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Typology of styles

The problem of the style of professional activity involves the study of man as an active subject in the space of the many different in its nature determinants of its development, activity and behavior. To begin, consider the various manifestations of the phenomenon "style".

To date, various types of styles (cognitive, emotional, activities, guidance, communication, behavior, life, perceptual, reactive, and many others) have been studied and described in psychology. The cognition of the problem of style is associated with a wide range of studies of individuality, personality and its life course, the development of concepts of the subject of activity, communication, joint activity.

Among the various approaches that emerged in the 40s - 50s of the last century, we can distinguish several methodologically and methodologically the most consistent, in the "assets" of which there are numerous publications.

Chronologically, “life styles” (behavior, activity, self-regulation) can be considered the first direction. The concept of style in psychology introduced at the beginning of the XX century. A. Adler to explain the emerging individual traits, behavioral patterns, the dynamics of a person’s life goals, which contribute to masking and compensating for his individual defects (physical, psychological, social) and overcoming an inferiority complex. Such a style is formed spontaneously as a result of the interaction of the individuality of a person and the conditions of his life. The concepts of lifestyle, character, personality, Adler identified.

Understanding of style as personal dispositions over time is refined and differentiated. G.Olport in the style of individual differences in expression, in an expressive manner of behavior, reflecting the attitude of the individual to objects and subjects, and “instrumental”, personality characteristics (methods and means of behavior) that are operational in nature, through which a person realizes his motives and goals Later, Stagner more clearly and consistently distinguishes between "perceptual styles" - schemes of perceptual acts, and "reactive styles" - types of somatic expression of a person's emotional experiences.

The apparent spontaneity of the formation of certain stylistic manifestations indicates their probable genetic determinism and brings temperament closer to modern concepts, which can be viewed as a behavioral style that is formed taking into account the influence of the environment and causes relatively stable behavioral strategies in certain classes of situations. For example, V.M. The temperament of the merchants distinguishes between structural (formal-dynamic) and functional (formal-program) aspects, considering the individual-biological features of a person as the basis of some innate behavioral programs *.

* See the review in the book: Tolochek V.A. Styles of professional activity.



Lifestyle as a global psychological phenomenon, of course, could not be discussed in the philosophical, sociological, socio-psychological literature. The concept of a person’s life course has been developed since the 1930s. S. Buhler, M. Weber, T. Verdun, P. Jean, V. Warner, S.L. Rubinstein et al. Researchers linked people's life styles with their affiliation to a particular class, social stratum, and involvement in a particular work activity, which led to the formation of a certain manner in people to dress, socialize, leisure activities, etc.

In domestic psychology, there are three different approaches to this problem: 1) conceptual - the study of style based on more general philosophical, sociological, and psychological categories; 2) integral, in which the concept of lifestyle (and phenomena close to it in content — behavior, activity, relationships, self-regulation) are determined on the basis of the synthesis of more elementary and sufficiently studied components, integrating the latter into a new qualitative education; 3) empirical - research and description of different models, options, behavioral strategies, attitudes, which can be evaluated as more particular manifestations of a person’s lifestyle in a particular area, for example, in communication. In general, life styles are defined as "psychological mechanisms of social activity"; as "the connection of individuality with the conditions of life", the uniqueness of the way of life, its organization *; communicative styles - as "sustainable individually peculiar methods and ways of transmitting and receiving information in the process of communication".

* Abulkhanova-Slavskaya K.A. Life strategy.



The second major direction can be considered “leadership / leadership styles”, the consistent study of which opens with K. Levin’s work with 1939 employees who distinguished authoritarian, democratic and liberal styles, distinguishing between their two aspects: the content of the solutions proposed by the group leader and the technique , tricks) of the implementation of these decisions. Two criteria for evaluating style: focus on production problems for human relations, in the continuum of which eight styles are potentially different, highlighted F. Fidler.

In subsequent numerous studies of leadership style and leadership, such "factors" as complexity of production tasks, interest and maturity of the team, formal and informal organization, institutional characteristics, etc., were considered, but the question of the relationship between the above "variables" remains controversial *. Management styles are understood to be “consistently repetitive features,” “individual-typical features of a coherent, relatively stable system of ways, methods, and techniques for influencing a manager on a team.” Within this framework, four main approaches can be distinguished: 1) personal (reflecting the emphasis on the personality of the manager as the main determinant of his style); 2) behavioral (connecting styles with behavior, personality traits, attitudes, motives of subordinates); 3) complex (reflecting the desire to summarize the most studied determinants of style); 4) structural-functional (characterized by the question about the internal organization of style).

