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The ratio of the ideal "tops" of personality development, its real state and method of improvement as an acmeological model of personality

The subject of acmeology is the improvement of the individual in life, activity (profession, communication), leading to the maximum self-realization of the individual and the optimal way of implementation - the strategicity of life, high professionalism, competent implementation of the activity as a subject. The perfection of the essence of a person is achieved by the optimal integration of its psychological, spiritual, moral, professional culture, which ensures the optimal implementation of life and activity and a high level of achievements.

Methodologically, the specificity of the subject of acmeology is revealed on the basis of modeling both real and ideal objects. The model is targeted, since the transition from a real, cash to an ideal, desirable state must be made.

The subject of acmeology is a complex model that reveals the initial state of a real object ("original", in the terminology of Vartophsky), the way it changes and develops from "starting" to an ideal, "vertex" quality. The model does not reveal the level structure of the object, but a change in the way it is organized from the cash to a more optimal level (according to MP Setrov). A desirable ideal target state (quality) is projected according to theoretical, methodological, humanistic principles and at the same time is achieved according to practically specified criteria and algorithms defined by the system of personality functioning as a participant and subject in all spheres of social and personal life, including professional (leader, teacher and etc.) The methodological model of the subject of acmeology is an integral of the present state of a person (determined on the basis of diagnostics), the method of its practical transformation (by the person himself and an acmeologist) and an ideal "vertex" quality.

Acmeology includes in its subject all the space of functioning and personal development, starting from the present, given, diagnosed level of its development, including the optimal way of its self-expression, self-regulation, reflection and culminating in the highest level of improvement - the achievement of acme (development peaks) in life.

Acmeological model of personality has macro and micro scale. At the macroscale, it also integrates a cultural approach to the study of a person and the goals of his spiritual, social, personal, professional development and carries out this integration in relation to the self-realization of the individual in his life path. In this model, acmeology integrates cultural, historical, social, activity, and living space and contexts of personality development.

Acmeology in its micro-modeling integrates both age, pedagogical, ethical, and, of course, psychological aspects of studying a person and the corresponding ways of his development.

The complex and integral nature of the macromodel also corresponds to the position of B. Gananyev, who considered a person in the context of his historical epoch, his events, his inherent way of upbringing, correlation of generations, etc., as well as cultural-historical theory L. S. Vygotsky, the point of view of E. Erickson and S. Moskovich, who develop psychosocial and psycho-historical approaches.

The integrated approach, concluded in this model, gives an orientation to the establishment of connections between the identified personality traits, its multifaceted modalities - the real and ideal state, spontaneously established and optimally perfect ways of development.

The most difficult thing in the acmeological micromodel is that the diagnostic study reveals the starting stage ("starting" state, according to B.G. Ananyev) of personality development, which allows to determine the operational-practical way of its self-improvement (that is, the development itself, personal growth) and the nature of acmeological support to achieve an optimal state - the highest level of personal development. A. Adler, introducing and defining his psychodiagnostic principle, believed that the individual is inherent desire for excellence, growth and development. At the same time, he argued, people do not repel themselves from external and internal causes, but immanently move toward the goal. A. Maslow adhered to the latter position in his theory of self-actualization, and S. Buhler, considering the need for self-actualization almost as innate. However, one can not agree with the denial of the external causes of this desire.

Micromodel is acmeologically determined on the basis of the concept of M.Vartofsky, highlighting its following essential functions:

- recreation and multiplication of knowledge about the original;

- the design of its new properties;

- management and development of it.

The model sets the prospects, means and goals for the development of the original. “Original” is a cash, given state (“starting”, in the terminology of B.G.Ananyev) personality, group, organization, etc. The model in acmeology projects the relationship between the present state of the original and the future, which is not yet present, according to Vartofsky - a way to this future, which is determined by external and internal determination. Acmeological support (various humanitarian technologies), promoting development, internal - self-improvement of the subject is external. (These ideas are updated by EB Starovoitenko, A.A. Derkach, G.S. Mikhailov.)

