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Typologies of personality and character

Theoretical developments in the development of character, the identification of personality traits and tendencies are associated with a holistic approach to the study of personality and cover its three levels.

The first of them reflects the innate characteristics that determine the rate of mental activity, the strength and mobility of mental processes, the prevailing constant characteristics of the emotional sphere and other parameters related to temperament.

The second level reveals the totality, the stability of the characteristics formed in the process of accumulation of individual social experience, which manifest themselves both in the form of automated compensatory and adaptive mechanisms, and in the conscious activity of the individual, in the prevailing type of social behavior. This level is closer to what is called a person’s character.

The third level concerns the social orientation of the individual, the hierarchy of values ​​of the individual, his attitude to morality, issues of conscience, duty, socially useful activity.

These levels overlap and are represented in the behavior of the individual in the form of an emotional-dynamic pattern that unites one or several leading tendencies. The leading trend is a stable, core quality of personality, rooted in the type of nervous activity, in the constitutionally defined properties of the nervous system. This tendency gives an individual coloring to the style of experience, thinking, interpersonal behavior, motivation, type of reaction to stress, and features of adaptation mechanisms.

Stable individual-personal tendencies create a certain course limiting the number of degrees of freedom in the formation of higher levels of personality organization - social orientation, hierarchy of values, perceived motivation, moral and ethical guidelines.

The individual-personal typology developed on this methodological basis is based on a comparison of contrasting properties: introversion-extraversion, anxiety - aggressiveness, lability - rigidity, sensitivity - spontaneity. These properties are related to the properties of the nervous system: activation – inactivation, lability – inertness, dynamic excitation –– dynamic inhibition, and with types of nervous activity –– weak and strong.

Individual-personal style, which has become a familiar way of experiencing and behavior, a chain of consistently arising reactions to environmental stimuli.
Style forms a certain personal portrait, determines the attitude of the individual to the world around him.

The type of response is largely determined by the type of GNI (higher nervous activity). Hence the division into hypertypes (people with high external reactivity, but much less reflexivity, that is, intrapsychic activity — extroverts, optimists, non-conforming and aspiring to lead, emotionally bright personalities) and hypotheses (people who are seemingly more passive and restrained in emotional manifestations, with intense intrapsychic activity - introverts, pessimists, dependent and conformal personalities).

Further gradation provides the following typology. Highly anxious, non-aggressive, fear-prone, focused on generally accepted norms of behavior, significantly dependent on environmental exposure, motivated by external influence - heteronomic personalities. Low-anxiety, aggressive, spontaneous, independent of external influence, opinion-oriented subjectively-motivated personality.

Intermediate types of response - mixed: 1) labile (emotionally unstable sociable person - the result of mixing anxiety with extroversion); 2) rigid, unsociable - mixing emotional stability with introversion.

It is established that each type of response is a continuation of that individual personal leading tendency, which is based on the type of higher nervous activity and properties of the nervous system. In turn, the type of response itself is the basis for the formation of one or another personality trait, manifested as a certain character trait and individual tendency, but within the framework of the same tendency.
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Typologies of personality and character

  1. Typologies of personality and character
    Theoretical developments in the development of character, the identification of personality traits and tendencies are associated with a holistic approach to the study of personality and cover its three levels. The first of them reflects the innate characteristics that determine the rate of mental activity, strength and mobility of mental processes, the prevailing constant characteristics of the emotional sphere and other parameters,
  2. Typology of individual characters
    The typology of individual characters reflects the psychological situation where, within the same culture, one person is different from another. The classic of this trend is C. Jung, who for the first time managed to create a typology of characters. C. Jung himself believed that “the goal of a psychological typology is not to classify people by category, it’s rather a tool for a researcher who needs
  3. Character: typology and development in the process of ship service
    By character1, in the broad sense of the word, we understand individually pronounced and qualitatively unique psychological traits of a person, influencing his behavior and actions. Those personality traits that belong to a character are called character traits. These are not random manifestations of personality, but stable features of human behavior that have become properties of the personality itself. For example, a person
  4. Socio-Cultural Typology of Personality Life Strategies
    1. strategy of life well-being (acquisition of material values) 2. strategy of life success (success, growth) 3. strategy of self-realization
  5. The applied nature of the military-psychological understanding of the personality of a serviceman
    The level of human development is embodied in the character, which is formed and manifested in the process of activity. To study character means to study ways of human behavior in different situations. In the complex of individual psychological properties of the personality of a serviceman, an important place is occupied by his abilities, which express the readiness of a serviceman to master certain types of activity.
  6. Analysis of the impact of character accentuation on personal professional growth
    To analyze the impact of character accentuation on the professional growth of a person, we reviewed the biography of Russian writer Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (1809-1852). N.V. Gogol was born in the town of Great Sorochintsy of the Mirgorod district of the Poltava province in the family of a landowner. The mother showed great concern for the religious upbringing of her son, who, however, was influenced not so much by the ceremonial
  7. Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. A sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in military personnel
    Typology of character and accentuations in modern psychology. Sticking type of accentuation of character and features of its manifestation in
  8. Typology of thinking styles
    The way of thinking is determined by the way a person collects information and how he processes it. Stylistic features of thinking belong to the individual characteristics of a person. Knowledge of the existing typologies of thinking styles will allow you to define your own peculiarities of thinking and thereby increase your autopsychological competence. There are two main types of perception of information:
  9. Typology of thinking styles
    The way of thinking is determined by the way a person collects information and how he processes it. Stylistic features of thinking belong to the individual characteristics of a person. Knowledge of the existing typologies of thinking styles will allow you to define your own peculiarities of thinking and thereby increase your autopsychological competence. There are two main types of perception of information:
  10. Typology of styles
    The problem of the style of professional activity involves the study of man as an active subject in the space of the many different in its nature determinants of its development, activity and behavior. To begin, consider the various manifestations of the phenomenon "style". To date, various types of styles (cognitive, emotional, activities, guides,
  11. Typology of styles
    The problem of the style of professional activity involves the study of man as an active subject in the space of the many different in its nature determinants of its development, activity and behavior. To begin, consider the various manifestations of the phenomenon "style". To date, various types of styles (cognitive, emotional, activities, guides,
  12. Typology of individuals
    The ambivalent unity of the uniqueness of all individuals, on the one hand, and on the other, their inevitable coexistence predetermines the fact that people are not only unique, but in some ways similar. If individual differences increase the adaptability of the entire population, then individual similarities provide the possibility of mutual understanding and interaction, "cementing" the community. Similarities and
  13. Typology of individuals
    The ambivalent unity of the uniqueness of all individuals, on the one hand, and on the other, their inevitable coexistence predetermines the fact that people are not only unique, but in some ways similar. If individual differences increase the adaptability of the entire population, then individual similarities provide the possibility of mutual understanding and interaction, "cementing" the community. Similarities and
  14. The concept of personality in psychology. The essence of the personality and the factors of its formation
    In psychological science, the category of "personality" refers to the number of basic concepts. However, the concept of personality is not purely psychological and is studied by all social sciences, including philosophy, sociology, and pedagogy. From the standpoint of psychological science, a person is a specific person, taken in the system of his stable socially determined psychological characteristics, which
  15. Course work. Personality and team. The interaction of the individual and the team in the conditions of military service, 2011
    The theoretical aspect of personality and team. The concept of personality in psychology. The essence of the personality and the factors of its formation. The concept and essence of the military team. Stages and features of the formation of the military team. Analysis of the interaction between the individual and the team in the conditions of military service. Features of the psychology of relationships among military personnel. Diagnosis of conflicts in the military
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