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The formation of professional acme among students of higher and secondary pedagogical educational institutions
The formation of a value-semantic attitude to professional activity and professional acme is a long process, which begins, as a rule, in the process of learning at school and continues at its next level - at a university or secondary specialized institution. The success of the formation of the relationship of the individual to the profession at the second, student stage determines the further development of this relationship at the third stage, that is, at the maturity stage. Student age has a special place in the formation of professional acme. During this period, professionally significant personal qualities are formed, intellectual abilities reach a high level, the prerequisites for the attitude to professional activity as a particularly significant human value and as a way of self-realization are developed.
A comparative study of the features of intellectual and personal acme at the stage of the initial mastery of the profession - during the period of obtaining higher and secondary pedagogical education - was the goal of our study. This task, in turn, is related to the issue of improving the professional psychological and pedagogical training of a graduate of a pedagogical educational institution, the normative quality of which is the standard of a professional teacher who “has systemic thinking, the ability to conduct a conscious analysis of his activities, creative activity, a high level of personal development, professional mobility and adaptability ”(Conceptual Development Framework, 2000).
In Russian psychology, special abilities were widely studied along with general mental abilities and were considered as a specific manifestation of certain components of general abilities in the corresponding activity. Special abilities are understood by Russian psychologists as a complex structural formation, a kind of synthesis of certain properties and components. Hence the task of analyzing the structure of abilities, the selection of components that are essential in each of their form.
The problem of pedagogical abilities in domestic psychology is presented in the research of N.D. Levitova, F.N. Gonobolin, V.A. Krutetskogo, N.V. Kuzmina, V.A. Slastenina, A.I. Shcherbakova, A.K. Markova, L.M. Mitina et al. Based on the provisions of B.M. Teplova and S.L. Rubinstein singled out features and personality traits that ensure the successful mastery of pedagogical activity, that is, “acquire professional pedagogical significance” (Krutischy, Balbasova, 1991).
Despite the variety of accents in the definition of pedagogical abilities by different researchers (V.A. Krutetskiy, N.V. Kuzmina, A.I. Shcherbakov, etc.), certain patterns are revealed: pedagogical abilities are considered as a complex socio-psychological phenomenon, as a set of individually -psychological properties of the personality, ensuring success in mastering the pedagogical activity, as a kind of projection of psychological activity on the personality, a condition for the successful activity of the teacher and the formation of features brought up. The most systematic and holistic general pedagogical abilities necessary for all students of a pedagogical university, regardless of their specialization, are represented by V.A. Krutetskiy, who designated their definitions, components and structure: didactic, academic, perceptual, speech, organizational, communicative, prognostic, suggestive abilities, attention distribution, pedagogical imagination, as well as disposition towards children, pedagogical tact, endurance and self-control.
Considering professionally significant qualities of a teacher (pedagogical orientation, pedagogical goal-setting, pedagogical thinking, pedagogical reflection, pedagogical tact), A.K. Markova notes their proximity to the concept of "ability", and L.M. Mitina correlates them with two levels of pedagogical abilities and defines more than fifty personality traits that correspond to the psychological portrait of an ideal teacher.
Analysis of the structure of special abilities allows us to conclude that their level depends on the level of mental abilities, based on which, as S.L. Rubinstein, lies the quality of mental operations. Consequently, the ability to certain types of activity also depends on the level of development of the processes of analysis, synthesis, generalization and abstraction. Thus, the differentiation of the perception of objects, the allocation of their properties and relationships is central to both mental and special abilities.
In modern world psychology, due to the presence of many theories, several approaches have been identified to identify the internal mechanisms of intellectual activity, to the interpretation of the nature of intelligence (Cold, 1977). One of the most fundamental, justified and productive at the present time is a system-structural approach to the disclosure of the foundations of intellectual abilities and other aspects of mental development. In the framework of this approach, intelligence is defined as the functioning of multilevel cognitive and operational structures that are complex in component composition, the quality and organization of which determines the effectiveness of solving a wide range of problems facing a person, including test ones (Chuprikova, 1997). Under the cognitive structures N.I. Chuprikova understood internal relatively stable psychological systems of knowledge representation, which are stored in long-term memory and are systems for extracting and analyzing current information.