The model of acmeology includes the integral of the present state of the individual, the method of his change (development) and his ideal finish, according to B. G. Ananiev, the optimal state. The finishing condition must meet the criteria that are revealed by acmeology.
In activities, the highest level is competence, professionalism, self-expression, "acme" (in a relative sense, they are invariants). The variable is the starting state ("original"), which must be diagnosed according to criteria that are characteristic of different levels of development - deficit, norms, optimality, etc.

Relying on psychological theories and research of personality, acmeology has as its subject of study the whole continuum of its qualities and real states from regressive (deformations, etc.) normal to optimal (the highest level of development), theoretically substantiating and practically implementing acmeological ways of promoting personality improvement. (moral, professional, etc.).

It should be noted that none of the psychologists who worked with the level or stage models (A. Maslow - the level hierarchy of needs, E. Erickson - eight stages of personality development through crises, etc.) did not answer the question of what happens to a person, how is its further ascent in levels or stages, if one (one) of them is not implemented.

The answer to this riddle cannot be obtained without an acmeological approach - without the participation of the active role of the personality itself and its external acmeological support. At one time, and L.S. Vygotsky in the theory of the “zone of proximal development” put forward the idea of ​​“small help from an adult”, but did not specify its character, whether it should be universal for everyone or individual for everyone.

The solution of this issue is a promising acmeological task. However, tentatively, it can be assumed that the more a person acts as a subject of self-movement and self-development, the less external support is needed for her, and vice versa.

Thus, the first basis of this differentiation of the role of external and internal in the development of personality is the principle of the subject

The second basis is the typological approach, which is still little developed in psychology.

Some experts (G.Olport) consider the main criterion of a person to be independent of assessments, support, etc. of others, that is, absolute autonomy, and some (A.Adler), on the contrary, a sense of community and the ability to cooperate. Everyone considers his criterion to be a characteristic of any personality, while in reality, one type or another feature prevails in different types. Typological differences (C. Jung) also determine the openness-closeness of the person to provide her with acmeological support, the method most adequate for one type or another.

The third condition for optimizing the development of personality is the level of development of its “I-concept”, psychological maturity, integrated personality, the ratio of aspirations and achievements.

The main question that arises is: to what extent and in which areas of life does a person need acmeological support? The expression or symptom of the presence of this need is the dissatisfaction of the individual with himself, his life, others, his professional achievements. Of course, active recourse for acmeological help in the field of personal life actually occurs mainly in connection with the difficulties of life itself (problems of spouses and parents - children), whereas in the professional sphere (professionalization, career, etc.) it is provided by the presence of the acmeological service (and information about it).

Summary

In psychology, the four-tier system of personality study prevails (and in Russian psychology methodological principles of its research are mainly developed), in world psychology, personality is primarily investigated as an object. Theoretical approaches and concepts of personality are of the author’s nature, but they are united in directions, each of which reveals different aspects of its study.

Personality psychology is a way of realizing its intentions, aspirations (needs, motives, etc.) by its abilities and capabilities in accordance with its character (the self-organizing method inherent in it) and objective conditions, requirements, changes in the life path. Self-expression and self-realization of the integral essence of the personality is carried out by the life abilities of the personality (its consciousness, activity, organization of time) in time - space, forms (communication, cognition, activity) of the life path.

In acmeology, a different science model of personality research has been developed, which has a targeted and valuable character, which practically reproduces theoretically the transition from the existing state and level of personality development to the ideal (optimal) one performed by a person as a subject or with the help of an acmeologist. This model is built on the basis of the achievements of psychological science and the new paradigm of the subject, as which (mainly) the personality is studied in acmeology.

Test questions and tasks

1. What is the difference of the structural approach to the personality from studying it in the way of life?

2. What are the main features of the principle of personality development exist in psychology?

3. In the context of which concepts (and what their meaning) is a personality defined in psychology - acmeology?

4. What is the difference in the approaches to personality in psychology and acmeology?

5. To show the similarities and differences of psychological and acmeological approach in relation to the personality of a professional.

6. Make a list of the characteristics of the individual professional. Does it include the characteristics of the past and the future, and in what terms?

7. Consider how the concepts of "maturity" of an individual, "professionalism", and "competence" correlate.
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The ratio of the ideal "tops" of personality development, its real state and method of improvement as an acmeological model of personality

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