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Precancerous conditions of the cervix

Types of precancerous conditions of the cervix:

1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. There is true and pseudo-erosion. Cervical ectopy is usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Sometimes extensive ectopias cause an increased amount of mucous secretions and, very rarely, spotting after intercourse. In these cases, the ectopia site is destroyed by one of the following methods: electrocoagulation, cryodestruction (freezing), laser destruction, radio wave method, or molecular resonance method. With a combination of ectopia and inflammation (cervicitis), examination for sexually transmitted infections and treatment of cervicitis are necessary. With a combination of ectopia and precancerous changes in the epithelium, they resort to the destruction of the affected part of the cervix using one of the above methods.

2) Cervical leukoplakia - thickening of the surface layer of the epithelium of the vaginal part of the cervix. It is formed as a result of a violation of the keratinization processes of the surface cervical epithelium. Often this disease indicates a violation of ovarian function, but may be the result of exposure to the cervix of the uterus herpes simplex virus or human papillomavirus. Leukoplakia can develop from erosion and is a seal on the cervix in the form of a white spot. Often asymptomatic. With leukoplakia of the vulva, itching may occur, leading to the appearance of calculations and abrasions. Cervical leukoplakia is most often diagnosed by examining the cervix using mirrors during routine examinations of women. Colposcopy and biopsy are used to confirm the diagnosis.

There are 2 types of leukoplakia:

• Simple - thin and not rising above the surface of the cervix.

• Scaly (coarse), rising above the surface of the cervix.

With the naked eye, cervical leukoplakia, especially simple, is almost impossible to see. Coarse leukoplakia can be visualized in the form of single or multiple whitish plaques against the background of an unchanged pale pink mucous membrane of the cervix. Most doctors consider leukoplakia as a benign process, but the appearance of atypical cells during a cytological examination indicates a possible precancerous process. The final diagnosis of precancerous processes is possible only with a histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the cervix.

As a precancerous process, the treatment of the disease is reduced to coagulation (cauterization) of the pathological site and is carried out more often with the help of a surgical laser, radio wave for 5-7 days of the menstrual cycle. If infections are detected, preliminary treatment is necessary, otherwise healing will be inferior.

During and within 4-6 weeks after treatment, it is necessary to abandon sexual activity - until the cervical tissue is completely restored. During the first year after treatment, you must visit the gynecologist every three months.

3) Polyps of the uterus (endometrium) and the cervix is ​​a disease of the female genital area, which is characterized by excessive proliferation of the inner lining of the uterus or the mucous channel of the cervix with the formation of one or more outgrowths called polyps. Uterus and cervical polyps are precancerous diseases - that is, against the background of uterine polyps, the incidence of uterine cancer and cervical cancer increases. The main reason for the development of uterine and cervical polyps is considered to be a violation of the production of female sex hormones, however, there are predisposing factors in the form of chronic inflammatory diseases of the female genital area (adnexitis - inflammation of the uterus, endometritis - inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus, etc.), abortions, etc. d. The main symptoms of uterine and cervical polyps are uterine bleeding, which occurs a few days after menstruation or in the middle of the cycle, pain and discomfort during intercourse, infertility, etc.
Diagnosis of polyps of the uterus and cervix is ​​carried out using gynecological examination, ultrasound of the uterus and hysteroscopy (examination of the uterine cavity using a special tool). Treatment of uterine polyps is usually surgical - removal of the polyp (polypectomy) or curettage of the uterine cavity (curettage).

4) Cervical dysplasia - changes in the epithelium (surface layer) of the cervix, which often occur after infection with the herpes virus and papilloma.

Risk factors for cervical dysplasia:

• Repeated pregnancies and / or childbirth up to 20 years;

• The early age of the first sexual intercourse;

• The presence of genital warts;

• smoking;

• promiscuous sexual intercourse;

• Low socio-economic situation;

• Chronic cervicitis;

• Sexually transmitted diseases.

Often, cervical dysplasia occurs without any manifestations. Genital warts of the vulva, vagina or anus are sometimes detected. Often diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases (for example, chlamydia, gonorrhea).

Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia:

• Smear;

• Inspection using gynecological mirrors;

• Colposcopy and direct biopsy;

• Curettage of the cervical canal;

• Typing of viral DNA.

Treatment of cervical dysplasia

• Conservative treatment of cervical dysplasia - with a mild degree of dysplasia, with severe - cervical cauterization with an electric circuit or a laser. After electric burning, restriction of physical activity for 4 weeks.

• Drug therapy for cervical dysplasia - an auxiliary treatment method: fluorouracil 1-2 times a day intravaginally in the form of 5% ointment. After applying the ointment, hands should be washed immediately; Avoid contact with ointment in eyes, nose, or mouth. A smear and colposcopy 3 months after treatment is repeated. Subsequently, the smear is repeated every 6 months. Annual colposcopy for the first 2 years

Prognosis for cervical dysplasia:

The prognosis for cervical dysplasia is favorable. The cure rate after cauterization is 85–96%. The probability of relapse is 5-15%, of which most are detected within 2 years after treatment. Possible relapse (continued growth) due to incomplete excision, incl. due to the presence of the virus in the body.

