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Hyperplastic, dysplastic and tumor processes of the mammary gland

The reproductive system of a woman along with the genitals includes the mammary glands. The tissues of the latter are targets not only for prolactin, but also for sex steroid hormones, gonadotropic hormones, and hormones of other endocrine glands. A special science is identified - mammology, which deals with the physiology and pathology of the mammary gland.

Maximally developing and functioning in the postpartum period (lactation), the mammary glands are influenced by the neuroendocrine system and retain high sensitivity to hormones throughout life. In them, certain cyclic changes occur in the phases of the menstrual cycle. If during lactation their inflammatory diseases (mastitis) are most common, then in all other periods of a woman’s life, dysplastic processes are a more frequent pathology. The relevance of their study is due primarily to the fact that against the background of dysplasia, breast cancer develops - a common malignant tumor in women.

All processes of development, growth and functioning of the mammary gland occur under the control of a complex neuroendocrine regulatory system. The growth and development of ducts and connective tissue is carried out mainly due to estrogen with the onset of the puberty. Subsequently, the role of progesterone increases, under the influence of which glandular tissue grows and develops, the number of alveoli, lobules and lobes increases. Stimulation of secretion by lactocytes is provided by prolactin in interaction with steroid hormones and other pituitary hormones.
Intensive growth and development of glands during pregnancy occurs under the influence of high levels of estrogen, progesterone and other hormones of the fetoplacental system, as well as an increased content of prolactin with a decrease in the levels of hormones of the fetoplacental complex. In the postpartum period, the amount of prolactin increases significantly, which exhibits a high secretory activity in the mammary glands. Interacting with the sympathoadrenal system, corticosteroids, insulin and other products of the metabolism of processes, prolactin not only regulates the secretory function of the mammary gland, but also the composition of milk (protein components, fats, carbohydrates and mineral substrates). The lactation process is also regulated by oxytocin and reflexively (act of sucking).

Therefore, the complex processes of growth, development and functional state of the mammary glands occur under the influence of neurohumoral regulation mechanisms, which primarily affect parenchymal and connective tissue structures. In adipose tissue, a depot of sex steroid hormones, their extra-gonadic metabolic transformations are carried out. With age, these processes accelerate. Excessive amounts of estrogenic compounds are produced in adipose tissue, especially estrone, and the disproportion of these phenomena can be the most important cause of dysplastic processes and breast cancer, which are considered hormone-dependent diseases.
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Hyperplastic, dysplastic and tumor processes of the mammary gland

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