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Let us cite the results obtained sequentially using the Cattell test and MMPI as an example.

The Cattell test consists of 16 main scales. Each scale has its own designation and interpretation. A full interpretation of the contrast values ​​of the scales is presented in the corresponding appendix.

A more concise interpretation of the scales is as follows:

The aforesaid allows one to more reasonably present and interpret the obtained data on the Cattell test.


averaged personality profiles of the best and worst managers

. . . - zone of optimal development, that is, a zone where

statistically more common are the best managers in relation to


l - the average value for the best managers

x is the average value for the "worst" managers

What is this data talking about?

Firstly, the differences between the personality profile of the best and the “worst” manager are not so significant, but they do exist. And the more personality traits (test results) to take, the more and more these differences accumulate in specific personalities. Here the effect of cumulative causes.

Secondly, the personality profile of the best manager is nevertheless closer to the zones of optimal test values, and the personality profile of the “worst” specialist statistically more often leaves the zones of optimal value. And this data is statistically significant, that is, not random.

Thirdly, the proposed methodological approach allows us to identify personality traits (after testing it with this technique) by the level of development of which there is a clear deficit of managers.

So among them there are clearly not enough people with high emotional stability (C scale), mentally soft (I scale), high self-control (Q3 scale), moderately dominant in interpersonal relationships (E scale), moderately self-deepened (M scale), with the optimal combination of the emotional and rational (N scale), calm, balanced (Q4 scale), etc. Together, this group of factors (qualities) can be summed up under a more general one. There is a clear deficit of people with a high culture of confidential communication, which is the product of not so much knowledge as the corresponding personal qualities, previous experience.

Fourthly, these data make it possible to assert the fundamental possibility of creating expert systems, automated systems for diagnosing the corresponding personality traits and identifying ways of their psychocorrection. This opportunity is embedded in the PSY expert system, which allows you to get not only probabilistic psychological characteristics, but also standard recommendations for psychocorrection of the development of personality qualities that go beyond the zones of optimal value.

Zones of the optimal development of personality traits of the best managers were obtained according to the MMRI method. There are 1o in this technique

main scales diagnosing individual groups of personality traits. However, a combination of these scales is also crucial here.

This technique is complex enough to summarize. It is detailed in separate editions. 1

1 See: Sobchik L.N. Methods of psychological diagnosis. M.:, 199O, t. 1, etc.

Zones of the optimal value of the scales of the MMRI method

with the best managers

a = O, O1

<..... - zones of optimal development

* - average values ​​of scales for all subjects

What do these scales mean in the most general form?

Scale L diagnoses the degree of sincerity of the test subject's answers to the questions posed. The presence of values ​​in 7O-8O T-points serves as an indicator of the unreliability of the test subject's answers to the questions posed. With more than 8 ° T-points, the results can be considered unreliable.

Scale F roughly diagnoses the presence in the personality of any mental deviations (they may not be taken, not be diagnosed with the available scales). With a scale value of more than 8 ° T-points, the results can be considered unreliable.

Scale K serves the purpose of verifying the reliability of test results on a sample of individuals with reasonably high intelligence. It diagnoses a person’s desire to soften, hide a possible adverse impression of himself, or vice versa - at low values ​​of the scale - she diagnoses persons who are overly open.

The remaining 1O scales are called basic.

The 1st scale (hypochondria) diagnoses the degree of burden of the examinee by his state of health, somatic processes in the body. Sometimes it reflects a subconscious concern about a developing ailment. With an overstrain of a person, the values ​​of this scale can seem to jump.

The 2nd scale (of depression) diagnoses feelings, depression, increased anxiety, painful negative self-esteem, etc. Very high readings on the scale can reflect a person's feelings of increased anxiety, fear.

The 3rd scale (hysteria) reflects hysterical features at fairly high values ​​- a tendency and need to draw attention to oneself, to stand out from others, to show oneself above others, a tendency to self-love, artistic behavior, the need to admire others, etc. They are focused on an external observer, they have developed a desire to impress.

