about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Gastrointestinal tract

More than half of pregnant women have an increase in appetite, weight gain can reach 400 g per week, and by the end of pregnancy is 12 kg. Such a change in the regulation of feelings of hunger and satiety provides increased needs of the mother's body for energy and plastic materials. Often there are taste perversions and whims associated with a change in the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract.

Excess estrogen causes swelling, swelling, and increased fragility of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. This point is important when intubation is difficult or the toilet of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract is used, when massive bleeding can occur.

There is a displacement of the stomach up and back, a decrease in its tone, difficulty evacuating food, and increasing intragastric pressure. If at the same time there is no reflex increase in the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, the risk of aspiration of the gastric contents with general anesthesia or eclampsia increases sharply. In addition, pregnant women may experience increased acidity of gastric juice amid increased levels of gastrin, possibly of placental origin.

These features must be taken into account during an emergency operation, especially if it is impossible to evacuate the gastric contents.
In this situation, the best option for anesthesia (in the absence of contraindications) is regional anesthesia.

The motility of the small and large intestines is also reduced, which explains the development of constipation in pregnant women. An increase in pressure in the inferior vena cava causes stagnation in the venous system, in particular, in hemorrhoidal veins, predisposing to the development of hemorrhoids.

Changes in liver function include an increase in glycogen, an increase in the synthesis of a- and (3-globulins, fibrinogen, an increase in blood alkaline phosphatase activity, direct bilirubin content. A decrease in serum pseudocholinesterase as a result of liver dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, hyperestrogenemia is noted. However, this fact does not cause the expected prolonged action of succinylcholine.

The expansion of the sphincter of the gallbladder under the action of progesterone predisposes to the development of cholestasis and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder.

<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Gastrointestinal tract

  1. Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a problem that doctors in the USA often encounter (300 thousand hospitalizations annually). The degree of hemorrhage varies from small slow bleeding to life-threatening conditions that contribute to the development of iron deficiency anemia. Mortality from upper gastrointestinal tract in the USA is 8%. This indicator has not changed much.
  2. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma
    In systemic dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see chapter 13), any segment of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved again. However, up to 40% of lymphomas develop not in the lymph nodes, but in other organs, among which the intestine is the most frequent localization. By the time of recognition of the primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract, the tumor process does not affect either the liver or
  3. Gastrointestinal metabolism
    Liquid and electrolytes are excreted in large quantities with digestive secretions in the gastrointestinal tract, but under normal conditions they are mostly reabsorbed (Fig. 20). Fig. 20. Secretion of water and electrolyte (meq / l of the amount of secretion indicated in the table) (Geigy). Potassium is excreted in the intestines (especially in the large intestine), and it is replaced during the exchange process with sodium (Gooptu with
  4. Gastrointestinal Tumors
    In the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (hollow organs, pancreas, liver, biliary tree), various types of tumors are much more common than in other body systems, and such patients have a much higher degree of probability of death. However, there is no single simple explanation for the etiology of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. International studies
  5. Gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver.
    Changes in the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy are associated mainly with its anatomical displacement by an increasing uterus. The axis of the stomach changes its position from vertical to horizontal, which leads to an increase in intragastric pressure and a change in the angle of connection of the stomach with the esophagus. This in turn leads to relative insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter. If
  6. Gastrointestinal diseases
    Conditions leading to dysphagia Causes: • tumor esophageal stricture; • ???? achalasia; • ???? diffuse spasm of the esophagus; • ???? medicinal esophagitis; • ???? hiatal hernia; • ???? collagenoses; • ???? chemical burn of the esophagus; • ???? diverticulum of the esophagus; • ???? esophageal infections (candidiasis). Features of anesthesia: • preoperative preparation is needed
  7. Gastrointestinal diseases
    ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Features of the gastrointestinal tract determine the specifics of the clinical picture in pathological conditions. The oral cavity in the newborn is poorly developed, the mucous membrane is well vascularized, but relatively dry due to a small amount of saliva. The saliva of the newborn does not play a significant role in digestion, since it practically does not contain enzymes and
    SURVEY ALGORITHM {foto29} Fig. 16. Algorithm for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract consists of examination, palpation, percussion and auscultation (Fig. 16). From the anamnesis we learn about the nature of food intake, diet, dependence of pain on the time of eating, etc. The main manifestations are bitterness in the mouth, bad breath. Swallowing (free,
  9. Acute and chronic bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
    There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding develops according to one of two primary mechanisms: 1. Violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane, leading to exposure of deep vessels, their erosion. For example, bleeding from a stomach ulcer, bleeding from the intestines during infectious or idiopathic processes, from the small and large intestines during ischemia. 2.
    Loss of juice in surgery plays a large role (vomiting, intestinal obstruction, fistula of the gastrointestinal canal, diarrhea, exudation, etc.). In this case, a wide variety of violations occur (Table 18). If a pathological loss of juice occurred before admission to the hospital and targeted treatment, then the violations are eliminated in accordance with the principles set out in the chapter “The therapeutic plan
  11. Digestion disorders in the gastrointestinal tract
    Protein digestion disorders can occur at the stage of gastric, intestinal, parietal digestion. In the stomach, peptide hydrolases cleave peptide bonds between aromatic and dicarboxylic amino acids. Protein digestion sharply slows down in hypoacid conditions, especially with achilia and total gastric resection (if the pH does not reach at least 5.0 units). Without
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019