the main
about the project
Medicine news
To the authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Rhythmic contraceptive method

The rhythmic (biological) method of contraception is based on abstaining from sexual intercourse in the periovulatory (fertile) period or using other means of contraception during these periods. The contraceptive effect of the method is explained taking into account the concepts outlined below:

• ovulation occurs 14-15 days before the onset of the next menstruation (provided that the woman does not suffer from gynecological diseases and is in constant favorable environmental conditions)

• the life of the egg is 24 hours after ovulation (the viability of sperm in a woman's body reaches 5-7 days).





There are four variations of the rhythmic method:

1. calendar (Ogino-Knaus method),

2. temperature,

3. cervical (Bilping method)

4. symptothermal (multicomponent). Their contraceptive effectiveness is distributed as follows: calendar - 14-50, temperature - 0.3-6.6, cervical - 6-39.7, symptothermal - 2-16 pregnancies per 100 women / year.

The calendar method or the Ogino-Knaus method allows you to calculate the fertile period, based on the duration of the menstrual cycles over the last 8-12 months. The beginning of the fertile period is determined by subtracting the number '18 "from the shortest cycle, and the end - the number" II "from the longest cycle. For example: the shortest menstrual cycle = 28 days the longest menstrual cycle = 30 days the beginning of the fertile period = 28-18 = 10 (day of cycle) end of fertile period = 30-11 = 19 (day of cycle)

Indications:

• no need for effective contraception and the inability to use other means of birth control (condition - a regular cycle). Contraindications:

• the need for effective contraception,

• irregular menstrual cycle. Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect (due to individual fluctuations of the ovulation period, in particular, during stress, illness, overexertion, overwork, climate change, etc.),

• unacceptability for women with irregular menstrual cycles,

• the need for a long period of abstinence,

• does not remove the "fear" of an unwanted pregnancy (due to low efficiency). Advantages of the method:

• simplicity and availability.

• the absence of any side effects.

The temperature method is based on determining the fertile period by measuring the basal temperature. Basal temperature is measured in the rectum throughout the entire menstrual cycle, every morning, without getting out of bed, for 7-10 minutes. The received data is entered in the schedule. Use the same thermometer (or an electronically programmed fertility thermometer or a thermometer with special graduation). As you know, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the basal temperature is at a level below 37 ° C. 12-24 hours before ovulation, the temperature drops sharply (pre-ovulatory decline), after ovulation it rises on average by 0.2-0.5 ° C (in most cases up to 37 ° C and higher) and stays at this level throughout the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle ( hyperthermic action of progesterone); on the eve of the next menstruation, the basal temperature again decreases. If the temperature does not rise during the three menstrual cycles, consult a doctor, as persistent anovulation is a symptom of a number of conditions that require appropriate treatment. With delayed menstruation and elevated basal temperature, you should also consult a doctor, since this symptom may indicate pregnancy (including ectopic). Method of determining the fertile period. The day of the pre-ovulatory decline in basal temperature is taken as -O- highest fertility day. Given the viability of sperm and egg, the beginning of the fertile period falls on the day of the menstrual cycle -6, and the end - +3.
After three days of elevated temperature, a safe period begins.

Indications:

• no need for effective contraception and the inability to use other means of birth control (condition - regular menstrual cycle). Contraindications:

• high risk of unwanted pregnancy,

• irregular menstrual cycle. Complications unknown. Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• difficulties in interpreting the basal temperature data in some variants of the two-phase temperature curve (for example, during its “slow” or “step-like” rise), as well as during catarrhal and other diseases, stresses, sleep disorders, work at night,

• the need for daily measurement of basal temperature,

• implies a long period of abstinence.

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy. Advantages of the method:

• simplicity

• lack of any effects and side effects,

• allows you to determine the days of the most likely conception when planning pregnancy after temporary contraception.

The cervical method - the Billing method is based on a change in the nature of cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle under the influence of estrogens. During the peri-ovulatory period, the mucus becomes light, transparent, viscous, abundant (under the influence of the estrogen peak) and resembles raw egg white. This period is accompanied by the appearance of mucous discharge from the vagina and the sensation of moisture of the vulva. On the remaining days of the cycle, the cervical mucus is viscous, produced in a small amount, has a whitish or yellowish tint; the vulva is dry. Ovulation usually occurs 24 hours after the disappearance of abundant and light mucus, and the fertile period lasts another four days (taking into account fluctuations in the time of ovulation and viability of the egg and sperm). Recommendations for using the Billing method (for patients): a) daily monitoring of changes in the humidity of the vulva and the nature of vaginal discharge (in the periovulatory period, mucous discharge from the vagina resembling egg white and a feeling of moisture in the vulva appear), b) avoid sexual activity ( or use another method of contraception) for four days after the disappearance of light mucus.

Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• the need for a long period of abstinence,

• individual characteristics of changes in the nature of cervical mucus,

• the inability to use the method for cervicitis and kolnite.

• difficulties in assessing the nature of mucous secretions after the introduction of spermicides.

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy. Advantages of the method:

• simplicity

• no effects and side effects.

The symptothermal (multicomponent) method combines control of basal temperature, changes in the nature of cervical mucus, data from the calendar method, and a number of subjective signs (ovulatory pain, bloody discharge from the genital tract in the middle of the menstrual cycle). The method is difficult to master and interpret the data, its effectiveness is low. Separately, you can describe the following method Interrupted sexual intercourse. The method is based on the extraction of the penis from the vagina before starting ejaculation. Contraceptive efficacy - 15-30 pregnancies per 100 women / year. The prevalence is about 28%, especially in Catholic countries.



Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• violation of orgasm in men,

• development of neurosis and impotence,

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy.