The 4th scale (psychopathy) reflects, at rather high values, a feeling of dissatisfaction with life, one’s social position, social maladaptation, disregard for the norms of social morality, pronounced conflict, etc. in interpersonal relationships. Persons with pronounced values ​​on this scale are often distinguished by aggressive actions, a desire to cheat others, situationality, instability of interpersonal contacts. Often this is a "tyrant in the family", "a splinter in the team."

The 5th scale diagnoses sensitivity, sentimentality, emotional vulnerability, subtlety, feminization of character traits. The measure of development of these qualities in men and women is different.

The 6th scale (paranoia) reflects the features of rigidity, persons with excessively expressed values ​​on the 6th scale (7 ° or more T-points) often possess features characteristic of paranoiacs.

The 7th scale diagnoses the person’s internal tension, her tendency to doubt, experience, fear, obsessive thoughts, increased anxiety, indecision, etc. Persons with low values ​​of this scale are sometimes distinguished by decisiveness, flexibility of behavior, self-confidence, willingness to make decisions in a difficult situation.

The 8th scale (schizoid) reflects the originality, individuality of understanding the world around us, sometimes non-standard, extraordinary thinking. Too high scale values ​​are associated with personality traits characteristic of individuals with schizoid accentuation.

The 9th scale (hypomania) reflects increased optimism, vitality, activity, euphoric moods, general activity.

Too high values ​​of the scale often indicate the presence of a person of diverse, unrealistic plans. A sharp decrease in the values ​​on this scale indicates the propensity of a person to depressed states.

O-scale (social introversion) characterizes the degree of isolation and sociability. High values ​​of the scale are associated with lack of communication, isolation and vice versa.

These are the main scales of this test. In interpreting these scales, one must be very, very careful, since the values ​​stated above for these scales are true in relation to a specific person only in 4O-6O% of cases, no more. But on a sufficiently large statistical sample, one can speak with high confidence about general trends and the prerequisites for successful activity of the manager’s personality.

What thoughts do the results suggest?

Firstly, among the managers examined, there is a clear deficit of people with high mood and the absence of depressive experiences (2nd scale).
In general, during the early 1990s, this became a universal phenomenon in Russia.

Secondly, in the examined contingent, there were clearly not enough people who were thin, sensitive, to a certain extent feminized (5th scale). It should be noted that on this scale, persons with a pronounced accentuation of this group of qualities are preferred for managerial activity. Naturally, in the selection process, this type of accentuation to a certain level should be considered preferably, and this should be reflected in weighting factors.

Thirdly, there are clearly few people with a lack of excessive internal anxiety about their successes (7th scale). For a real estate trader (and their clients are old people, women, and people with disabilities), a passive-passive stance and self-doubt are contraindicated.

At the same time, among job seekers there are many people prone to doubts, worries, etc. According to this parameter, all the managers examined are equally divided into those for whom these individuals have an optimal level of development, are included in the zone of optimal value and for those who have these qualities developed above the measure.

Fourth, among the subjects there are clearly not enough people with a pronounced individuality, a peculiar perception of the world (8th scale). Most of these people have a well-developed holistic, intuitive perception of others, the ability to recreate a holistic image based on minimal information. With good intelligence (and in most cases, managers were selected with high intelligence), individuals of this type are distinguished by creativity, originality, non-standard perception of the surrounding reality and activity. They observe the selectivity of interpersonal contacts with an emphasis on the depth of interpersonal communication, the independence of opinions, judgments, and a high need for updating their individuality.

This analysis could be continued. But we will draw some conclusions.

So, the identification of areas of optimal development of the manager’s personal qualities in various tests allows us to more comprehensively, deeply see the problems of selection, the formation of this type of professionals.

Based on the conducted experimental research, the image of the best manager of this type is obtained. There he is:

"Active, proactive, emotionally sensitive, open. Ready for emotional empathy with others. Unobtrusive. Courageous, enterprising. He has good health, well-being. Does not strive to surpass others. Rational. Practical. Conscientious. Highly developed EGO personality. He is interested in communicating with others "Along with this, he seeks self-affirmation among his comrades. He feels their true attitude towards himself. Persistent."

