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Types of cervical precancerous conditions:

1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly demarcated from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the orifice of the cervical canal. It happens true and pseudo. Ectopia of the cervix is ​​usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes extensive ectopia causes an increased amount of mucous discharge and, very rarely, spotting after sexual intercourse. In these cases, the destruction of the ectopic site is carried out by one of the following methods: electrocoagulation, cryodestruction (freezing), laser destruction, radio wave method or molecular resonance method. With a combination of ectopia and inflammation (cervicitis), it is necessary to be examined for sexually transmitted infections and treatment of cervicitis. With a combination of ectopia and precancerous changes in the epithelium, one of the above methods has resorted to destruction of the affected part of the cervix.

2) Uterus leukoplakia - thickening of the surface layer of the epithelium of the vaginal part of the cervix. It is formed as a result of disturbance of keratinization of the surface epithelium of the cervix. Often this disease indicates a violation of ovarian function, but may result from exposure to the cervix of the herpes simplex virus or human papillomavirus. Leukoplakia can develop from erosion and is a seal on the cervix in the form of a white spot. Often asymptomatic. With leukoplakia of the vulva, itching may occur, leading to the appearance of scars and abrasions. Cervical leukoplakia is most often diagnosed during examination of the cervix with the help of mirrors during preventive examinations of women. To confirm the diagnosis, colposcopy and biopsy are used.

There are 2 types of leukoplakia:

• Simple - thin and not rising above the surface of the cervix.

• Scaly (rough), rising above the surface of the cervix.

With the naked eye, leukoplakia of the cervix, especially simple, is almost impossible to see. Coarse leukoplakia can be visualized as single or multiple whitish plaques against the background of unchanged pale pink cervical mucosa. Most doctors consider leukoplakia as a benign process, but the appearance of atypical cells during cytological examination indicates a possible precancerous process. The final diagnosis of precancerous processes is possible only by histological examination of cervical biopsy.

As a precancerous process, the treatment of a disease is reduced to coagulation (cauterization) of the pathological area and is carried out more often with the help of a surgical laser, a radio wave for 5-7 days of the menstrual cycle. If infections are detected, prior treatment is necessary, otherwise the healing will be incomplete.

During and for 4-6 weeks after treatment, it is necessary to abandon sexual activity - until complete recovery of cervical tissue. During the first year after treatment, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist once every three months.

3) Polyps of the uterus (endometrium) and cervix is ​​a disease of the female genital sphere, which is characterized by excessive growth of the inner lining of the uterus or the mucous canal of the cervix with the formation of one or more outgrowths called polyps. Polyps of the uterus and cervix are a precancerous disease - that is, against the background of uterine polyps, the incidence of uterine cancer and cervical cancer increases. The main cause of the development of uterine and cervical polyps is a violation of the production of female sex hormones, but there are also predisposing factors in the form of chronic inflammatory diseases of the female genital (adnexitis - inflammation of the uterus, endometritis - inflammation of the uterine lining, etc.), abortions, etc. d. The main symptoms of uterine and cervical polyps are uterine bleeding, which occur several days after menstruation or in the middle of the cycle, pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse, infertility, etc.
Diagnosis of uterine polyps and cervix using a gynecological examination, ultrasound of the uterus and hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus with a special tool). Treatment of uterine polyps, as a rule, surgical - removal of a polyp (polypectomy) or curettage of the uterus (curettage).

4) Cervical dysplasia - changes in the epithelium (surface layer) of the cervix, often occurring after infection with the herpes virus and papilloma.

Risk factors for cervical dysplasia:

• Repeated pregnancy and / or childbirth up to 20 years;

• Early age of first sexual intercourse;

• Presence of genital warts;

• Smoking;

• promiscuous sex;

• Low socio-economic situation;

• Chronic cervicitis;

• Sexually transmitted diseases.

Often cervical dysplasia occurs without any manifestations. Sometimes genital, vaginal, or anus genital warts are detected. Venereal diseases are often diagnosed (for example, chlamydia, gonorrhea).

Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia:

• smear;

• Examination using gynecological mirrors;

• Colposcopy and direct biopsy;

• Scraping the cervical canal;

• Typing viral DNA.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia

• Conservative treatment of cervical dysplasia - with a slight degree of dysplasia, with severe - cauterization of the cervix with an electric wire or a laser. After electric ignition exercise limit for 4 weeks.

• Drug therapy of cervical dysplasia - an auxiliary method of treatment: fluorouracil 1-2 times a day intravaginal in the form of 5% ointment. Wash your hands immediately after applying the ointment; Avoid contact with eyes, nose, or mouth. Smear and colposcopy after 3 months after treatment is repeated. Subsequently, the smear is repeated every 6 months. Annual colposcopy for the first 2 years

Prognosis for cervical dysplasia:

The prognosis for cervical dysplasia is favorable. The frequency of treatment after cauterization is 85-96%. The probability of recurrence is 5–15%, most of them are detected within 2 years after treatment. Relapse is possible (continued growth) due to incomplete excision, incl. due to the presence of the virus in the body.

