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Understanding of autopsychological competence in the context of subject and personality problems

Despite the fact that the concept of autopsychological competence was introduced into psychological and acmeological theory and practice relatively recently, the circle of related problems (self-development, self-control, self-realization, etc.) was traditionally considered in the context of studying the personality of a professional (N.V. Kuzmina, A . A. Derkach, T. A. Egorova, A. S. Guseva, R. L. Krichevsky, A. K. Markov, N. S. Glukhanyuk, V. A. Slastenin, V. V. Leshin). The theoretical and methodological basis for the formulation of the problem of developing autopsychological competence is a complex of representations that reveal the concepts of subject and personality in psychology (S.L. Rubinstein, K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, A.V. Brushlinsky, L.I. Antsiferova, A.N. Leontiev, K.K. Platonov, A.G. Kovalev and others) and acmeology (A.A. Bodalev, A.A. Derkach, E.A. Klimov, V.G. Aseev, O.S. Anisimov , S.A. Anisimov, A.S. Guseva, V.G. Zazykin, R.L. Krichevsky, A.K. Markova, N.V. Kuzmina, A.A. Rean, I.N.Semenov, M .F.Sekach, S.Yu. Stepanov, E.A. Yablokova and others).

In modern psychology, the concept of the subject is considered in two basic meanings - to indicate the optimal levels, stages of improvement in the development of the personality, to determine its specific quality, in which it appears in each special system of connections and relationships (subject of activity, communication subject, etc.). The methodological basis of the analysis of autopsychological competence (AK) of a person should be an understanding of the subject, associated with his activity, initiative, self-development, self-determination.

From the point of view of the organization’s perfection, the category of the subject reflects a certain continuum, scale, space formed by two, and not one, poles - from the real, often completely non-optimal to the ideal, optimal way of organizing. The subject's activity unfolds precisely in this space - from the present, real (or, say, completely destructive) way of organizing to the ideal, optimal. In this sense, the subject constantly solves the problem of improvement (self-improvement), and this is his human specificity and the constantly renewed task. Thus, the understanding of the subject as a self-developing system is one of the important methodological grounds for developing the problem of developing autopsychological competence of a person.

The second characteristic feature of the subject is that his essence is associated not only with harmony, orderliness, integrity, but also with the resolution of the contradiction between the complex living system that he represents, including his goals, motives, claims (if we talk about the personal level) and even the structure of his body, body (if we talk about the organismic, individual level) and objective (social, technical, etc.) systems. The subject is active not because needs drive his activity, but because he resolves the contradiction between his needs and capabilities, conditions, etc. of their satisfaction. In order to resolve this contradiction, the subject and develops a certain way of organizing, including their activities. The system of organization of the subject itself is represented not only by its values, goals, attitudes and inner world. It includes its natural and individual organization, which has advantages and limitations inherent in everyone (limited speed of movements, nervous processes, etc.), or only for this individual (for example, poor memory, fatigue, weak will, etc.) . The task of the subject in the broadest sense of the word is to bring (in relative limits, of course) his capabilities and limitations with the requirements and conditions of activity, which he does in order to resolve the contradictions between his organization system and the system of work organization, profession, given workplace, and etc.

Even if the subject is a personality and an individual with a kind of ideal organization - excellent health, physique, stamina, the presence of abilities, will, determination, etc., this does not mean that the contradiction is removed: in this case, he may encounter such a system of objective conditions themselves, in which he cannot find his place. Thus, the very theoretical definition of the subject as a way of organizing or as a system of organization is based on a contradiction - the mismatch of its capabilities and limitations of the objective sphere, the system in which it should operate labor, communication, personal life, etc. As a subject of activity, of communication or cognition, he solves this basic contradiction, which develops in each of the mentioned areas from a multitude of real contradictions and acts very specifically.

This methodological position underlies the applied aspects of the development of the problem of autopsychological competence and is associated with the analysis of the specifics of its manifestations in the context of various types of professional activity, including the activities of civil servants. Proceeding from this, we consider autopsychological competence as one of the important factors in the formation of the subjective characteristics of a professional: subjectively convenient working conditions (in the formation of an individual style of activity); optimal internal states in the cognitive, emotional, behavioral sphere; in highlighting the substructures of the "I" responsible for self-improvement. In particular, in the opinion of Yu.V. Sinyagin, the expansion of the range of subjectivity (self-actualization) occurs due to the expansion of organizational and managerial structures, which include a professional. In other words, the organizational and official level of a professional is an indicator of the effectiveness of his self-realization.

