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Rhythmic contraceptive method

The rhythmic (biological) method of contraception is based on abstaining from sexual intercourse in the periovulatory (fertile) period or using other means of contraception during these periods. The contraceptive effect of the method is explained taking into account the concepts outlined below:

• ovulation occurs 14-15 days before the start of the next menstruation (provided that the woman does not suffer from gynecological diseases and is in constant favorable environmental conditions),

• The life of the egg is 24 hours after ovulation (the viability of sperm in a woman’s body reaches 5-7 days).

There are four variations of the rhythmic method:

1. calendar (Ogino-Knaus method),

2. temperature,

3. cervical (Bilping method)

4. symptothermal (multicomponent). Their contraceptive effectiveness is distributed as follows: calendar - 14-50, temperature - 0.3-6.6, cervical - 6-39.7, symptothermal - 2-16 pregnancies per 100 women / year.

The calendar method or the Ogino-Knaus method allows you to calculate the fertile period, based on the duration of menstrual cycles for the last 8-12 months. The beginning of the fertile period is determined by subtracting the number '18 "from the shortest cycle, and the end - the number" II "from the longest cycle. For example: the shortest menstrual cycle = 28 days the longest menstrual cycle = 30 days the beginning of the fertile period = 28-18 = 10 (day of cycle) end of fertile period = 30-11 = 19 (day of cycle)


• no need for effective contraception and the inability to use other means of birth control (condition - a regular cycle). Contraindications:

• the need for effective contraception,

• irregular menstrual cycle. Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect (due to individual fluctuations of the ovulation period, in particular, during stress, illness, overexertion, overwork, climate change, etc.),

• unacceptability for women with irregular menstrual cycles,

• the need for a long period of abstinence,

• does not remove the "fear" of an unwanted pregnancy (due to low efficiency). Advantages of the method:

• simplicity and availability.

• the absence of any side effects.

The temperature method is based on determining the fertile period by measuring the basal temperature. Basal temperature is measured in the rectum throughout the entire menstrual cycle, every morning, without getting out of bed, for 7-10 minutes. The received data is entered in the schedule. Use the same thermometer (or an electronically programmed fertility thermometer or a thermometer with special calibration). As is known, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the basal temperature is at a level below 37 ° C. 12-24 hours before ovulation, the temperature drops sharply (pre-ovulatory decline), after ovulation it rises on average by 0.2-0.5 ° C (in most cases up to 37 ° C and above) and stays at this level throughout the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle ( hyperthermic action of progesterone); on the eve of the next menstruation, the basal temperature again decreases. If the temperature does not rise during the three menstrual cycles, consult a doctor, as persistent anovulation is a symptom of a number of conditions that require appropriate treatment. When menstruation is delayed and basal temperature is elevated, you should also consult a doctor, since this symptom may indicate pregnancy (including ectopic). Method of determining the fertile period. The day of the pre-ovulatory decline of the basal temperature is taken as -O- highest fertility day. Taking into account the viability of sperm and egg, the beginning of the fertile period falls on the day of the menstrual cycle -6, and the end - +3.
After three days of elevated temperature, a safe period begins.


• no need for effective contraception and the inability to use other means of contraception (condition - regular menstrual cycle). Contraindications:

• high risk of unwanted pregnancy,

• irregular menstrual cycle. Complications unknown. Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• difficulties in interpreting the basal temperature data in some variants of the two-phase temperature curve (for example, during its “slow” or “step-like” rise), as well as during catarrhal and other diseases, stresses, sleep disorders, and work at night,

• the need for daily measurement of basal temperature,

• implies a long period of abstinence.

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy. Advantages of the method:

• simplicity

• lack of any effects and side effects,

• allows you to determine the days of the most likely conception when planning pregnancy after temporary contraception.

The cervical method - the Billing method is based on changing the nature of the cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle under the influence of estrogens. During the peri-ovulatory period, mucus becomes light, transparent, viscous, abundant (under the influence of estrogen peak) and resembles raw egg white. This period is accompanied by the appearance of mucous discharge from the vagina and the sensation of moisture of the vulva. On the remaining days of the cycle, the cervical mucus is viscous, produced in small quantities, has a whitish or yellowish tint; the vulva is dry. Ovulation usually occurs 24 hours after the disappearance of abundant and light mucus, and the fertile period lasts another four days (taking into account fluctuations in the time of ovulation and viability of the egg and sperm). Recommendations on the use of the Billing method (for patients): a) daily monitoring of changes in the humidity of the vulva and the nature of vaginal discharge (in the periovulatory period mucous discharge from the vagina resembling egg white and a feeling of moisture in the vulva appear), b) avoid sexual activity ( or use another method of contraception) for four days after the disappearance of light mucus.

Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• the need for a long period of abstinence,

• individual characteristics of changes in the nature of cervical mucus,

• inability to use the method for cervicitis and kolnite.

• difficulties in assessing the nature of mucous secretions after the introduction of spermicides.

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy. Advantages of the method:

• simplicity

• no effects and side effects.

The symptothermal (multicomponent) method combines control of basal temperature, changes in the nature of cervical mucus, data from the calendar method, as well as a number of subjective signs (ovulatory pain, bloody discharge from the genital tract in the middle of the menstrual cycle). The method is difficult to master and interpret the data, its effectiveness is low. Separately, you can describe the following method Interrupted sexual intercourse. The method is based on the extraction of the penis from the vagina before starting ejaculation. Contraceptive efficacy - 15-30 pregnancies per 100 women / year. The prevalence is about 28%, especially in Catholic countries.

Method limitations:

• low contraceptive effect,

• violation of orgasm in men,

• development of neurosis and impotence,

• does not remove the "fear" of unwanted pregnancy.

• Complications unknown
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