In accordance with the orthogenetic principle of development of H. Werner, according to which any development proceeds from a state of globality and undifferentiated ™ to an increase in differentiation, fragmentation, the development of cognitive structures, which are a substrate (carrier) of abilities, is characterized by an increase in their systemic hierarchical organization and differentiation. More complex, highly fragmented, and hierarchically ordered cognitive structures that allow multidimensional and flexible analysis and synthesis of reality develop from simpler, diffuse, global, or poorly dissected structures through their gradual differentiation (Chuprshova, 1997, 2003). The validity of this approach and its provisions is confirmed by a number of experimental studies conducted by us and under our guidance by graduate students and applicants in different samples, reflecting the age (from preschool children to high school students) and specific (children with distortion and mental retardation) aspects of the subjects. The range of action of the principle of systemic differentiation is not limited to the framework of intelligence, it also determines the development of special abilities (Chuprikova, 1997) and the formation of personality structures, which also found experimental confirmation in dissertation papers written under our guidance.
To develop a consistent theory of mental development, we need experimental data obtained on the problem of intellectual and personal development not only at preschool and school age, but also at other ages, in particular, during the initial professional formation of a person. This period falls on the student age, which in psychology was studied as a priority by the school of B.G. Ananyeva (L.N. Granovskaya, M.D. Dvoryashina, N.V. Kuzmina, E.I. Stepanova, etc.). It was shown that further development, a complex restructuring of mental functions within the intellect, a change in the entire personality structure (self-esteem, motivational-targeted basis of training) in this period in connection with entry into new social societies. A criterion for the development of intelligence at this age is the nature of intra- and interfunctional relationships between various cognitive functions and, in particular, the measure of their integration (Ananyev, 1968; Kholodnaya, 1997).
Analyzing and summarizing the research results, it can be noted that student age is the period of the formation of a holistic personality, when there is a “consolidation of the psychological forces of a person” (Dvoryashina, 1969), stable personality traits are developed, and mental processes are stabilized. This is the age of the formation of professional and personal self-consciousness, which acts as an internal personal condition and a prerequisite for the student to actively develop areas of activity that are significant for him, as the basis for self-regulation and self-government.
This study is aimed at a comparative study of the cognitive and personal development of future subject teachers of different specializations: physicists and philologists of a pedagogical university and mathematicians and philologists of a pedagogical college. It is important to get an answer to the question of whether adults of the same age and one professional orientation, but of different specialization, in terms of acme in the field of intellectual, personal development and pedagogical abilities differ from future teachers of an educational school with different specializations. At the same time, we proceeded from the assumption that the different educational specialization of pedagogical and pedagogical students forms and develops various cognitive structures and substructures in them; the features of future subject teachers of different specializations will be manifested in the level of development and structure of intelligence, in the degree of cognitive differentiated ™, the development of personality structures, in the individual typological features of the nervous system.
The main objectives of this study were as follows:
1. Experimentally study the features of cognitive differentiated ™, intellectual, personal development and pedagogical abilities of students with different specializations.
2. To identify the nature of the relationship between indicators of intellectual and personal development of some individual psychological and psychophysiological features.
The study was conducted on the basis of the Syktyvkar Pedagogical Institute (18 physics students and 21 pre-graduate philologist IV-ro students were examined) and the state educational institution of secondary vocational education “Pedagogical College” of Zheleznovodsk, Stavropol Territory (27 IV-ro students participated course with specializations "Mathematics" and "Russian language and literature").
I block: Methods for assessing the intellectual development of students of various specialties: 1) indicators of average academic performance (general academic, subject and academic performance in the psychological and pedagogical block); 2) assessment of the level of pedagogical abilities according to the methodology “Pedagogical situations” (R.S.
Nemov); 3) D. Veksler's intelligence test (in the adaptation of A.Yu. Panasyuk, 1973), aimed at identifying the level of development of verbal, non-verbal and general intelligence, as well as the level of formation of certain intellectual properties.