5) The cervical ectropion is an inversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal. Inversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is usually limited to its lower part, but may be more pronounced. The cause of ectropion is most often birth injuries - cervical tears, especially bilateral ones, formed during spontaneous labor (large fetus, extensor previa of the fetus, rigidity of the cervix uteri, etc.), more often after delivery operations (fetal extraction, application of abdominal forceps). Often, ectropion occurs after improper suturing of damaged cervical tissue. The cause of rupture of the cervix and the subsequent formation of ectropion can be a violent expansion of the cervical canal with induced abortion, especially in late pregnancy.

Injuries of the cervix are accompanied by a violation of the integrity of all its tissues, including the circular muscles. At the same time, the intact longitudinal muscles, which are located in the region of the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix, contract without counteracting the circular muscles. The result is a gaping of the external pharynx, passing into the eversion of the cervical canal (usually the lower part).

Ectropion is almost always accompanied by endocervicitis and subsequent cervicitis. On the visible part of the mucous membrane, thickened folds are visible, the mucous becomes hyperemic, edematous, sometimes defects of the epithelium appear on its surface. Often there are marked foci of hypertrophy of the mucous membrane, whitish patches appear on it. With the long existence of ectropion, atrophy of the epithelium may occur.
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    Types of cervical precancerous conditions: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. It happens true and pseudo. Ectopia of the cervix is ​​usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes extensive ectopia causes an increased amount of mucous secretions.
  2. Bleeding due to background and precancerous diseases of the cervix
    Background diseases of the cervix include: ectopia, eroded ectropion, true erosion, cervical polyps, leukoplakia, erythroplasty. This pathology is quite common in women of reproductive age. Background diseases of the cervix can be attributed to precancerous if dysplastic changes in the cervix epithelium are detected during cytology.
  3. Diagnosis of cervical conditions
    The success of the diagnosis of cervical infertility factor largely depends on the timeliness of regular gynecological examination, which is recommended every six months. Already with a simple examination, the doctor may suspect a particular pathology of the cervix. Once a year should be done smear from the cervix for cytological examination. The results of this smear can determine whether
    Elnikova V.O., Vozhzhova N.V., Kiselev I.L., Belyaeva N.I., Shuklina V.V., Berezhkova O.V., Valineeva L.M., Ishkova O.V. The Kursk Regional Oncologic Dispensary Research Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of the provision of cancer care to the female population with cervical cancer (CC) in the Kursk Region, in comparison with data from the Russian Federation for the period from 2005 to 2009.
  5. Colposcopic diagnosis of benign changes in various functional states of the cervix, vagina and vulva
    Colposcopic diagnosis of benign changes in different functional states of the cervix, vagina and
  6. Precancerous conditions
    Pre-cancerous conditions of the cervix (dysplasia) is a pronounced proliferation of the atypical epithelium of the cervix with a violation of its “lamination” (stratification) without involvement of the stroma and superficial epithelium in the process. Consequently, dysplasia is a histological term recommended by WHO (1976) instead of many other names for this pathology: atypia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
    There are bleeding due to background and precancerous diseases of the cervix, surgical procedures for these diseases, as well as cervical cancer
  8. Other cervical problems
    Cervical dysplasia is called specific changes in the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina. This disease, as a rule, is asymptomatic, but it is considered quite serious - a cancerous tumor can develop on its background. Experts distinguish several degrees of cervical dysplasia. Weak dysplasia is the initial stage of atypical changes in the cervix and, as
  9. Cervical cancer
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant disease of the female genital organs: from 20 to 40 per 100,000 female population. Improving preventive work in antenatal clinics has reduced the incidence of this pathology in women and increased its detectability in the early stages. Of particular importance is the study of the background and precancerous conditions, allowing to diagnose cancer.
  10. Cervical cancer
    The combination of cervical cancer and pregnancy occurs with a frequency of 1 in 1000 - 2500 pregnancies. The frequency of pregnancy in patients with cervical cancer is 3.1%. There are large differences in the age of pregnant women suffering from cervical cancer and non-pregnant patients. The average age of patients with cervical cancer is 48 years, and pregnant women suffering from cervical cancer - 28.
  11. Cervical disease
    Cervical cancer is among the most studied oncologic diseases. The development of methods for its diagnosis and treatment, which has a long history, has led to a significant reduction in the spread of this disease and mortality from it. The existence of a clear hierarchy of background and precancerous cervical processes, as well as the presence of reliable screening criteria and methods of early
  12. Hyperplastic and dystrophic processes of the cervix
    Cervical neoplasms of the cervix uteri are the main causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Modern diagnostic methods (endoscopic, morphological, cytological) have significantly reduced the frequency of invasive forms of cervical cancer, and especially its advanced stages. Crucial to solving the problem of cervical cancer is
  13. Cervical cancer
    Cervical cancer in a pregnant woman is extremely rare, as most often this pathology develops in women over 40, in women with a large number of births and abortions in history, in women who often change their sexual partners. Cervical cancer is usually diagnosed with mandatory inspection of the cervix during pregnancy 2 times - when a pregnant woman enters the registry, when issuing
  14. Cervical rupture
    From the rupture of the cervix rarely profuse bleeding, but there are profuse, if the rupture reaches the vaginal fornix or passes to the lower segment of the uterus. Risk group: • women entering into labor with an immature birth canal (rigid cervix of the uterus), • women with discoordinated labor, • women with large fetuses • with excessive use of uterotonics,
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