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Pregnancy complications

The cause of uterine bleeding can be various stages of a spontaneous miscarriage: threatening, beginning, abortion in progress. In incomplete abortion, the source of bleeding is the remains of the ovum, most often a placental polyp. Trophoblastic disease, a dangerous complication of pregnancy, is also accompanied by bleeding.

Benign diseases of the genitals

Uterine fibroids, hyperplasia and polyps of the endometrium or endocervix, adenomyosis, inflammatory diseases, traumatic lesions of the vagina, foreign bodies. Submucous fibroids usually cause menorrhagia, endometrial polyps - intermenstrual bleeding, cervical polyps and ectropion - postcoital bleeding. Severe vaginal infections, cervicitis, and inflammatory diseases of the upper genital tract, involving the endometrium and / or fallopian tubes, can cause abnormal uterine bleeding as part of the symptom complex of these diseases. Occasional intermenstrual “daub” is the most common symptom of chronic endometritis.

Malignant diseases of the genitals

The cause of abnormal uterine bleeding can be: cancer of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva, fallopian tubes, estrogen-secreting ovarian tumors.
The incidence of endometrial cancer increases with age. Risk factors for endometrial carcinoma are the prolonged existence of anovulation, accompanied by hyperestrogenia, and obesity, in which the transition of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue increases. Malignant neoplasms are the most important cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in women in the menopause; they are detected in 10% of women in this age period. About 25% of postmenopausal patients suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding. In differential diagnosis, it is very important to remember the possibility of endometrial hyperplasia, which can be simple and complicated, with or without atypia. Endometrial hyperplasia should be considered as a precursor to cancer, especially in the presence of atypia.
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