bedside of a seriously ill patient inevitably lead to the conclusion that a certain unifying approach to the analysis of a multi-level disability is necessary. And this approach is persistently associated with the depletion of the internal thermodynamic potential,
  9. Life path structure
    The structure of the life path is its certain qualitative characteristics that express the way the person functions in life. We consider it controversial to divide the life path into individual quanta of “events”, in which their connection with the personality, their dependence on the personality and their influence on the personality are lost, the connection between external and internal events is not captured. As a result, the life path is depicted
  10. Life path structure
    The structure of the life path is its certain qualitative characteristics that express the way the person functions in life. We consider it controversial to divide the life path into individual quanta of “events”, in which their connection with the personality, their dependence on the personality and their influence on the personality are lost, the connection between external and internal events is not captured. As a result, the life path is depicted
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