* See: Tolochek V.A. Professional styles



The third direction - “cognitive styles” (cognitive controls) - is born in the “New Look” approach in the early 1950s, when psychologists become the object of research for individual differences in the perceptual and cognitive processes. Representatives of the cognitive direction of neo-Freudianism studied the structural formations of the human psyche, mediating internal (motivational) and external influences. In the works of the Minenger group, cognitive styles (smoothing / emphasizing differences, range of equivalence, rigidity / flexibility of cognitive control, narrowness / breadth of scanning, tolerance for unreal experience, impulsivity / reflexivity) are understood as individual forms of cognitive processes that ensure their adequacy and focus on the needs individual and environment. Another important basis for cognitive-style research is the work of G. Uitkin, who has enriched Gestalt ideas of field and field behavior by studying his individual differences (field dependence / field independence). Cognitive styles, reflecting connections in various psychological manifestations (perception, memory, thinking, behavior, activity, communication) are defined as "persistent and permanent individual differences in cognitive organization", "preferred way of cognitive analysis and structuring of their environment", "mental profile abilities "," a system of constitutive mechanisms that mediate the intentions of the individual and the requirements of the objective situation, "" mediating link or the projection of the personality on the cognitive sphere "*.

* See the review in the book. Tolochek V.A. Professional styles



"Individual styles of activity" - the fourth direction, developed by Russian psychologists E.A. Klimov. V.S. Merlin, E.P. Ilyin et al. This direction differs from the foreign ones by an "activity-based" rather than a "personal" approach to the determination of style. His initial theoretical positions were the ideas of LS Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Halperin, S.L. Rubinstein, B.M. Teplova, V.S. Merlin on the social conditionality of the development of the psyche, the social equivalence of various biological inclinations, the operational structure of abilities and the possibility of their mutual compensation.

The peculiarity of our understanding of the phenomenon "style" (the style of professional activity of public servants, leadership style) is that the "leadership styles", for example, are considered primarily as psychological systems of an individual subject (his cognitive, emotional, behavioral, individual style of activity), included in the joint professional activities of many subjects. One of the specific environmental factors that determine the originality of the manifestation of the subject’s style is the management structure.

But if a manager is not considered as a separate entity - a carrier of a certain individual style of activity, by definition, E.A.
Klimov, "a sustainable system of ways (activities)" or - in the broad sense of the word - as "an individually-peculiar system of psychological means to which a person consciously or spontaneously resorts in order to best balance his ... individuality with objective, external conditions of activity" *, but as an active participant in more general socio-psychological "units", for example, "triads" (a higher manager - a leader - a subordinate, a lower manager), many of the previous ideas about his cardin style no change.

* Klimov E.A. Individual style of activity, depending on the properties of the nervous system. Kazan, 1969. p. 49.



Joint activity has a common operational structure for its subjects (which is given by definition and by the essence of joint activity) and a common motivational-semantic structure. At the same time, the general fund of semantic formations that is being formed in joint activity acts as its regulator and can be considered as a criterion of its compatibility. The third most important characteristic of joint activities can be called the commonness of the interpersonal space of its interacting subjects. Under the interpersonal space (socio-psychological space of activity) is meant the socio-psychological aspect of its organization: the distribution of its functions, roles of subjects, representation of one subject in another, their mutual influences and "value contributions", their cooperation-competition relations, subjective positions ("psychological niches"), etc.

So, in a broad sense, style as a "style of a person" is a permanent, fairly stable, universal, "through", holistic mental education, including conscious and unconscious mechanisms of passive and active (transformative) adaptation of man to the environment. The style is manifested in a peculiar way depending on the organization of the internal ("integral individuality") and external environment (organization of the components of the activities and interactions of the subjects), allows for the development of individual styles and their mutual transitions. The style provides for the integration of the mental sphere of a person, his interactions with the external environment (acting as a "mediating" link and one of his behavioral mechanisms). The style of the subject is both a cause and a consequence of his mental development. Separating such an activity of a person as an activity, and such features of the external environment as the requirements of a profession, one can speak about the styles of professional activity - integral hierarchical bipolar dynamic systems of psychological means of carrying out activities, determined not only by the individuality of the subjects, but, above all, by the organization of the environment (components activities and interpersonal space of interacting subjects), "removing" some of the individual characteristics of the subjective who in.