• Complications unknown
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Rhythmic contraceptive method

  1. NON-HORMONAL METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION INTRAINOMATIC CONTRACEPTION
    Inside uterine contraception (IUD) is one of the most common effective methods for preventing unwanted pregnancy. According to the WHO, currently more than 60 million women use various types of uterine devices (IUDs), which are second only to oral hormonal contraceptives. In Russia, according to statistics, this method
  2. METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
    Currently, the most common methods are contraception: hormonal, intrauterine contraception, mechanical contraception, surgical sterilization, rhythmic method, barrier methods of contraception and spermicides. The effectiveness of the contraceptive method is determined by the Pearl index, that is, the number of pregnancies occurring in 100 women using this method.
  3. MODERN CONTRACEPTION METHODS
    The choice of contraceptive method depends on its effectiveness, which, in turn, depends on how constantly and correctly it is used. Table 2.1 (Hatcher R. et al., 2004) compares the frequency (in%) of the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy during the first year of using various methods of contraception with their correct use (consistently and correctly) and with typical
  4. History and modern methods of contraception
    ... To have children, Who lacked the mind? A.S. Griboedov Contraception. Mechanical, chemical, hormonal, physiological methods of contraception. Condom. Contraception (from the Latin. Contraceptio - against conception) -preservation from conception. In the modern market of medical and pharmaceutical services there are a huge number of methods and means to prevent
  5. BARRIER METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
    Under barrier contraceptive methods (BMC) are meant all methods of preventing pregnancy that mechanically prevent sperm from entering the cervical canal and / or contribute to the chemical inactivation of sperm in the vagina. There are: • male barrier method - a condom (Innotex, Durex, Contex, Vizit, Life Styles, Sico, Trojan, etc.); • female barrier methods -
  6. Modern methods of contraception.
    Recommended reading: 1. Bagdan Shandor et al. Modern pregnancy prevention and family planning. - Budapest, 1998. 2. Baychurina A.Z. Contraception. - M., 1999 3. Viner E.N., Volynskaya E.V. Valeology: Training Workshop. - M .: Flint: Science, 2002.- p.38-43. 4. Egides A. Planned child // Family and school. - 1989-№9., Pp.41-44. 3. Markov V.V. Basics of a healthy way
  7. Immunological methods of contraception
    Immunology of reproduction, immunology of pregnancy - these major problems of obstetrics and gynecology have not been studied enough so far. Nevertheless, there is a lot of research on the problem of the immunology of contraception. Interruption or prevention of pregnancy is possible with the passive transfer of antibodies or active immunization. Therefore, immunology is directly related to the treatment
  8. Diaphragms - as a method of contraception
    The barrier methods of contraception (BM) include diaphragms, cervical caps, sponges, condoms. The mechanism of the contraceptive action of BM is based on preventing the penetration of spermatozoa through the cervical canal into the upper part of the reproductive system by creating a mechanical obstacle (barrier). According to world statistics, in 1990 traditional methods of contraception used
  9. Physiological methods of contraception
    Physiological, or ovulation, methods of preventing pregnancy are based on accurate knowledge of the day of ovulation, individual calendar records of the time of ovulation, the life expectancy of the egg cell and sperm. Mandatory use of physiological methods is the regularity of the menstrual cycle in women. To do this, use the following indicators: basal body temperature,
  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL (NATURAL) METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
    Family planning programs include the use of contraceptive methods, which are based on the physiological features of the fertile (when pregnancy may occur) and non-fertility (when pregnancy is extremely unlikely) phases of the menstrual cycle, as well as the method of interrupted sexual intercourse. Adequate awareness and awareness of women about the most likely time of ovulation
  11. Barrier contraceptive methods
    Barrier contraception methods are based on the creation of obstacles to the penetration of sperm into the cervical canal and the uterus of a woman. Usually, the sperm from the vagina through the cervical canal into the uterus get in 2-10 minutes, although in some cases this can happen after a few hours. Men and women use various mechanical (cervical caps,
  12. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF MALE CONTRACEPTION (HATCHER R., TRUSSELL J., 2004)
    Physical methods Spermatogenesis blockade can be achieved using ultrasound. However, the resulting changes are irreversible, which is why ultrasound can not be used for contraception. Spermatogenesis and the maturation of spermatozoa are also adversely affected by heat. Heating the testicles just to body temperature leads to a decrease in the number and function of spermatozoa. Vegetable
  13. Surgical methods of contraception
    Surgical sterilization of women is used in cases where they do not want to have children anymore. It is very effective, long lasting and usually permanent. Its essence is to block the passage of pipes. Menstrual function saved. The most widespread method of dressing or excision of pipe sections. The procedure is performed by laparoscopy or minilaparotomy. Often
  14. Subcutaneous implants as a method of contraception
    Norplant ("Norplant") is a manufacturer of Leiras Pharma-ceuticals, Finland. It is represented by flexible sylastic capsules 3.4 cm long and 2.5 mm in diameter, each of which contains 35 mg of levonorgestrel. Norplant-2 - consists of 2 capsules with a length of 44 mm and a diameter of 2.4 mm, containing 35 mg of levonorgestrel. The mechanism of contraceptive action is based on the release of levonorgestrel capsules of norplant
  15. BARRIER METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
    BARRIER METHODS
  16. Cervical caps as a method of contraception
    Neck caps were created simultaneously with the diaphragms. Have the form of a wide thimble or cup. The caps were originally made from silver or copper, later from rubber, aluminum, dense rubber, plastic, and now from soft rubber. There are several types of cervical caps: 1. Kafka cap made of rubber, aluminum or thick rubber, dimensions 25, 28.31 mm
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com