Let's consider it in more detail. In acmeology, the paradigm of the developing subject is realized, which implies consideration not only of adaptive (to activity) options for its self-development, but non-adaptive, providing for the subject to go beyond the usual activities. In the context of such a consideration of the personality, the problem of the individual style of activity is formulated as a special one that distinguishes different subjects of the way it is carried out. Style acts as a specific psychological mechanism for adapting a person’s individuality to environmental conditions and requirements and has three-factor determination: actualized individual individual characteristics; organization of components of joint professional activity; organization of interactions of subjects. It has three hierarchical levels: "subjectively comfortable conditions of activity", "SUUD" "structure" - "type of organization of activity" (TOD) and two poles: "subjectively convenient, preferred" - "subjectively uncomfortable, rejected" components and conditions.
The mechanism of the functioning of the style is the search for the optimum pairing (balancing) of a person’s individuality with the environment with constant restructuring in the space of two poles. At the same time, the most stable, conservative characteristic of the style is "SUUD", the most variable, flexible - "TOD". In this context, autopsychological competence acts as one of the important mechanisms for the formation of an individual style of activity, providing not only awareness and improvement of subjectively convenient working conditions, but also flexibility in balancing individuality with the environment (see Section 1).

Scheme 1.

Autopsychological competence as a mechanism for the formation of an individual style of activity





Modern developments in the field of personality psychology, made in line with the applied areas of psychotherapy and psychocorrection, as well as traditions of studying personality in Western psychology, lie in the context of understanding the subject and personality as a self-fulfilling system. Understanding the multiple nature of the "I" is traditional for Western psychology of personality (for example, C. Rogers defines the "I" as a "structured, consistent gestalt" containing the I-real and I-ideal). The idea of ​​the plurality of “I” determines the understanding of the ambiguity, inconsistency of behavior and personality development, which sets a new vector for the analysis of its activity, where adaptability is only one of the factors, along with the factors of transformation, overcoming, etc. of the environment. Non-adaptability as the main characteristic of personality subjectivity is emphasized by V.A. Petrovsky.

From this point of view, the concept of subpersonalities presented in a number of modern psychological theories seems to be interesting: psychosynthesis, neuro-linguistic programming, gestalt psychology, etc. (R. Assagioli, M. Ruffler, V. Satir, R. Perls and others). This concept continues the traditions of Western psychology in the study of personality, formulated in the framework of the problem of self-concept. W. James was the first to propose a dual model of the integral "I", combining the I-conscious (I) and the I-like-object (Me). Further development of the problem of self-concept took place in two directions: socio-psychological (Ch. Cooley, J. Mead, R. Burns), which emphasized the importance of communication and interaction as the main source of knowledge about your own "I"; psychoanalytic (E. Berne, C. Rogers), considering the self-concept through the prism of ego-identity, self-development and self-realization. The concept of subpersonalities is developed within the framework of the polycentric theory of personality, where the "I" of the subject is multidimensional. For example, the Assagioli psychosynthetic model of consciousness implies the existence of a "I" and a "transpersonal I" that has the function of an observer. The publicities that are manifestations of the "I" may be influenced by this observer. Such influence is possible through conscious identification and identification with their subpersonalities. This process involves taking responsibility for the conscious choice and direction of one's vital energy in a new direction.

Publicity is defined as a psychodynamic structure, which, having become quite complex, tends to independent existence. She has her own characteristics, requires an independent existence and tries to satisfy her own needs and desires through the personality. This is a semi-permanent and semi-autonomous area of ​​the personality that can act as a personality. Publicities are psychological companions that simultaneously exist as many different lives. Each subpersonality has its own style and its own motivation, different from the others. Moreover, each subpersonality is organized around the needs of a holistic personality. The power of subpersonality, apparently, is the result of those circumstances that gave rise to the very need. Every human being is a diverse mixture of individual subpersonalities.

This concept confirms the idea that a person as an active subject implements not only adaptive (within the framework of one or another activity) behavior, but also initiated by various "components" of his personality (subpersonalities, as stable psychodynamic systems, independent and capable of carrying out their own behavior) non-adaptive behavior and appears as a self-fulfilling subject.

So, the concept of subpersonality, which is common to a number of the most recognized applied psychocorrectional areas in psychology (gestalt psychology, psychosynez, transactional analysis), allows us to talk about the presence of not one, but several foci (points) of activity within a single subject. This, in turn, creates the need for internal regulation of the processes of intrapersonal structuring, restructuring and synthesis, which determines the dynamics of the internal activity of the subject.

