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Cervical caps as a method of contraception
Neck caps were created simultaneously with the diaphragms. Have the form of a wide thimble or cup. The caps were originally made from silver or copper, later from rubber, aluminum, dense rubber, plastic, and now from soft rubber.
There are several types of cervical caps:
1. Kafka cap made of rubber, aluminum or thick rubber, 25, 28.31 mm in size (corresponding to the inside diameter of the cap in mm); it is put on by the doctor on the cervix 3 days after the end of menstruation and is removed 3 days before the next menstruation; recommended for patients with a long cylindrical cervix;
2. Prentif's cap made of soft rubber, along the inner surface of the rim has a recess; worn by a doctor or patient on the cervix for 36 - 48 hours; sizes - 22, 25, 28, 31 mm; recommended for women with a cylindrical cervix;
3. Zumas cap - shallow, made of thick soft rubber, fits snugly to the arches of the vagina, resembling a diaphragm; dimensions - 50-75 mm; recommended for deformities or cicatricial changes of the cervix; worn by the patient for 36-48 hours.
Selection of cervical caps Tsumas cap is selected similarly to the diaphragm. The inner rim of the correctly fitted caps of Kafka and Prentif fits tightly against the cervix. The dome-shaped part of the cap should not touch the area of the outer os. Injection Technique Fill the dome of the cap 1/3 with a spermicide. Lying on your back or squatting, grope the cervix. Left hand to push the labia. Putting the cap between the index and thumb of the right hand, insert it into the vagina, push along the back wall to the cervix, and press the cap rim to the near-cervical area (if properly positioned, the cap creates a negative pressure above the cervix). After inserting the cap, its position should be checked - the cervix must be completely covered.
The cap is introduced directly or 30 minutes before sexual intercourse (to create negative pressure) and left in the vagina for 6 to 8 hours (up to a maximum of 36-48 hours, except for the Kafka cap). Extraction. Feel the bezel of the cap on the cervix and, pressing on it with your finger, break the tightness of its contact with the cervix.
Lift up and, with a finger, pick up from the vagina. Care for cervical cap. After each use, the cap is washed with soap, wiped, soaked in a solution of bleach (1 part lime to 3 parts water) to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
• high risk in case of unwanted pregnancy,
• the presence of atypical cells in smears taken from the cervix,
• human papillomavirus infection
• recurrence of inflammatory diseases of the vagina, uterus and appendages,
• recurrent urinary tract infection,
• toxic shock syndrome in history,
• omission of the vaginal walls,
• cervical erosion (Kafka cap). Side effects:
• discomfort, pain in the lower abdomen and lower back,
• allergic to spermicides, rubber,
• increased susceptibility of the cervical epithelium to human papillomavirus infection. Method limitations:
• low contraceptive effectiveness,
• inconvenience in the introduction and extraction (the need to visit the doctor twice during the menstrual cycle when using the Kafka cap),
• the need for manipulation of the vagina immediately before sexual intercourse,
• does not remove the "fear" of an unwanted pregnancy (due to low efficiency). Advantages of the method:
• prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (this aspect needs to be confirmed).
Supervision over the patients using slatted caps. Prior to the appointment of a cap, a study is conducted for the presence of HPV infection and atypical cells. The study is repeated after 3 months, and then - once a year.
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Cervical caps as a method of contraception
- Diaphragms - as a method of contraception
The barrier methods of contraception (BM) include diaphragms, cervical caps, sponges, condoms. The mechanism of the contraceptive action of BM is based on preventing the penetration of spermatozoa through the cervical canal into the upper part of the reproductive system by creating a mechanical obstacle (barrier). According to world statistics, in 1990 traditional methods of contraception used
- Subcutaneous implants as a method of contraception
Norplant ("Norplant") is a manufacturer of Leiras Pharma-ceuticals, Finland. It is represented by flexible sylastic capsules 3.4 cm long and 2.5 mm in diameter, each of which contains 35 mg of levonorgestrel. Norplant-2 - consists of 2 capsules with a length of 44 mm and a diameter of 2.4 mm, containing 35 mg of levonorgestrel. The mechanism of contraceptive action is based on the release of levonorgestrel capsules of norplant
- NECK AND NECK PREGNAL PREGNANCY
THEM. Lviv in 1881 was the first to describe a case of the development of the ovum in the cervical canal. There is a true cervical pregnancy, when the gestational egg develops only in the cervical canal, and a cervical and cervical pregnancy, in which the isthmus is involved in the fetal bed, in addition to the neck. This pathology is rare, but is accompanied by profuse bleeding, therefore it is necessary
- NON-HORMONAL METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION INTRAINOMATIC CONTRACEPTION
Inside uterine contraception (IUD) is one of the most common effective methods for preventing unwanted pregnancy. According to the WHO, currently more than 60 million women use various types of uterine devices (IUDs), which are second only to oral hormonal contraceptives. In Russia, according to statistics, this method
- BARRIER METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
Under barrier contraceptive methods (BMC) are meant all methods of preventing pregnancy that mechanically prevent sperm from entering the cervical canal and / or contribute to the chemical inactivation of sperm in the vagina. There are: • male barrier method - a condom (Innotex, Durex, Contex, Vizit, Life Styles, Sico, Trojan, etc.); • female barrier methods -
- METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
Currently, the most common methods are contraception: hormonal, intrauterine contraception, mechanical contraception, surgical sterilization, rhythmic method, barrier methods of contraception and spermicides. The effectiveness of the contraceptive method is determined by the Pearl index, that is, the number of pregnancies occurring in 100 women using this method.
