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Psychological and acmeological service: status, functions, organization of activities

When discussing the relationship of acmeology with practice, special attention should be paid to the need to create acmeological or psychological-acmeological services. Psychological and acmeological services are called upon to become an important link between psychological and acmeological science and practice. It is they who first of all must demonstrate the capabilities of acmeology in the effective solution of urgent practical problems. It is in them that many psychological and acmeological ideas should find practical embodiment.

At present, acmeologists have developed the scientific and organizational basis for the creation and functioning of psychological and acmeological services at various levels *.

* Psychological and acmeological service. Handbook of a practical psychologist. Toolkit / Ed. E.A. Yablokova. - M.: RAGS, 2001 and others.

However, before turning to them, let us say a few words about the historical premises of their appearance. The idea of ​​creating psychological and acmeological services is a development of the concept of "psychological" or "socio-psychological services" developed in the eighties of the XX century. In those years, the psychological service was conceived and created as an organizational system of the practical use of the capabilities of psychology to solve urgent practical problems and, above all, psychological diagnostics, examination, consultation in the field of production, public education, medicine, law enforcement, etc. The need for large-scale use of psychological knowledge in practice was due to a significant increase in the role of the “human factor” in production, management, education, etc., which caused ano scientific and technical progress. In those years, it became apparent that the development of technology, new information technologies, and professional interactions between subjects of activity imposes qualitatively different, higher requirements on the intellectual and emotional spheres of a person, and causes significant burdens on them at the limit of a person’s psychological capabilities. In addition, the work of the created social development services of organizations should be based on a system of comprehensive scientific knowledge about a person. Naturally, the requirements for the professional training of specialists began to change. Qualitatively new tasks required the use of humanitarian knowledge, among which psychological began to take a leading place *.

* Bodalev A.A., Lomov B.F., Luchkov V.V. Psychological science at the service of practice // Psychology Issues. - 1979. - No. 4.

In a short time, typical structures of psychological services were developed, their status, nature of activity, a range of tasks to be solved, the practice of introducing psychological knowledge and best practices *.

* Socio-psychological service of an industrial enterprise: theory, experience, practice / Ed. Yu. M. Zabrodina and E.V. Taranova. - Kurgan, 1983.

Psychologists began to implement the following:

• assist the work of personnel departments;

• develop social development plans;

• deal with issues of increasing labor motivation;

• organize work to optimize the psychological climate;

• provide psychological compensation for adverse functional states that arise in the process of activity;

• carry out psychocorrection of negative forms of social behavior, etc.

Psychological services have appeared in many organizations and enterprises, in a number of industries, military branches. They have proven their high efficiency in practice. However, in the process of “perestroika” and “radical economic reforms”, the system of psychological services was destroyed.

At present, the problem of reconstituting such services has become urgent again. First of all, this is due to the socio-psychological “costs” of reforms, the high psychological “price” of the transition period, and the stringent requirements of market relations for the subjects of activity. At the same time, simply “reanimating” such services would be wrong, since the requirements of the time and the conditions for their functioning have fundamentally changed, hence the idea of ​​creating precisely psychological-acmeological services.

What is a modern psychological-acmeological service?

What is its difference from the psychological service?

What are its goals, objectives, functions, organizational structure?

First of all, it should be noted that psychological services were created for a different socio-economic formation, therefore, a number of their strategic tasks are currently irrelevant or have undergone significant transformation (for example, ensuring business reputation has been replaced by the formation of an effective image). At the same time, many practical tasks, in particular those related to the formation of the personnel potential of the organization, remained essentially the same. In addition, the need for high-level professionals has significantly increased, which led to the involvement of scientific knowledge in solving the problems of progressive personal and professional development, and this is already acmeological knowledge. New tasks have also arisen that require the attraction of acmeological knowledge - the formation of corporate relations, the pattern of leadership style, the achievement of social partnership. All this led to the need for the organization of psychological and acmeological services.

At present, the psychological-acmeological service is a structural system that ensures, using psychological and acme-logical means, the productive use of the organization’s human resources, the success of professional activities and the progressive personal and professional development of personnel, increasing the efficiency of the organization itself, its development and competitiveness.

Obviously, the structural units of psychological and acmeological services can be multilevel, that is, created in specific private, state organizations, associations, departments, but at the same time, their integration into holding or departmental psychological and acmeological services coordinating the activities of the "lower" units is possible and expedient. providing their work scientifically and methodically

A design concept of a psychological-acmeological service was developed in the public service system of the Russian Federation *.

* Psychological-acmeological service Handbook of a practical psychologist. Methodical manual / Ed. By E. A. Yablokova - M .: RAGS, 2001

This psychological and acmeological service provides for a two-level organization:

• at the federal level - the administration of the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation, federal departments;

• at the regional level - regional administrations.

The creation of psychological and acmeological services is recommended at the municipal level

The main goal of such a service is the psychological and acmeological support of the public service at the level of systemic support for the development of its personnel potential, which is in the field of solving the strategic problem of a humanistically directed sociocultural transformation of the human environment

Private goals are:

• psychological and acmeological support for personnel work;

• psychological and acmeological optimization of work, professional interactions and relations of public servants;

• psychological and acmeological support of the personal and professional development of civil servants;

• psychological assistance in building a business reputation and credibility of public service structures.

The stated goals are of the so-called universal nature and can extend to other psychological and acmeological services that are not related to the public service.

Based on these goals, the main tasks of psychological-acmeological services are formulated. Their number, type and content should be “tied” to the specific activities of the organization or department.

The legal basis for the activity of psychological and acmeological services are the laws of the Russian Federation, legislative acts, charters of institutions and organizations.

Based on the goals and objectives of the psychological-acmeological services, the following main areas of their work are identified and justified:

• informational and analytical;

• organizational design;

• acmeological and technological;

• research.

The information and analytical direction of the work of psychological and acmeological services is associated with the following:

• with the collection and analysis of multilevel information on the activities and interactions of the organization, its personnel potential (including data from instrumental and non-instrumental psychological diagnostics),

• implementation of various types of expert evaluations;

• monitoring (personnel, rating, psychological space, etc.);

• implementation of the development of forecasts and forecast scenarios;

• identification of “foci” that provoke tension in activities and relationships, reducing their effectiveness.

This is a key area, since the information received is used for the work of other areas of psychological-acmeological service.

The organizational and design direction is designed to provide a solution to a number of urgent and specific tasks of the organization. In the framework of this direction, it is carried out:

• support of personnel work (selection, placement, certification of personnel, the formation of a reserve for nomination, planning a professional career);

• formation of corporate relations;

• optimization of the moral and psychological climate;

• development of projects for social development, overcoming crisis phenomena, effective image of the organization;

• planning and implementation of public relations and mass media activities.

Acmeological-technological direction is associated with the following work:

• overcoming psychological difficulties among employees and managers of the organization;

• accompaniment of their personal and professional growth;

• conflict resolution.

In this area, psychological and acmeological counseling is carried out, acmeological technologies are used to develop the professionalism of specialists and managers.
Work in this area is predominantly individual.

The research area is designed to carry out the following:

• summarize the best practices of psychological-acmeological services and put them into practice;

• develop new methods, algorithms and technologies for solving professional problems;

• contribute to the growth of professional skills of specialists and managers of psychological-acmeological services themselves.

If necessary, these areas can be supplemented by others.

In view of the specifics of the tasks to be solved, information on the work of psychological and acmeological services can be both open and strictly confidential. Confidential information is considered that affects the status and freedom of the individual and contains the following:

• results of individual psychological diagnosis;

• data reflecting the nature and content of personal psychological problems and difficulties of subjects of activity;

• any other information, the publication of which may harm the individual and organization.

The degree of accessibility of other information about the work of psychological and acmeological services is determined by the head of the organization or department.

It should be borne in mind that the results of the psychological-acmeological services are, although scientifically sound, but still advisory in nature. Therefore, the work of services does not infringe on the interests of officials and does not relieve them of personal responsibility.

Taking into account the mission and goals of the psychological-acmeological services, the nature and content of the tasks to be solved, it is advisable that they be independent structural units under the direct supervision of the head of the organization or institution. This functional independence will ensure the objectivity of their work, and therefore its effectiveness. The inclusion of services in the hierarchical structure of the organization can decisively affect the actual goal-setting of their activities. Practice shows that in this case, narrow corporate goals and interests over strategic ones take place, which ultimately harms the organization.

The structure of psychological and acmeological services should correspond to their goals and objectives, but at the same time they should correspond to the level and resource capabilities of the organization, although their typical structures are recommended in acmeological studies. The financial and material support of the service is taken over by the organization or department.

Acmeological developments are characterized by the following:

• professional duties of specialists of such services are determined,

• defined status, requirements for the quality of the activities of specialists;

• created professiograms.

Their contents can be found by referring to the recommended literature.

World experience shows that the creation of such services can give a significant social and economic effect for the organization, significantly exceeding the costs of their work.


Summarizing everything that is presented in this section, we summarize the issues of the relationship of acmeology and practice.

1. This connection is carried out mainly through the applied areas of acmeology, which are currently at the stage of formation, and therefore the presented results are of a scientific, practical, generalized descriptive nature.

