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“Comparative psychological and acmeological study of the features of the formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of educational specialists”
The fourth chapter was based on the analysis of the results of the psycho-diagnostics of multi-ethnic competence of education specialists in multi-ethnic regions (Russia, Estonia, Latvia and the Republic of Belarus), with the aim of identifying problem areas, developing and testing acmeological advanced training programs.
The results of the study by the 16-factor R. Kettel questionnaire of the personality of teachers are presented in Fig. 5 as averaged values.
Teacher personality profiles
(n = 120)
It can be stated that the teachers of the Pskov region are characterized by an average level of sociability, are rather “cold” and suspicious of relations with others, they usually have a skeptical mood, which is noted in the strictness of the assessment of others, they are characterized by high emotional tension.
Estonian educators are characterized by activity, their willingness to deal with new people, circumstances and situations. They are risk averse, active and relaxed in new living conditions. They demonstrate self-confidence, independence, they consider their beliefs to be the only true ones and strive to impose their perception of the world on others. In different life and professional conditions of activity, they usually choose an authoritarian position. Representatives of the Estonian sample are also characterized by prudence, realistic thoughts, practicality, moderate rigidity in relation to others.
Teachers of Latvia are quite friendly, sociable, with a manifestation of abstract thinking, free-thinking. They are characterized by moderate independence, fairly objective and decisive. There is an immersion in domestic needs and concerns about practical issues. But compared to Estonian teachers, they are more calm and relaxed.
Teachers of Belarus are characterized by high rates on the A, C and Q3 scales, which indicates their openness, natural behavior, kindness, willingness to help. They demonstrate a high level of self-control, which manifests itself both in their behavior and mentally, in their moral attitudes. They always strive to bring the work they have begun to completion. Characterized by emotional maturity, stamina and constancy in their interests. The respondents of the Republic of Belarus are also characterized by high intelligence, they are the owners of analytical thinking, inclined to experiment, do not take everything for granted, they are used to checking everything in practice. Also distinguished by courage, practicality and self-confidence.
Analyzing the personality profile of tolerant and intolerant teachers (Fig. 6), it can be stated that the main differences in the profiles are observed on scales: emotional stability, alertness, diplomacy, emotional tension, anxiety.
Tolerant / Intolerant Personality Profile
(n = 120)
Analysis of the profile allows us to note not only the most pronounced personality traits of a tolerant - intolerant teacher, but also to evaluate the personality as a whole. The personality profile of a teacher with a high level of tolerance includes high grades on scales C (emotional stability is observed), N (activity of teachers in contacts with people), minimal grades on L scales (flexible about changes, do not expect hostility towards them, are accommodating and unenvious , does not seek to compete, is more inclined to dialogue and cooperation), O (low level of anxiety) and average Q2 scales (the opinion of the group respects the same as its own, takes into account it, can change its own under the pressure of the group, however, the response prefers to make these decisions independently), Q4 (trying to objectively perceive what is happening and the people around him).
The personality profile of an intolerant teacher includes high grades on the L, N, and O scales. Such people relate to others without special trust, conflicts and disagreements are possible. The ability to communicate with people is reduced by a score on the factor E, which indicates that they tend to avoid situations requiring their own responsibility. Inadequacy in communication with other people is exacerbated by a high rating on the factor of O. A teacher with a low level of tolerance is characterized by suspicion in relations with people on whom something depends, he does not tolerate criticism, but he accepts praise with distrust, and is inclined to fixate on unpleasant aspects of events, which prevents the search for a way out of problem situations.
The average indicators of the results of the study of components of multiethnic competence are presented in Fig. 7.
The average results of the research components
multi-ethnic competence of educators
(n = 120)
Based on the results of a study of the multi-ethnic competence of educational specialists, the following conclusions are made:
The results of an empirical study confirmed that the multi-ethnic competence of a teacher is a complex phenomenon that has a flexible structure that varies depending on the specific environment, but all of whose components include cultural-cognitive, individual-personality and behavioral characteristics.
Indicators of a high level of development of a teacher’s multi-ethnic competence, taking into account the identified components, are: tolerance of consciousness, ethnic identity, ethnic self-awareness, ethnic culture, emotional intelligence, empathy, self-esteem of the ability to work in a multinational team, communicative tolerance, pedagogical communication style. They have the largest number of intra-system connections, are basic, and, accordingly, structure-forming for the activities of a specialist in multi-ethnic communication. At the same time, the types of ethnic identity of teachers in Fig. 8 are characterized by the largest number of correlations.
Correlation constellation of indicators for teachers with a developed level of multi-ethnic competence
(n = 120)
The list of indicators to Fig. 8:
1. Tolerant consciousness. 2. Positive ethnic identity of the type of "norm". 3. Ethnonigilism. 4. Ethno-egoism. 5. Ethnic isolationism. 6. Ethnofanatism. 7. Ethnic indifference. 8. Native language. 9. Ethnic identity. 10. Ethnic culture. 11. Emotional intelligence. 12. Empathy. 13. The ability to work in a multinational team. 14. Willingness to interact anyway with whom by nationality. 15. Positive attitude towards multinational marriages. 16. Self-awareness as a tutor. 17. A holistic view of the culture and history of their people. 18. A positive attitude towards the culture of other peoples. 19. The idea of pedagogical methods that take into account national psychological characteristics. 20. The model of interethnic communication. 21. Ethnicity. 22. Communicative tolerance.
As a result, the relationship between ethnic identity and tolerant consciousness was revealed - the higher the level of development of ethnic identity, the higher the tolerant consciousness of teachers.
There is also a relationship between the ability to work in a multinational team and the ethnic identity of educators. The structure of ethnic self-awareness, the ethnic characteristics of value orientations, based on the correlation analysis, depend on the ethnic culture of teachers. Ethnic self-awareness affects the integrity of teachers' ideas about the culture of their people, a positive attitude towards the culture of other peoples, as well as cultural interethnic tolerance in the field of multi-ethnic education. The higher the ethnic identity, the higher the ethnoculture of educators. The higher the level of development of teachers' skills and work skills in the field of multi-ethnic education, the higher the ethnic identity.
These components, having the largest number of intra-systemic connections, are basic and, accordingly, structure-forming for the activities of the subject of multi-ethnic education.
Features of the emotional-volitional, cognitive, communicative and regulatory areas of the personality, as well as self-awareness, determine the level of multi-ethnic competence, as evidenced by the presence of multiple significant relationships between these components identified during the study.
Based on the results of the cluster analysis, a socio-psychological characteristic of a teacher with a high level of development of multi-ethnic competence is developed.
This cluster included 28.3% of the subjects (50% - the Republic of Belarus, 26% - Latvia, 21% - Estonia, 16% - Pskov region).
Socio-psychological characteristics of a teacher with developed multi-ethnic competence: the severity of a positive ethnic identity, an unbiased position in assessing the behavior of members of a multinational team; the average level of self-esteem of knowledge and skills of working with a multinational team. High indicators in the field of desire for self-development, they know the ethnic culture of their people well and show a desire to learn more about it, as well as a willingness to study other ethnic cultures. Socio-moral motives of behavior in the process of interaction with people of other ethnic communities have been formed, as evidenced by emotional stability, a high level of development of emotional intelligence, friendliness, patience, social responsibility, and independence. An adequate understanding of what is happening in the inner world of another person, a normal level of development of empathy, a good feeling of a communication partner, a high level of empathy, courtesy, extroversion, and the ability to reflect. They have the ability to solve ordinary problems unusually, because they lack stereotypes, they can overcome their prejudices, and have flexible thinking. They show readiness for interaction in various social ethnic situations in order to achieve their goals and build constructive relationships in society, are characterized by social optimism, initiative, creativity, and the desire for everything new. They are capable of a quick change of strategy or tactics, taking into account the prevailing circumstances, which is noted by the absence of tension in behavior and anxiety, sociable, have communicative tolerance, prognosticism, and the ability to find a way out of a difficult situation. The attitudes towards the styles of pedagogical communication are dominated by the styles of differentiated attention and active interaction, most of which are prone to the emotional-methodical style of pedagogical interaction.