Block II: Methods of studying the level of cognitive differentiation / globality: 1) a computer version of the methodology for speedy classification of stimulus objects (N.I. Chuprikova, TA. Ratanova); 2) the test of the included figures by G. Whitkin, designed to study the degree of dissection of the cognitive structures of students, to identify their field dependence / field independence - the ability to dismember the whole, to distinguish a given figure from the background, overcoming the context that includes it.
Block III: Diagnostic techniques for personality traits: a questionnaire for determining the orientation of the personality (EI Rogov); differential diagnostic questionnaire (DDO) E.A. Klimova; methodology "Self-assessment of general pedagogical abilities" according to the classification of V.A. Krutetskiy (E.M. Vasilieva); "Self-assessment of professionally significant qualities" (EM Vasilieva), as well as the test of D. Golland (to determine the type of personality); Methodology “Studying the motives of students' educational activities” (A.A. Rean, V.A.
Block IV: Methods for assessing individual psychological and psychophysiological characteristics of a personality: questionnaire J. Strelau; a questionnaire on the ratio of two signal systems B.R. Kadyrov et al.
The study obtained the following main results:
1. Philology students from two samples and their subgroups (better and worse achievers) are characterized by higher academic performance compared to pedagogical physicists and pedagogical college mathematicians: all types of academic performance at philologists are higher than at physicists and mathematicians. This indicates a more successful assimilation by philologists of the subjects of the humanitarian cycle compared with physicists and mathematicians of subjects of the physical and mathematical cycle and indicates that academic performance is not always an indispensable indicator of high mental achievement.
2. The indicators of intelligence (mental abilities) according to the text of D. Veksler (individual subtests - VIP, NIP and OIP) are significantly higher for students of two specializations of a pedagogical university than for students of the same or similar specialization of pedagogical college (secondary pedagogical education). However, the level of intellectual development for these indicators in both samples is significantly higher among students of physicists and mathematicians and in their subgroups (better and worse achievers) than philologists. In addition, physicists turned out to be more independent according to the test of G. Whitkin, that is, they are able to quickly distinguish a given figure from a complex background compared to philologists.
At the same time, differences in the structure of intelligence among pedagogical and pedagogical students were revealed: for pedagogical students of both specializations, verbal intellect prevails over nonverbal, and pedagogical students, on the contrary, nonverbal intellect prevails over verbal. The higher level of formation of verbal intellect substructures in students of a pedagogical university is probably due to the greater theoretical orientation of the subjects taught, and the greater formation of nonverbal substructures in pedagogical students is due to the greater practical orientation of their studies.
Group results of students 'intellectual development were confirmed by a correlation analysis of the relationships between different indicators of intellectual development in different samples and groups of students' specializations. There were more of them among physicists than among philologists of a pedagogical university, which indicates greater differentiation and integrated ™, as well as a higher maturity of cognitive substructures in the former than in the latter. Significant correlations in intellectual indicators are similar among students of pedagogical college of both specializations.
3. The indicators of pedagogical abilities of students of pedagogical and pedagogical colleges (both medium-group and subgroups are better and worse than successful physicists, mathematicians and philologists) are at an average level of development (according to the methodology “Pedagogical situations”) and, according to N.V. Kuzmina, increase only in the first 5-10 years of teaching.
4. The analysis of cognitive differentiated ™ (according to the method of “speed classification” of stimulus objects by NI Chuprikova, TA. Ratanova) showed that groups of physics students and mathematicians and their subgroups with different academic performance are characterized by the ability to analyze faster and more qualitatively. subtle differentiation and integration of objects according to their properties and relationships, that is, a greater degree of dissection of representative-cognitive psychological structures than groups of philologists and their subgroups with different performance. At the same time, the level of cognitive differentiation and the ability to process information for well-performing philologists is much higher and better than for their worse-performing classmates, while physicists and mathematicians with one or another academic performance differ slightly from each other.
