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Precancerous conditions

Pre-cancerous conditions of the cervix (dysplasia) is a pronounced proliferation of the atypical epithelium of the cervix with a violation of its “lamination” (stratification) without involvement of the stroma and superficial epithelium in the process. Consequently, dysplasia is a histological term recommended by WHO (1976) instead of many other names for this pathology: atypia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), basal cell hyperplasia, anaplasia, etc. typical cell structure; anaplasia is a violation of the degree of differentiation of cells; basal cell hyperactivity - hyperplasia of the corresponding cells; protoplasia - increasing the degree of differentiation of tissues. In addition, dysplasia is characterized by such phenomena as acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, increased mitotic activity. The main cytological equivalent of hyperplasia is dyskaryosis, while in cancer cells, along with it, changes in the cytoplasm are noted. Dysplasia is characterized by a violation of cell structure: polymorphism (especially nuclear); a change in the nuclear cytoplasmic state in the direction of increasing the first; vacuolization and mitoses (correct and pathological). They are first noted in the basal layer, then rise higher, but always with dysplasia, the layer of superficial cells remains unchanged or slightly altered.

Depending on the intensity of these deviations, dysplasia of mild (I), moderate (II) and severe (III) degrees is distinguished.

Mild degree, or mild dysplasia, is characterized by the involvement in the process (hyperplasia and atypia) of basal-type cells up to 1/3 of the thickness of the epithelial layer.
With a moderate to moderate degree of dysplasia, from 1/3 to 2/3 of the epithelial layer is involved in the process. A severe degree of dysplasia is manifested by the involvement of more than 2/3 of the epithelial layers into the pathological processes (with only the surface preserved). Dysplasias can begin with damage to the reserve or metaplastic cells and localize to the endocervix.

Dysplasia can occur with the progression of changes (an increase in atypical cells in the lower layers of the epithelium), stabilization of the process or its regression (pushing out abnormal cells due to the growth of normal epithelium). These phenomena can alternate over a number of years. Elimination of concomitant (complicating) pathology - inflammatory processes, hormonal disorders - contributes to the regression of dysplasia, and its appearance - progress.

Dysplasia can be found on leukoplakia, pseudo-erosion, polyps, etc. Therefore, the final diagnosis for cervical pathology is made only on the basis of the results of histological examination, since even dysplasia can develop in both modified and healthy areas of the cervix.
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Precancerous conditions

  1. Background and precancerous conditions
    Most of the malignant tumors of the ovaries develop against the background of previous benign tumors. Therefore, all true benign ovarian tumors should be considered as precancerous conditions. Ovarian tumors often develop in women with a certain premorbid background. Women with this background should be considered at risk for the development of ovarian tumors (background conditions).
  2. PRECAUS STATES OF THE UTERINE NECK
    Types of cervical precancerous conditions: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. It happens true and pseudo. Ectopia of the cervix is ​​usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes extensive ectopia causes an increased amount of mucous secretions.
  3. PRECAUS STATES OF THE UTERINE NECK
    Types of cervical precancerous conditions: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. It happens true and pseudo. Ectopia of the cervix is ​​usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes extensive ectopia causes an increased amount of mucous secretions.
  4. Pre-cancerous conditions and malignant tumors of the epidermis.
    Pre-cancerous conditions of the skin - actinic keratosis, cutaneous horn, Bowen's disease, Keir erythroplasia. Actinic keratosis. Almost always, before malignancy, dysplastic changes appear in the epidermis, similar to changes in other organs lined by stratified squamous epithelium, for example, in the cervix. Because dysplastic changes are often the result of chronic
  5. Pre-cancerous conditions and malignant tumors of the epidermis
    Actinic keratosis. Almost always, before malignancy, dysplastic changes appear in the epidermis; there is an analogy with the stages of development of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uterus. Since dysplastic changes are often the result of chronic exposure to sunlight and are associated with the formation of an excess amount of keratin, the foci of dysplasia are called actinic (photochemical
  6. Precancerous skin diseases
    This group of diseases includes such pathological conditions in which malignant tumors most often, but not necessarily, develop. Among the diseases of this group, pigmented xeroderma is an absolute precancer. This is a family disease that is transmitted by an autosomal gene. Since childhood, patients appear to have increased skin sensitivity to ultraviolet rays, develops
  7. Bleeding due to background and precancerous diseases of the cervix
    Background diseases of the cervix include: ectopia, eroded ectropion, true erosion, cervical polyps, leukoplakia, erythroplasty. This pathology is quite common in women of reproductive age. Background diseases of the cervix can be attributed to precancerous if dysplastic changes in the cervix epithelium are detected during cytology.
  8. Background and precancerous diseases of the vagina
    Vaginal leukoplakia represents the keratinization of stratified squamous epithelium. For erythroplasty of the vagina is characterized by thinning of the surface layers of the epithelium with the phenomena of keratinization. Eritroplakia has the appearance of bright red spots with a brownish tinge, well-defined borders and a shiny surface. The diagnosis is confirmed by colposcopy and histological examination.
  9. Determining the severity of the condition and the diagnosis of damage to the victim, who is unconscious
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  10. OTHER EXTREME CONDITIONS EMERGENCY CONDITIONS UNDER THERMAL LESIONS
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  12. SESSION 17 Emergency conditions in children. Children's injuries. Emergency conditions in obstetric practice.
    Objective: To teach students to provide emergency assistance to children, to identify the symptoms of emergency obstetric conditions and the rules of care. Test questions 1. Features of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children. 2. Foreign body of the upper respiratory tract. 3. Croup. Kinds. First aid. 4. Bronchial asthma attack. 5. First aid for injuries in children. 6. First aid for postpartum
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