Thus, the principle of a self-fulfilling subject is an important theoretical basis for developing the problem of the development of AK personality. Further development of the idea of ​​the self-concept in modern psychology, expressed in the concept of subpersonality as an autonomous dynamic substructure of the self, allows us to come close to understanding that autopsychological competence is the result of the subject's internal self-transforming activity, which has its own mental processes and resources. The active beginning of this activity is one of the personality substructures (subpersonality), which occupies the dialogical position of “out-of-placeness” (the term of M. M. Bakhtin) in relation to other subpersonalities (I-controller, I-observer, etc.), which has the corresponding motivation (focus on self-development), and owning the necessary arsenal of psychological tools for self-improvement. It is clear that the selection of such a personal substructure, characterized by its own activity, involves giving it the status of a subject of self-transforming activity. The absence of this kind of substructure (subpersonality) in the personality structure means the absence of the subject of self-transforming activity and, accordingly, the impossibility of functioning and implementation of this activity itself, which leads to autopsychological incompetence.
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Understanding of autopsychological competence in the context of subject and personality problems

  1. The essence of autopsychological competence as a way to develop “acme” in the context of personality
    One of the main psychological conditions for activating a person’s personal potential is his autopsychological competence, which provides optimal models of self-organization of life and professional activity. The study of autopsychological competence involves obtaining answers to a number of questions. What is the algorithm for knowing yourself, what you need to know about yourself and to what extent?
  2. The essence of autopsychological competence as a way to develop “acme” in the context of personality
    One of the main psychological conditions for activating a person’s personal potential is his autopsychological competence, which provides optimal models of self-organization of life and professional activity. The study of autopsychological competence involves obtaining answers to a number of questions. What is the algorithm for knowing yourself, what you need to know about yourself and to what extent?
  3. Autopsychological competence in the personality structure of a professional
    As a factor in successful professionalization, autopsychological competence provides the concentration of individual experience to solve professional problems. Optimization of internal capabilities occurs in the process of self-transforming activities, included in the context of solving professional problems. The subject of professional activity takes possession of his individual and personal
  4. Genesis of the study of the problem of autopsychological competence of an individual
    The methodology of acmeology is based on a set of ideas about the value of a person, his spiritual world, ability to creativity and self-improvement. Achieving tops in the profession and life is due to various factors. A huge role in this is given to the role of a person’s own efforts, his personal maturity, subjective activity. However, despite the fact that desire and potential abilities
  5. Criteria of autopsychological competence in the field of professional self-development, self-determination, self-realization and self-actualization of a person
    In acmeology, the achievement of professionalism is inextricably linked with personal and professional development. In the process of personal and professional development, progressive structural changes of the personality occur: the circle of interests and the change in the system of needs expand; motives of achievement are updated; the need for self-realization and self-development is growing; Creativity of the person increases.
  6. The interdependence between the development of autopsychological competence and the development of subjectivity, as a person’s ability to self-development
    The most general pattern of AK development reflects its influence and relationship with the development of the subject as the creator of his own activity. This relationship is expressed in the fact that, acting as the subject of the development of the experience of one’s own activity, a person improves and develops his autopsychological competence. On the other hand, AK is a necessary tool and mechanism for the formation of subjectivity.
  7. Autopsychological competence in the system of professional competence of a specialist
    A comparative analysis of the results of acmeological studies showed that AK is an important component of the psychological culture and, in particular, the professional competence of a specialist (a constantly expanding knowledge system that allows you to carry out professional activities, the range of problems to be solved with high productivity), including a civil servant. Competent
  8. Autopsychological Competence Development Technologies
    Plan 1. Acmeological technologies for the development of autopsychological competence. 2. The technological module for the development of autopsychological competence. 3. The typical structure of the development module. 4. Features of the behavior of the leader of the autopsychological training group. 5. The main stages of the training. 6. Preliminary stage - the stage of preparation of autopsychological training.
  9. Autopsychological Competence Development Technologies
    Plan 1. Acmeological technologies for the development of autopsychological competence. 2. The technological module for the development of autopsychological competence. 3. Typical structure of the development module. 4. Features of the behavior of the leader of the autopsychological training group. 5. The main stages of the training. 6. The preliminary stage is the stage of preparation of autopsychological training. 7.
  10. Technological module for the development of autopsychological competence
    The need to develop a universal technological module for the development of autopsychological competence is based on the following provisions: 1) autopsychological competence is metacompetence, participates in the development of other types of psychological competence (communicative, socio-perceptual, socio-psychological); 2) the formation of a common autopsychological
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