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Rhesus blood system and its importance in the development of isoserological incompatibility of mother and fetal blood

Isoserological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus most often occurs as a result of the Rh conflict, when the mother’s blood is Rh-negative and the fetal blood is Rh-positive.

The Rh factor system (Rh) consists of various antigens RhD, RhC, RhE. There are varieties of Hr c, d, e, which have six main types (alleles) of Rh factor antigens. They have different designations: either Rh0, Rh1, Rh2, Hr0, Hr1, Hr2 (nomenclature proposed by Wiener) or Rh D, Rh C, Rh E, Hrd, Hrc, Hre (Fisher symbols). Sometimes in the literature both designations Rho (D), Hro (d), etc. are used at once.

The most immunogenic, capable of inducing a strong immune response are Rh D and Hrd.

All Rh antigens are located on the same chromosome and are controlled by the same genes (short arm of the first pair of chromosomes).

The Rhesus factor was named after the species of monkey Macacus rhesus, in which it was first detected.

Gene D is the main antigen of the rhesus system, not only because it has the highest immunogenic activity, but also because it is most often found in the European population.
Among the white race, 85% of people have this factor and they are Rh-positive. The Rh factor has very strong antigenic properties, so don’t transfuse the blood (red blood cells) of donors belonging to Rh-positive recipients who do not have a Rh factor (Rh-negative).

There are homozygous and heterozygous carriers of the Rh factor. Inheritance of the Rh factor is determined by a series of allelic genes: D — d, C – s. Her.

In the population, among all Rh-positive people, either homozygous types — DD or dd, or heterozygous Dd or CC are formed.

The fetus inherits one gene from each parent. If the mother is Rh negative (genome dd), and the father is Rh positive and homozygous (Rh D), then all children of this married couple will be Rh positive and have the genotype Dd.

If the father is of the heterozygous type (genotype Dd), then the probability of having Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood in their children will be the same (50% each).
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Rhesus blood system and its importance in the development of isoserological incompatibility of mother and fetal blood