5) Cervical ectropion is an eversion of the cervical canal mucosa. The eversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is usually limited to its lower part, but may be more pronounced. The cause of ectropion is most often due to birth injuries - ruptures of the cervix, especially bilateral, resulting from spontaneous birth (large fetus, extensor presentation of the fetus, rigidity of the tissues of the cervix, etc.), more often after delivery operations (extraction of the fetus, application of abdominal forceps). Often ectropion occurs after improper suturing on damaged tissue of the cervix. The cause of cervical ruptures and the subsequent formation of ectropion may be a forced expansion of the cervical canal during artificial abortion, especially in late pregnancy.

Injuries to the cervix are accompanied by a violation of the integrity of all its tissues, including circular muscles. In this case, intact longitudinal muscles located in the anterior and posterior lips of the cervix are contracted without counteracting the circular muscles. As a result, a gaping of the external pharynx is formed, turning into an eversion of the cervical canal (usually the lower section).

Ectropion is almost always accompanied by endocervicitis and subsequent cervicitis. On the visible part of the mucous membrane thickened folds are visible, the mucous membrane becomes hyperemic, swollen, sometimes defects of the integumentary epithelium appear on its surface. Often there are marked foci of hypertrophy of the mucous membrane, whitish areas appear on it. With the prolonged existence of the ectropion, atrophy of the integumentary epithelium can occur.
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Precancerous conditions of the cervix

  1. Precancerous conditions of the cervix
    Types of precancerous conditions of the cervix: 1) Cervical erosion is a red area on the cervix, clearly delimited from the surrounding pale pink surface, and located around the opening of the cervical canal. There is true and pseudo-erosion. Cervical ectopy is usually not accompanied by any symptoms. Extensive ectopia sometimes causes an increased amount of mucous discharge
  2. Bleeding due to background and precancerous diseases of the cervix
    Background diseases of the cervix include: ectopia, eroded ectropion, true erosion, polyps of the cervix, leukoplakia, erythroplakia. This pathology is quite common in women of reproductive age. Background diseases of the cervix uteri can be classified as precancerous in the case of dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelium during cytological examination.
  3. Diagnosis of pathological conditions of the cervix
    The success of the diagnosis of cervical infertility factor largely depends on the timeliness of a regular gynecological examination, which is recommended every six months. Even with a simple examination, the doctor may suspect a particular pathology of the cervix. Once a year, a smear from the cervix should be done for a cytological examination. From the results of this smear, you can determine whether
    Elnikova V.O., Vozhzhova N.V., Kiselev I.L., Belyaeva N.I., Shuklina V.V., Berezhkova O.V., Valineeva L.M., Ishkova O.V. GUZ Kursk Regional Oncology Center Research objectives: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of cancer care for the female population with cervical cancer (cervical cancer) of the Kursk region, compared with the data of the Russian Federation for the period from 2005 to 2009.
  5. Colposcopic diagnosis of benign changes in various functional conditions of the cervix, vagina and vulva
    Colposcopic diagnosis of benign changes in various functional conditions of the cervix, vagina and
  6. Precancerous conditions
    Precancerous conditions of the cervix (dysplasia) is a pronounced proliferation of atypical epithelium of the cervix with a violation of its “stratification” (stratification) without involving the stroma and surface epithelium in the process. Therefore, dysplasia is a histological term recommended by WHO (1976) instead of many other names for this pathology: atypia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
    There are bleeding caused by background and precancerous diseases of the cervix, surgical procedures for these diseases, as well as cervical cancer
  8. Other cervical problems
    Cervical dysplasia refers to specific changes in the mucous membrane of the cervix and vagina. This disease, as a rule, is asymptomatic, but it is considered quite serious - a cancerous tumor may develop against its background. Specialists distinguish several degrees of cervical dysplasia. Mild dysplasia is the initial stage of atypical changes in the cervix and, as
  9. Cervical cancer
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant disease of the female genital organs: from 20 to 40 per 100,000 female population. Improving preventive work in antenatal clinics has reduced the incidence of this pathology in women and increased its detection in the early stages. In this case, the study of background and precancerous conditions, which allows diagnosing cancer, is of particular importance.
  10. Cervical cancer
    The combination of cervical cancer and pregnancy occurs with a frequency of 1 in 1000 - 2500 pregnancies. The pregnancy rate in patients with cervical cancer is 3.1%. There are large differences in the ages of pregnant women with cervical cancer and non-pregnant patients. The average age of patients with cervical cancer is 48 years, and pregnant women suffering from cervical cancer is 28.
  11. Cervical Diseases
    Cervical cancer is one of the most studied oncogynecological diseases. The development of methods for its diagnosis and treatment, which has a long history, has led to a significant reduction in the spread of this disease and mortality from it. The existence of a clear hierarchy of background and precancerous processes of the cervix, as well as the availability of reliable screening criteria and early methods
  12. Hyperplastic and dystrophic processes of the cervix
    Malignant neoplasms of the cervix uteri are the main ones in the structure of the causes of oncological morbidity and mortality in women all over the world. Modern diagnostic methods (endoscopic, morphological, cytological) have significantly reduced the frequency of invasive forms of cervical cancer, and especially its advanced stages. Critical for solving cervical cancer
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