2. At the same time, they clearly demonstrate the possibilities of applied acmeology. In particular, this is manifested in the fact that the developed acmeological models and descriptions of professional competence and its special types have the universality property and can be a methodological standard for the development of competence of labor subjects in specific professional fields.

3. The presented acmeological model of professionalism of the personality of managerial personnel operating in special conditions also has the property of universality and can be applied both individually and in the acmeological training system for the development of professionalism.

4. The developed criteria of AKME in artistic and creative activity created the necessary prerequisites for carrying out work at the level of specific subjects.

5. Acmeogram development technologies make it possible to solve individually oriented problems.

6. The available possibilities of practical acmeology make it possible to plan and achieve new results.

Summing up the description of acmeology as a science, its current state, trends and development prospects, I would like to emphasize again the following.

• Acmeology confidently declared itself and proved its promise in developing the most important scientific and practical problems, primarily related to the development of professionalism, personal and professional development, and the achievement of peaks in professional activity.

• Acmeological knowledge, acmeological approach, acmeological methods, models and technologies are increasingly used in the practice of training highly qualified personnel, in the development of individual programs of professional growth and self-development, in the planning and implementation of a professional career.

• Acmeological concepts and, in particular, the concept of professional development can be considered not only as generalizing knowledge, but also as a methodological setting in solving acmeological problems. These concepts, of course, will be finalized, refined and improved, however, their general architectonics looks quite certain. In this case, the obvious prospect is a generalization of the results of interdisciplinary and actually acmeological studies on the problem of the development of professionalism and professionalism.

• The analysis of studies of significant conditions and factors for the development of professionalism showed that a lot of work has been done on the practical implementation of acmeological knowledge. At the same time, it is necessary to intensify the work on such studies:

a) enhancing the creative potential of the development subject;

b) normative and volitional regulation of behavior and activities;

c) the laws and dynamics of the formation of new standards of professional achievement.

• It is necessary to continue acmeological research of a theoretical and methodological nature. The accumulated empirical facts need a theoretical generalization; the tendencies toward differentiation of acmeology also require an in-depth substantiation of a theoretical nature. Acmeologists will concentrate on these areas.

• Research of special applied areas of acmeology requires their continuation. For this, the necessary theoretical and methodological prerequisites have already been created.

• The problem of the development of medical acmeology is acute. A medical professional - what is he? Какими он должен обладать качествами, какая у него должна быть нравственная регуляция поведения, как избежать профессиональной деформации личности, какие траектории развития профессионализма в медицине, какими на сегодняшний день должны быть эталоны профессионализма, как создать условия для личностно-профессионального развития врача? Эти и многие другие акмеологические вопросы требуют скорейшего и обоснованного ответа.

• Не менее важные вопросы стоят и в политической акмеологии. Что такое профессионализм в политике? Ведь если говорить откровенно, то немалое число нынешних политиков активно стремятся к власти не ради реализации каких-то политических идей, а движимые психологическими акцентуациями, корыстью, стремлением самоутвердиться любой ценой. Акмеология может и должна поставить этому надежный заслон, дав однозначную трактовку и описания профессионализма в политической деятельности

• Требует ускоренного развития направление, связанное с разработкой основ юридической акмеологии. В этой сфере деятельности, а также в работе правоохранительных органов имеется немало тревожащих психологических моментов, связанных с профессиональной деформацией личности, когда происходящие изменения делают деятельность и отношения совсем иными, даже социально негативными

• Необходимо расширять и углублять исследования и в других прикладных областях акмеологии — военной, педагогической, инженерной, социальной, развивать новые направления. Настало время приступить к активной разработке проблем АКМЕ в художественно-творческой деятельности. Работа предстоит большая и интересная.

• Перспективами акмеологии как науки является выход за рамки развития профессионализма. Достижение АКМЕ возможно ведь не только в профессиональной деятельности. Немало выдающихся личностей, оставивших глубокий след в истории и повлиявших на мировоззрение людей, систему их отношений, давших отчетливые нравственные ориентиры и установки, по большому счету профессиональной деятельностью не занимались и профессиональную карьеру не делали. В связи с этим необходимо обращение более пристального внимания к проблемам нравственного совершенствования личности, формирования нравственного авторитета, духовного развития. Это чрезвычайно сложные проблемы, решение которых невозможно без четкого определения мировоззренческой позиции акмеологии, что естественным образом приведет к ее идеологической ориентации.

• Все вышеперечисленное, безусловно, требует новых акмеологических исследований проблем индивидуальности человека, которые приблизят акмеологию как науку к тем изначальным идеям, которые были положены в ее основу. Акмеология перестанет быть только наукой о профессионализме, ее предметное и объектное поле, проблематика существенно расширятся. Она приобретет новый научный статус.
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Психолого-акмеологическая служба: статус, функции, организация деятельности

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