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Precancerous conditions

Precancerous conditions of the cervix (dysplasia) is a pronounced proliferation of atypical epithelium of the cervix with a violation of its “stratification” (stratification) without involving the stroma and surface epithelium in the process. Therefore, dysplasia is a histological term recommended by WHO (1976) instead of many other names for this pathology: atypia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), basal cell hyperplasia, anaplasia, etc. All these names came from identified pathological abnormalities: atypia - violation typical cell structure; anaplasia - a violation of the degree of differentiation of cells; basal cell hyperactivity - hyperplasia of the corresponding cells; prosoplasia - increased tissue differentiation. In addition, dysplasia is characterized by such phenomena as acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, increased mitotic activity. The main cytological equivalent of hyperplasia is dyskariosis, while in cancer cells along with it changes in the cytoplasm are also noted. Dysplasia is characterized by a violation of the structure of cells: polymorphism (especially nuclear); a change in the nuclear cytoplasmic state in the direction of an increase in the first; vacuolization and mitosis (correct and pathological). They are initially noted in the basal layer, then rise higher, but always with dysplasia the layer of surface cells remains unchanged or unchanged.

Depending on the intensity of the above deviations, dysplasia of mild (I), moderate (II) and severe (III) degrees is distinguished.

A mild degree, or mild dysplasia, is characterized by the involvement of basal cells in the process (hyperplasia and atypia) up to 1/3 of the thickness of the epithelial layer.
With a moderate to moderate degree of dysplasia, 1/3 to 2/3 of the epithelial layer is involved in the process. A severe degree of dysplasia is manifested by involvement in the pathological processes of more than 2/3 of the epithelial layers (with the preservation of only superficial). Dysplasia can begin with damage to reserve or metaplastic cells and localize in endocervix.

Dysplasia can occur with the progression of changes (increase in atypical cells in the lower layers of the epithelium), stabilization of the process or its regression (ejection of pathological cells due to the growth of normal epithelium). These phenomena can alternate over a number of years. The elimination of concomitant (complicating) pathology - inflammatory processes, hormonal disorders - contributes to the regression of dysplasia, and its appearance - to progress.

Dysplasia sites can be detected on leukoplakia, pseudo-erosion, polyps, etc. Therefore, the final diagnosis of cervical pathology is made only on the basis of the results of histological examination, since even dysplasia can develop in both altered and healthy areas of the cervix.
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Precancerous conditions

  1. Background and precancerous conditions
    Most malignant ovarian tumors develop against the background of previous benign tumors. Therefore, all true benign ovarian tumors should be considered as precancerous conditions. Ovarian tumors more often develop in women with a certain premorbid background. Women with this background should be classified as a risk group for the development of ovarian tumors (background conditions).
  2. Precancerous conditions of the cervix
    Types of precancerous conditions of the cervix: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. There is true and pseudo-erosion. Cervical ectopy is usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Extensive ectopia sometimes causes an increased amount of mucous discharge
  3. Precancerous conditions of the cervix
    Types of precancerous conditions of the cervix: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. There is true and pseudo-erosion. Cervical ectopy is usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Extensive ectopia sometimes causes an increased amount of mucous discharge
  4. Precancerous conditions and malignant tumors of the epidermis.
    Precancerous conditions of the skin - actinic keratosis, cutaneous horn, Bowen's disease, Keir erythroplasia. Actinic keratosis. Almost always, before malignancy in the epidermis, dysplastic changes appear, similar to changes in other organs lined with stratified squamous epithelium, for example, in the cervix. Because dysplastic changes are often the result of chronic
  5. Precancerous conditions and malignant tumors of the epidermis
    Actinic keratosis. Almost always, before malignancy, dysplastic changes appear in the epidermis; there is an analogy with the stages of development of squamous cervical cancer. Since dysplastic changes are often the result of chronic exposure to sunlight and are associated with the formation of excess keratin, foci of dysplasia are called actinic (photochemically
  6. Precancerous skin diseases
    This group of diseases includes pathological conditions in which most often, but not necessarily, malignant tumors develop. Among the diseases of this group, an absolute precancer is xeroderma pigmentosa. This is a family disease transmitted by an autosomal gene. Since childhood, patients have an increased sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays, develops
  7. Bleeding due to background and precancerous diseases of the cervix
    Background diseases of the cervix include: ectopia, eroded ectropion, true erosion, polyps of the cervix, leukoplakia, erythroplakia. This pathology is quite common in women of reproductive age. Background diseases of the cervix uteri can be classified as precancerous in the case of dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelium during cytological examination.
  8. Background and precancerous diseases of the vagina
    Leukoplakia of the vagina is keratinization of the stratified squamous epithelium. For erythroplakia of the vagina, thinning of the surface layers of the epithelium with keratinization is characteristic. Erythroplakia has the appearance of bright red spots with a brownish tint, clearly defined borders and a shiny surface. The diagnosis is confirmed by colposcopy and histological examination.
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