  1. Problem 42. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF THE BLOOD OF THE MOTHER AND THE FRUIT BY RESUSCENT FACTOR
    Pregnant K., 25 years old, turned to the antenatal clinic on March 30 about pregnancy. From the anamnesis. Menarche from 13 years old, established immediately, regular, 5 days, 23 days later. Last menstruation December 24-28, Sexual life from 19 years. The first and second pregnancies ended in childbirth, the children died antenatally from the hemolytic disease of the fetus. This pregnancy is the third, desired, in
  2. ISOSEROLOGIC INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT BY RESUS FACTOR
    ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
  3. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
    The basis of the isoserological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus is the heterogeneity of antigenic factors of red blood cells in them, more often in the Rhesus system, less often in the ABO system. Due to the penetration of fetal blood factors with antigenic properties into the bloodstream of a mother who does not have them, in her body alloimmune antibodies are produced that penetrate the placenta to the fetus,
  4. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
    ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND
  5. Group incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood
    Incompatibility occurs if the mother has 0 (1) blood type and the fetus has A (P) or B (W). However, group incompatibility does not proceed as hard as Rh incompatibility. This is because antibodies A and antibodies B belong to class M immunoglobulins and do not cross the placenta, while anti-Rhesus antibodies belong to class G immunoglobulins, have a small molecule and are easily
  6. DISEASES ARISING FROM INCOMPATIBILITY OF MOTHER AND FRUIT ON BLOOD ANTIGENS
    This is an independent group of hereditary diseases caused by incompatibility of the mother and fetus by blood antigens. Schematically, the incompatibility process can be represented as follows. Suppose a woman has Rh-negative blood. The fetus has Rh-positive blood. He inherited from his father one of the allelic genes that determines the presence of the Rh factor. During the period
  7. Mutagenesis based on factors of blood groups and rhesus system
    The most dangerous consequence of infection of blood groups and Rh factor viruses is subsequent mutagenesis (the process of the occurrence of hereditary changes - mutations caused by mutagens), leading to genetic changes in the patient's body. The mechanism of mutagenesis caused by viruses (antigens) of blood groups and Rh factor has not been studied, since it was previously believed that blood group systems and
  8. V Question about Rhesus factor of blood
    Nowadays, many are aware of the existence of a Rh-negative and Rh-positive factor. It is also known that the woman’s belonging to the first option can complicate the pregnancy. Naturally, the desire to protect themselves from the influence of this very factor. No protein was detected. The Rhesus system is associated with the presence of specific proteins in the blood (as part of red blood cells). 85% of people have these proteins - their
  9. Blood types and Rh factor
    The discovery of blood groups by Karl Landsteiner is one of the most famous discoveries in hematology. However, not everyone knows the history of this discovery. So, in 1900, the Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner, studying the properties of blood, mixed red blood cells and blood serums taken from different people. In some cases, when foreign serum was added, the red blood cells stuck together. Landsteiner determined that in
  10. The significance of maternal sensitization in the development of isoserological incompatibility
    The sensitization process of the female body is as follows: fruit antigens, once in the mother’s bloodstream, adhere to T-lymphocytes, which immediately begin to form a whole clone of lymphocytes with a touch mark (cell memory clone). With repeated even a small secondary stimulus (the effect of antigen), they activate many other lymphocytes that produce protective antibodies. For
  11. 44. QUESTION, INSPECTION, PALPATION IN DISEASES OF THE BLOOD SYSTEM. RESEARCH OF SPLEEN, DIAGNOSTIC VALUE. PRINCIPLES OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF BLOOD DISEASES.
    Questioning: complaints of weakness, light fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath during physical exertion, palpitations in case of anemia, leukemia, myeloid hypoplasia. Many diseases of the blood system are accompanied by fever, fever, loss of appetite and weight loss. With B12 anemia, a burning tip of the tongue and its edges is characteristic. With Fe anemia, a perversion of taste (the use of chalk,
  12. Prevention and treatment of isoserological incompatibility, depending on the degree of risk of developing hemolytic disease of the fetus
    To diagnose isosensitization (the presence of antibodies against the fetus), women with Rh-negative blood are serologically tested during pregnancy in the dynamics of its development. The presence of antibodies and an increase in the titer of atypical antibodies may indicate a developing fetal disease, however, not always, as in sensitized patients (repeated pregnancy, blood transfusion,
  13. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of action of the Rhesus blood group system and the AIDS virus
    In 2004, British scientists developed the technique of operations on embryos. In their experiments, the researchers worked with mice that were able to instill certain genes before birth. The neutralized AIDS virus was used as a tool with which researchers inserted DNA into the mouse genome. Instead of damaging the immune system, the virus infected the embryo with “healing” genes. Similar
  14. Determination of Rhesus blood
    Basic concepts In human erythrocytes there are 5 main antigens of the rhesus system (D, C, c, E, e), of which the most immunogenic is the antigen D - Rh (D). The presence or absence of this antigen determines the Rhesus affiliation of the blood: persons with D-antigen belong to the group of Rhesus positive (approximately 85% of the white race); persons who do not have it belong to
  15. The consequences of incompatibility of blood groups in cats.
    Before blood transfusion, it is imperative to do blood tests of a cat donor and a cat recipient. Blood of group A cannot be transfused to cats with blood group B. If donor blood does not correspond to the blood group of the recipient and contains foreign antigens, then the antibodies of the blood plasma of the recipient will cause adhesion and destruction of the red blood cells of the donor blood. The system of cats blood groups (AB) matters
  16. Blood delivery to the clinical diagnostic laboratory for the determination of electrolytes, blood gases and hemostasis
    Rules for the preparation of subjects, taking and storage and delivery of material for research in the CDL Study of acid-base equilibrium and blood gases. Arterial and arterialized capillary blood are preferred as a biomaterial for determining acid-base equilibrium and blood gases. The material should be taken under anaerobic conditions to exclude gas exchange
  17. Incompatibility of blood groups of cats and kittens
    If the breeder knows what blood types his producers have, he can avoid the negative consequences of the incompatibility of the blood groups of the cat and its offspring. For this, kittens must be weaned and fed artificially during the first 72 hours of their life. Thus, kittens will “miss” a portion of colostrum with a maximum concentration of antigens. However, it should be borne in mind that in this case the general
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