And here is the characteristic of the "worst" manager of this type:

“The sense of responsibility has been reduced, he is striving to find profit for himself in everything, including at the expense of his comrades. Ready for associative actions. Inherently inconstancy, mood swings: from increased to sharp decline. An alarming and suspicious component in the personality is intense. Self-love is sometimes developed to soreness when communicating with others can hardly “remove the soya I.” EGO is not developed intensively enough. There are elements of skepticism, indifference, estrangement. There is not enough flexibility. Sociability can be developed to obsession, or vice versa - open, emotionally divorced from others.

Somewhat annoying, pessimistic. Highly demanding <to others, but condescending to himself, his own shortcomings.

Self-esteem is inadequate: somewhat overestimates its capabilities. Prone to unrest. Impressive. Reactions are slowed down. Overly shy. Afraid, unsure of himself. Not inclined to work with people, there is no flexibility in interpersonal relationships. Ranim, possibly neurotic. We are very tired, especially in stressful situations. Emotionally unstable. Inclined to sadness. Compliant, conformal, obedient. Anxiously and intensely monitors the requirements of the authorities. Committed to generally accepted canons.

He cares about his health, worries about him. "

This is a generalized portrait of the best and "worst" manager, obtained by methods that can really (and really were used) during their psychological examination, selection.

It is built by highlighting on a mass of examined, proven in practical work, zones of test values ​​statistically more often associated with the successful and unsuccessful performance of professional duties. However, for each individual subject, the level of development of personality traits is strictly defined. And for each individual person, this or that quality of personality can be both in the zone of optimal development and out of it. In the latter case, the need for psychocorrection of the development of a given personality quality is more likely.

Analyzing the data obtained, it should be borne in mind that people are very diverse, individual, contradictory. And among them there are simply no purely best and “worst” managers. In each individual person, the distinguished features of the best and the “worst” are individually intertwined. If the personality parameters of a particular person are close to the image of the best professional, then the likelihood of him performing professional tasks, all other things being equal, is higher. If the personality traits of a particular professional are closer to the created model of the “worst”, then the probability of him performing professional tasks will be lower than the average statistics. In principle, the statistical models of the best and “worst” professionals (in principle of any professions) introduced in such a way in the computer can now be statistically superimposed on the data, parameters of a particular person, which are diagnosed by test methods that became the basis for creating a statistical personality model for this profession. In this case, there is no contradiction between the requirements of the experimental model, the professiogram (sometimes this contradiction is simply tragic) and the methods of selection, psychodiagnostics.

Experimental results show that if a specific personality of a professional, in this case the manager of the type in question, matches the image of the best specialist, the efficiency of his professional activity is extremely high. If a particular person coincides with the image of the worst professional, the efficiency of his activity is less than 20% of the best.

This is data on the assessment of the personality of a professional of the type in general. However, for a qualitative psychological analysis, it is fundamentally important to know how they “behave” themselves, how individual qualities of a person are statistically related to the results of professional activity.

The concept of factor causes involves the study of the "behavior" of individual qualities of a person in his professional activity.

A specific personality has many qualities, in the Russian language you can count several hundred different personality traits. And they all affect the result of her professional activities. In the case when the level of development of these qualities is within the norm, a forecast based on the effect of cumulative reasons is effective: all qualities to one degree or another affect the success of professional activity and their influence is close to the normal distribution law. As soon as the level of development of a particular personality quality goes beyond the statistical norm, the reliability of the forecast on the effect of cumulative causes falls. Here it is necessary to study the role and place of this quality in the general structure of the personality, the possibility and impossibility of its compensation by other qualities. At the same time, it is important to know how the most important professional qualities of the person “behave” in professional activity, what is the range of their compensation, when the low level of even one of the many qualities becomes a contraindication to professional activity of one type or another with a sufficient level of development of all other qualities. This is the key to understanding factor factors in psychology. Consider this as an example of a number of personality traits.
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