5. Future teachers of physics and mathematics are distinguished by a higher level of personal development, which is expressed in adequate self-esteem, orientation put on (tasks, results) and communication (interaction), in cognitive needs and in the motives of achievement in educational activity (educational goal, academic success work) compared with philologists, who are dominated by a personal orientation (towards oneself) and a focus on communication, motives for one’s own well-being, striving for prestige and excellence, self-employment, one’s own experiences mi As indicated by N.A. Aminov (1988), namely the focus on partnership (interaction) and focus on business, that is, the result, contribute to the mastery of pedagogical activity, professional self-improvement.
The educational motivation of students of both specializations with higher academic performance is more focused on achieving the ultimate goal of educational activity. For worse performing students — physicists, mathematicians, and philologists — educational motives are poorly goal-oriented, they are aimed at the current conditions of educational activity, and are more likely situational in nature.
6. The professional inclinations revealed in our study in groups and subgroups, which are better and worse than successful students, both mathematical physicists and philologists, confirm the correctness of their choice of specialization in the pedagogical profession. Полученные данные характеризуют физиков и математиков как склонных перерабатывать информацию, касающуюся техники и знаковых систем; фи-лологов же отличают ярко выраженное мышление в виде художественных образов и больший интерес к людям при одновременной склонности некоторых из них к природе, технике, знаковым системам.
В результате проведенного анализа показателей профессионального типа личности по методике Д. Голланда в группах студентов-математиков и филологов педколледжа и в их подгруппах, выделенных по успеваемости, было установлено, что самый высокий показатель (9,93) и математики и филологи имеют по социальному типу личности, что весьма благоприятно для овладения ими педагогической деятельностью, так как они обла-дают социальными умениями и нуждаются в социальных контактах. Также получены данные о том, что группа студентов-математиков педкол-леджа отличается от филологов преобладанием интеллектуального и конвенционального типов личности, а для филологов характерен артистический ее тип (по методике Д. Голланда).
7. Для студентов обеих специализаций педвуза и педколледжа по группам в целом, а также в подгруппах, выделенных по успеваемости, характерны: преобладание второй сигнальной системы, более высокий уровень аналитико-синтетической деятельности, принадлежность к «мыслительному» типу (кроме хуже успевающих филологов, у которых преобладает первая сигнальная система (по Б.Р. Кадырову), что соответствует «художественному» типу по И.П. Павлову. Эти различия, возможно, связаны с «нетипичностью» распределения функций по полушариям (В.В. Суворова, Э.А. Голубева), с невысокой дифферен-цированностью проявлений соотношения сигнальных систем.
8. В выборке студентов педвуза были выявлены значимо более высокие показатели по силе и подвижности нервной системы (по опроснику Я. Стреляу) у филологов, чем у физиков, что характеризуют первых как более быстрых в освоении нового материала, в деятельности, в речи, в общей подвижности, а вторых (физиков) - как неторопливых в принятии решений, в движениях, речи, но отличающихся прочностью знаний и навыков. У студентов двух специализаций педколледжа статистически значимых различий в свойствах нервной системы не обнаружилось, хотя более высокие их показатели оказались у математиков, чем у филологов.
9. Обнаруженная тенденция снижения количества значимых корреляций в группах физиков и математиков и в подгруппах специализаций с более высокой академической успеваемостью подтверждает ранее выявленную общую закономерность: с возрастом и развитием интеллектуаль-ной сферы снижаются корреляционные связи (Дворяшина, 1969 и др.).
10.Интеркорреляционные связи показателей интеллектуального развития, дифференцировок стимул-объектов с личностными, индивиду-ально типологическими показателями указывают на некоторые сходные и отличительные особенности когнитивной дифференцированности и организации личностных структур у студентов двух специализаций педву-за и педколледжа. Например, была выявлена большая связь дифференцировок у филологов, чем у физиков педвуза, и в подгруппах с более высо-кой успеваемостью. В выборке же студентов педколледжа в группах мате-матиков и филологов получена противоположная картина корреляционных связей времени дифференцировок с личностными показателями.
Полученные данные свидетельствуют о существовании единых природных основ развития когнитивной и личностной сфер человека (Чуп-рикова, 1997, 2003). Кроме того, они говорят о становлении более высокого интеллектуального, личностного и профессионального акме у студентов педвуза, чем у учащихся педколледжа.
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