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“Psychosocial approach in the context of urgent tasks and the main trends in the development of psychological science in Russia”

The first chapter presents the author’s view on the history and prospects of development of Russian psychology in the context of solving urgent problems of modern Russian society. The limitations are shown both in methodological and organizational plans, in modern conditions, of the historically developed paradigm model of the development of psychological science. The expediency of the transition to a more liberal culture of the digital model is substantiated. A detailed substantiation of the relevance and prospects of the research problems in the light of the solution of this problem is given.

The first paragraph analyzes the social request for psychological science in the context of the urgent tasks of the development of Russian society, primarily the transition to an innovative economy. It is shown that a necessary condition for the effective solution of this problem is the transition from vertically integrated to horizontally integrated management and decision-making schemes, delegation of authority, shifting the focus of management activities from ensuring the effectiveness of current functioning to ensuring long-term development, awareness and acceptance of the fact that any innovation in full accordance with the laws of dialectics, means the destruction to one degree or another of the existing system (and the significance of edryaemoy innovation is directly proportional to the degree of such destruction). It follows that the key, systemic response to the challenges of the market in modern conditions is the full-scale realization that a person as a person and a full-fledged independent subject is the main, and in many cases the only source of wealth in modern conditions.

In this regard, it is urgently necessary to concentrate the efforts and resources of society on the development of human potential, the basis of which is an autonomous, initiative, capable full-fledged cooperation person who is a key subject of social action. It is quite clear that one of the main tools of both conceptual and instrumental support of such a development is psychological science, focused on solving practical problems.

The second paragraph discusses the problematic aspects of the development of domestic psychology in the context of solving this problem. It is shown that for a number of reasons in the Soviet period, psychological science developed in the strict framework of the paradigm model of cognition described by T. Kuhn. Moreover, as shown in the works of K. Popper, I. Lacates, P. Feyerabend, this model of “normal”, from the point of view of T. Kuhn, science in the content and organizational aspects objectively interferes with innovative research activities. Under the conditions of a totalitarian state, these systemic shortcomings of the paradigm model of cognition acquired a hypertrophic nature, which led not only to the absolutization of the two paradigms in domestic psychological science, but also to unjustified reduction and opportunistic-dogmatic interpretations of the completely heuristic scientific theories underlying these paradigms - cultural and historical concepts of the formation of higher mental functions and theory of activity.

The third paragraph shows that a way out of this essentially deadlock situation is possible due to a real transition to a pluralistic methodology.
One of the practical forms of such a transition is the introduction into the research practice developed by A.A. Derkachem, I.N. Semenov and S.Yu. Stepanov culture of a digital model of knowledge. Culturedigma is understood as an example of scientific thinking, which is not only associated with the structure, development trends of professional consciousness in a particular scientific field, but also with the current sociocultural situation, and therefore with the content of universal human culture as a whole (A.A. Derkach). It is easy to notice that such an understanding removes the methodological and organizational limitations inherent in the paradigm scheme, since the standard is not the “exemplary scientific achievement” or even the notorious “method” by which it was implemented, but rather thinking, which allows to achieve outstanding results, characterized by first of all (and this is the counterpoint of opposing each other in most aspects of the epistemological concepts of T. Kuhn, I. Lakates, K. Popper, P. Feyerabend), the ability to enter the process of knowledge beyond the framework of the established tradition, subject area, etc. It is essentially important in practical terms that, while developing a culturedigmatic model, A.A. Derkach and his colleagues were able to fully realize the basic ideas and principles of the liberal theory of knowledge, while avoiding the extremes inherent in the epistemological anarchism of P. Feyerabend.

On the whole, the main tendency in the development of psychological science in modern Russia can be characterized as a transition from a successive diachronic — progressively sequential method of cognition to a synchronously synchronous — avalanche-like and intense (A.A. Derkach). Such a transition fully meets the objective needs of the development of society.

One of the most promising methodological approaches in the framework of this trend is the psychosocial approach to the problem of development. This approach is quite universal, applicable in the widest range of humanitarian studies, which is confirmed in works on sociology, philosophy, political science by authors such as L.D. Gudkov, A. Camus, E. Fromm, F. Fukuyama, S. Huntington and others. In the actual psychological research, the psychosocial approach was used by K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya in studies of the peculiarities of mentality and ethnosocial processes in modern Russia, A.A. Bodalev, A.A. Derkach et al. - in the psychological and acmeological studies of professionalism, A.V. Petrovsky - during the development of the project "chronopsychology" (comparative social psychology of the time), in a number of studies in the genre of psychoanalytic biographies and psychohistory, in particular L. De Moza, E. Fromm, E. Erickson and others.

However, the key, from the point of view of the urgent needs of modern society outlined above, a feature of the psychosocial approach is that, as the name implies, it involves examining the development processes of the individual and society in an inextricable relationship. The fact that this is indeed so, in a sufficiently complete and consistent form was first shown in the works of E. Erickson, devoted to problems of identity, in which he laid the theoretical foundations of the psychosocial concept of development.
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“Psychosocial approach in the context of urgent tasks and the main trends in the development of psychological science in Russia”

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