- MODERN CONTRACEPTION METHODS
The choice of contraceptive method depends on its effectiveness, which, in turn, depends on how constantly and correctly it is used. Table 2.1 (Hatcher R. et al., 2004) compares the frequency (in%) of the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy during the first year of using various methods of contraception with their correct use (consistently and correctly) and with typical
- Abstract. Methods of contraception How to avoid pregnancy, 2006
Introduction Methods of contraception. Mechanical methods. Chemical methods. Biological methods. Emergency contraception. Intramacus drugs. Physiological methods. Sterilization. The use of contraception by adolescents. Conclusion.List used
- Barrier contraceptive methods
Barrier contraception methods are based on the creation of obstacles to the penetration of sperm into the cervical canal and the uterus of a woman. Usually, the sperm from the vagina through the cervical canal into the uterus get in 2-10 minutes, although in some cases this can happen after a few hours. Men and women use various mechanical (cervical caps,
- History and modern methods of contraception
... To have children, Who lacked the mind? A.S. Griboedov Contraception. Mechanical, chemical, hormonal, physiological methods of contraception. Condom. Contraception (from the Latin. Contraceptio - against conception) -preservation from conception. In the modern market of medical and pharmaceutical services there are a huge number of methods and means to prevent
- Modern methods of contraception.
Recommended reading: 1. Bagdan Shandor et al. Modern pregnancy prevention and family planning. - Budapest, 1998. 2. Baychurina A.Z. Contraception. - M., 1999 3. Viner E.N., Volynskaya E.V. Valeology: Training Workshop. - M .: Flint: Science, 2002.- p.38-43. 4. Egides A. Planned child // Family and school. - 1989-№9., Pp.41-44. 3. Markov V.V. Basics of a healthy way
- Rhythmic contraceptive method
The rhythmic (biological) method of contraception is based on abstaining from sexual intercourse in the periovulatory (fertile) period or using other means of contraception during these periods. The contraceptive effect of the method is explained taking into account the concepts outlined below: • ovulation occurs 14-15 days before the onset of the next menstruation (provided that the woman does not suffer from gynecological
- Immunological methods of contraception
Immunology of reproduction, immunology of pregnancy - these major problems of obstetrics and gynecology have not been studied enough so far. Nevertheless, there is a lot of research on the problem of the immunology of contraception. Interruption or prevention of pregnancy is possible with the passive transfer of antibodies or active immunization. Therefore, immunology is directly related to the treatment
- Physiological methods of contraception
Physiological, or ovulation, methods of preventing pregnancy are based on accurate knowledge of the day of ovulation, individual calendar records of the time of ovulation, the life expectancy of the egg cell and sperm. Mandatory use of physiological methods is the regularity of the menstrual cycle in women. To do this, use the following indicators: basal body temperature,
- PHYSIOLOGICAL (NATURAL) METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
Family planning programs include the use of contraceptive methods, which are based on the physiological features of the fertile (when pregnancy may occur) and non-fertility (when pregnancy is extremely unlikely) phases of the menstrual cycle, as well as the method of interrupted sexual intercourse. Adequate awareness and awareness of women about the most likely time of ovulation
- EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF MALE CONTRACEPTION (HATCHER R., TRUSSELL J., 2004)
Physical methods Spermatogenesis blockade can be achieved using ultrasound. However, the resulting changes are irreversible, which is why ultrasound can not be used for contraception. Spermatogenesis and the maturation of spermatozoa are also adversely affected by heat. Heating the testicles just to body temperature leads to a decrease in the number and function of spermatozoa. Vegetable
- Surgical methods of contraception
Surgical sterilization of women is used in cases where they do not want to have children anymore. It is very effective, long lasting and usually permanent. Its essence is to block the passage of pipes. Menstrual function saved. The most widespread method of dressing or excision of pipe sections. The procedure is performed by laparoscopy or minilaparotomy. Often
- Chemical methods of barrier contraception (spermicides)
Spermicides are chemical agents that inactivate sperm in the vagina and prevent its passage into the uterus. Modern spermicides consist of two components: a chemical that inactivates spermatozoa, and a base that promotes the spread of spermicides in the I vagina. One of the currently most common active ingredients in spermicides is benzalkonium.
- BARRIER METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION