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Correlation of the ideal "peak" of personality development, its real state and method of improvement as an acmeological model of personality

The subject of acmeology is the improvement of the personality in life, activity (profession, communication), leading to the maximum self-realization of the personality and the optimal way of implementation - the strategic nature of life, high professionalism, competent implementation of activities as a subject. Improving the essence of the personality is achieved by the optimal integration of its psychological, spiritual, moral, professional culture, which ensures the optimal implementation of life, activity and a high level of achievement.

Methodologically, the specificity of the subject of acmeology is revealed on the basis of modeling both real and ideal objects. The model is of a targeted nature, since a transition from a real, present to an ideal, desirable state should be made.

The subject of acmeology is a complex model that reveals the initial state of a real object ("original", according to Wartofsky's terminology), the way it changes and develops from "starting" to ideal, "top" quality. The model reveals not the level structure of the object, but a change in the way it is organized from cash to a more optimal level (according to M.P. Setrov). The desired ideal target state (quality) is designed according to theoretical, methodological, humanistic principles and at the same time is achieved according to practically specified criteria and algorithms determined by the system of personality functioning as a participant and subject of all spheres of social and personal life, including professional (leader, teacher and etc.) - The methodological model of the subject of acmeology is an integral of the present state of the personality (determined on the basis of diagnosis), both of its practical transformation (the personality and Acmeology) and ideal "top" quality.

Acmeology includes in its subject the entire space of the functioning and development of the personality, starting from the present, diagnosed level of its development, including the optimal way of self-expression, self-regulation, reflection and ending with the highest level of perfection - reaching acme (development peaks) in life.

The acmeological model of personality has a macro and micro scale. On a macroscale, it combines the culturological approach to the study of man and the goals of his spiritual, social, personal, professional development and implements this integration in relation to the self-realization of a person in her life path. In this model, acmeology integrates cultural, historical, social, activity, living space and personal development contexts.

Acmeology in its micromodeling integrates both age, and pedagogical, and value-ethical, and, of course, psychological aspects of the study of man and the corresponding ways of his development.

The complex and integral nature of the macromodel corresponds to the position of B.G. Ananyev, who considered the personality in the context of its historical era, its events, its inherent method of education, the relationship of generations, etc., as well as the cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky, the point of view of E. Erickson and S. Moskovichi, developing psychosocial and psychohistorical approaches.

The integrated approach contained in this model gives orientation to the establishment of relationships of the polydeterministic qualities of a personality, its diverse aspects of modality - a real and ideal state, spontaneously formed and optimally perfect ways of development.

The most difficult part in the acmeological micromodel is that a diagnostic study identifies the initial stage ("starting" state, according to B.G. Ananiev) of personality development, which allows to determine the operational and practical way of self-improvement (that is, the development that the person develops, personality growth) and the nature of acmeological support to achieve the optimal state - the highest level of personality development. A. Adler, introducing and defining his psychodiagnostic principle, believed that the personality is inherent in the desire for perfection, growth and development. At the same time, he argued, people do not push away from external and internal causes, but immanently move toward the goal. A. Maslow adhered to the last position in his theory of self-actualization, and S. Buler, considering the need for self-actualization almost as inherent. However, one cannot agree with the denial of the external causes of this desire.

The micromodel is acmeologically determined based on the concept of M. Wartofsky, distinguishing it with the following essential functions:

- recreation and multiplication of knowledge about the original;

- construction of its new properties;

- its management and development.

The model sets the prospects, means and goals of the development of the original. An “original” is a present, a given state (“starting”, in the terminology of B.G. Ananiev) of an individual, group, organization, etc. The model in acmeology projects the relationship between the present state of the original and the future, which is not yet in reality, according to Wartofsky, a way of moving toward this future, which is determined by external and internal determination. External is acmeological support (various humanitarian technologies), promoting development, internal is self-improvement of the subject.
(These ideas are actualized by E.B. Starovoitenko, A.A. Derkach, G.S. Mikhailov.)

The acmeology model includes the integral of the present state of the personality, the method of its change (development), and its ideal finish, according to B. Gananyev, the optimal state. The final condition must meet the criteria that are identified by acmeology. The highest level of activity is competence, professionalism, self-expression, “acme” (in a relative sense, they are invariants). The variable is the present starting state ("original"), which should be diagnosed according to criteria characteristic of different levels of development - deficit, norm, optimality, etc.

Based on psychological theories and studies of personality, acmeology has as its subject of study the entire continuum of its qualities and real states from regressive (deformations, etc.), normal to optimal (higher level of development), theoretically substantiating and practically implementing acmeological methods of promoting personality improvement (moral, professional, etc.).

It should be noted that not one of the psychologists who worked with level or stadial models (A. Maslow - a level hierarchy of needs, E. Erickson - eight stages of personality development through crises, etc.) answered the question of what happens to a person, how is it further ascending through levels or stages if one (one) of them is not implemented.

The answer to this riddle cannot be obtained without the acmeological approach - without the participation of the active role of the personality itself and its external acmeological support. In due time, and L.S. Vygotsky, in the theory of the "zone of proximal development", put forward the idea of ​​"a little help from an adult," but did not specify its nature, whether it should be universal for everyone or individual for everyone.

The solution to this question is a promising acmeological problem. However, in a preliminary order, it can be assumed that the more a person acts as a subject of self-movement and self-development, the less external support it needs, and vice versa.

Thus, the first basis for this differentiation of the role of external and internal in the development of personality is the principle of the subject

The second basis is a typological approach, still little developed in psychology.

Some experts (G. Allport) consider independence as the main criterion for a person to be independent of assessments, support, etc. of others, i.e., absolute autonomy, and some (A. Adler), on the contrary, - a sense of community and the ability to cooperate. Each one considers his criterion to be a characteristic of any personality, while at the time one or another feature prevails in different types. Typological differences (C. Jung) also determine the openness and closeness of a person to provide her with acmeological support, the method most appropriate for one or another type.

The third condition for optimizing the development of the personality is the level of development of its "I-concept", psychological maturity, the integration of personality, the ratio of claims and achievements.

The main question that arises is: to what extent and in what spheres of life does a person need acmeological support? An expression or symptom of the presence of this need is a person’s dissatisfaction with himself, his life, people around him, his professional achievements. Of course, the active appeal for acmeological help in the sphere of personal life actually occurs mainly in connection with the difficulties of life itself (problems of spouses and parents - children), while in the professional sphere (professionalization, career, etc.) it is provided by the presence of acmeological service (and information about her).

Summary

In psychology, the four-level system for studying the personality prevails (moreover, in domestic psychology the methodological principles of its research are mainly developed), in world psychology the personality is mainly studied as an object. Theoretical approaches and concepts of personality are of an authorial nature, but are combined in directions, each of which reveals different aspects of its study.

Psychology of personality is a way of realizing its intentions, claims (needs, motives, etc.) by its abilities and capabilities in accordance with its nature (its inherent way of self-organization) and objective conditions, requirements, changes in life path. Self-expression and self-realization of the integral essence of the personality is carried out by the life abilities of the personality (its consciousness, activity, organization of time) in time - space, forms (communication, cognition, activity) of the life path.

In acmeology, a different scientific model of the study of personality has been developed, which has a target and value character, which theoretically and practically reproduces the transition from the present state and level of development of the personality to the ideal (optimal) carried out by the person as a subject or with the help of an acmeologist. This model is built on the basis of the achievements of psychological science and the new paradigm of the subject, in the quality of which (basically) the personality is studied in acmeology.
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Correlation of the ideal "peak" of personality development, its real state and method of improvement as an acmeological model of personality

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