The analysis of the problem of style as a whole allows to single out its general hierarchical structural and functional organization: subjectively convenient conditions of activity - structure - type of organization of activity. The subject’s adaptation to activity begins with its nonspecific factors (modes of operation, preferred partners, etc.) and at the second stage mastering its subject, "technical" actions (structure) takes place, and the most subtle and complete equilibration, coordination of individuality and external requirements occurs on the third step. However, the characteristics of one of the three hierarchical levels (for example, "decision-making style", "communication style", etc.) usually become the subject of individual studies of the subject's style, which determines the limitations of the explanation of this phenomenon.

An analysis of the problem of style in psychology as a whole and of different stylistic approaches gives sufficient grounds for their initial classification to use similar “coordinates”: a) “structuredness of the external environment” and b) “subject-object” / “subject-subject” relations, or “activity / interaction "*. With this approach, all the variety of styles can be distributed in the system of the two above-mentioned coordinates.

* Tolochek V.A. Professional styles



Typically, integrated circuit styles are built hierarchically. Less attention is paid to internal organizing conditions of style. The study of three important determinants of style - "individual psychological", "social psychological" and "professional technological" - allows you to identify the likely commonality of the structural and functional organization of different styles (cognitive, emotional, leadership, behavior, individual lifestyles) as their unifying base. Thus, in the initial variety one can distinguish four main groups of styles:

“adaptations” (the organization of mental activity in a certain sphere of its manifestation — cognitive, emotional, motor, etc.) are local systems for coordinating individuality with specific external conditions. These include cognitive styles, emotional, action (motor) styles. This group of styles reflects the peculiarities of a person’s adaptation to the environment, manifestations of his individuality, organization of his motor, emotional and cognitive spheres);

"activities" (built taking into account the objective structure of the environment) - the system of interfacing individuality with labor, professional, technological systems. These include the traditionally studied "individual styles of activity". This group of styles describes how a person joins professional and technological systems;

“interactions” are systems for linking the individuality of a subject with social structures, processes, and other subjects. These styles characterize the characteristics of complicity, human interaction with others in social and sociotechnological systems (styles of leadership, pedagogical activity, etc.);

“relations” are systems of interfacing individuality with society, the totality of living conditions (implied life styles, behaviors). They reflect the peculiarities of the human perception of the world, the use of its products, personal meanings, values, etc.

The problem of the subject's style can and should be considered in unity with other stylistic manifestations — the cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor styles, the individual style of activity, behavior, and life style in general, that is, as a single stylistic cycle. With this approach, both the factors of specific determination of style and its specific manifestations in individual and joint activities become more apparent, which greatly facilitates the task of correcting the styles of subjects and coordinating their individualities in organizational structures.

In general, an individual style can be viewed as a psychological system that ensures a person’s meeting with himself (as an individual, subject, personality, individuality), as an optimal alignment of a person’s personality with conditions (requirements of educational or professional activities, partners ’identity and many others). psychological system of active individual adaptation of a person to the environment in a number of different stylistic manifestations.

Let's pay attention to the qualitative feature of the phenomenon "style", which distinguishes it from other psychological formations. Style is not a “trait,” not a “type,” not a “characteristic.” Style is a dynamic psychological system of active adaptation of the subject to environmental conditions. As external conditions, there may be peculiarities of the subject’s professional activity, organization’s corporate culture, requirements of higher management, interpersonal relations in a team, as well as teaching or training methods implemented by a given teacher, and much more. In a word, everything that can be objectively or subjectively significant factors for the vital activity of a given person. Probably, different styles are the result of integrating more particular styles on the basis of nested systems.

Summary

Индивидуальность в системе качеств человека занимает одно из центральных мест, выступая как интегральный феномен, своеобразно проявляющийся на разных ступенях личностной зрелости человека.

Продвижение человека к вершинам его личностного и профессионального развития сопряжено с постоянными процессами интеграции, с одной стороны, индивидуально-психологических особенностей человека – с другой, интеграции его индивидуальности с совокупностью условий среды, профессиональной деятельности в частности, и формирования его индивидуального стиля (деятельности, жизнедеятельности и др.). "Деятельностная" и "поведенческая" линии развития человека взаимосвязаны; "внешние" условия проявляются через "внутренние" (С.Л. Рубинштейн). Интегрируясь и синтезируясь в "стиль", психические качества субъекта сами выступают как его новые "внутренние" условия, как новая причина дальнейшего развития личности и субъекта деятельности.
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