The structure of the culture of communication in the field of multi-ethnic education has established significant differences in the level of development of multi-ethnic competence between teachers in Russia and the Baltic countries, as well as the Republic of Belarus. A comparative analysis of the multi-ethnic competence of teachers showed that the highest level of multi-ethnic competence is among teachers in the Republic of Belarus. Teachers of Estonia and Latvia also have a fairly high level of multi-ethnic competence with a slight superiority of the latter. Regarding the teachers of the Pskov region, we can conclude that multiethnic competence is developed to a moderate degree. An integral indicator of the level of development of multi-ethnic competency among teachers is presented in Fig. 9.
Developing the level of multi-ethnic competence of teachers
(n = 120)
There is a controversial nature of the processes of multi-ethnic interaction in the Baltic countries and features of the transformation of the ethnic identity of the Russian-speaking population. One of the reasons for the high level of development of tolerance towards ethnic minorities is the cultural and ethnic diversity in the region of residence, which creates opportunities for direct acquaintance with various ethnic cultures, and hence a higher level of development of multi-ethnic competence.
The cluster analysis of empirical data revealed four psychological types of teachers with different levels of development of multi-ethnic competence: the first type - teachers with a high level of multi-ethnic competence; the second type is teachers with an average level of development of multi-ethnic competence; the third type is teachers with a high level of multiethnic competence, but at the same time with the greatest ethnic indifference; the fourth type is teachers with a low level of multi-ethnic competence, who need additional development of all its components.
The next stage of empirical research was the study of emotional intelligence as a psychological resource of multiethnic competence. We will understand emotional intelligence in a multi-ethnic context as the ability to understand and regulate one’s own ethnic feelings and emotions and partners in communication and interaction.
According to the results of the studies - the level of development of emotional intelligence of students, teachers, psychologists, social workers, doctors and employees of the city of Pskov and the Pskov region, conclusions were drawn about the role of emotional intelligence as a resource for the development of ethnic tolerance of educational subjects: 1) according to the data of the correlation analysis, emotional intelligence it has positive correlation with sociability (r = 0.61), poise (r = 0.68) and the opposite - with increased neuroticity (r = -0.21), emotional lability (r = -0.2 8), irritability (r = -0.26), spontaneous aggressiveness (r = -0.42), depression (r = -0.38) and reactive aggressiveness (r = -0.47) (Fig. 10).
The relationship of emotional intelligence with personal
(n = 719)
These relationships show that the manifestation of a high level of emotional intelligence is promoted by high social activity, the need for communication and a willingness to satisfy it, a tendency to emotional response to the needs of another person. This is also evidenced by the ability to realize and regulate our own emotions and feelings, a subtle understanding of the condition of other people, respect for others based on self-acceptance and self-confidence; 2) respondents with a high level of development of emotional intelligence exhibit moderate extroversion and moderate emotional stability; 3) a modern education specialist needs the ability to quickly adapt, adapt to new conditions, learn new things in a short time, which means that knowledge, the ability to manage one’s condition, initiative, responsibility, the ability to establish contacts with interaction partners, and find their place in a changing social environment are needed situations, and therefore, to develop emotional intelligence and the level of general intelligence in the process of learning at a university; 4) conscious and timely improvement of the quality of education and its management will become possible if future education specialists from the first year of study will know their potential and will purposefully develop their emotional intelligence; 5) the level of development of emotional intelligence is a psychological resource for the development of ethnic tolerance, and hence the multi-ethnic competence as a whole.
According to the results of the study, in the fourth chapter we can draw a general conclusion: the situation of multi-ethnic interaction, in which teachers of the Republic of Belarus and the Baltic countries are permanently, gives the specialist more opportunities to gain experience and knowledge about the characteristics of his and other ethnic groups, contributes to the development of ethnic tolerance and the development of communication skills and skills. However, state policy, including reform of the education system, can cause both ethnocultural assimilation and stimulation of marginalization processes in minority groups. Unlike the Baltic countries, the Pskov region is in the process of becoming multi-ethnic. Only in the last 15 years, representatives from other ethnic regions began to actively migrate to the Pskov region, therefore, education specialists in the Pskov region are characterized by blurred ethnic identities and a lack of experience in communicating with representatives of other ethnic groups, which causes a low level of development of multi-ethnic competence and certain psychological difficulties.
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