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Spermicides - contraceptive action of spermicides
The mechanism of the contraceptive action of spermicides (or chemical contraceptives) is based on the ability of the active ingredient in their composition to destroy spermatozoa within a few seconds (no more than 60). Such a strict requirement for the time interval is explained by the ability of spermatozoa to penetrate into the cervical canal after a few seconds after ejaculation, and after 90 seconds - to reach the fallopian tubes.
As the active ingredient of modern spermicides apply:
• surfactants: nonoxynol-9, octoxynol, menfegol, benzalkonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride - dimethyl-alkyl-benzyl-ammonium-benzalkonium chloride - causes total destruction of spermatozoa within 20 seconds in a concentration of 0.005%, which is superior to nonoxynol-9, exceeding the effect of nonoxynol-3, -155%, and exceeding the effect of nonoxynol-3, spermatozoids for a concentration of 0.005%, which is superior to nonoxynol-9, exceeding the effect of nonoxynol-9, spermatozoids exceed concentration of 0.005%, which exceeds the effect of nonoxynol-3, and spermatozoids exceed the effect of nonoxynol-9; and antiviral action against herpes viruses types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, HIVS),
• inhibitors of active enzymes: A-gene 53 (A-gen 53), syn-a-gene (Syn-a-gen).
In addition to the active substance, the carrier is included in the composition of spermicides - a means that provides dispersion and enveloping effect in the vagina, due to which a kind of barrier arises around the cervix.
The contraceptive effect of spermicides is low - 25-30 pregnancies per 100 women / years.
Advantages of the method:
• simplicity and availability,
• protects against sexually transmitted diseases, inflammation of the pelvic organs and infertility while being used with barrier agents (no-Noxynol-9 in vitro causes the death of gonococci, genital herpes virus, trichomonads, treponema pallor, immunodeficiency virus).
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Spermicides - contraceptive action of spermicides
- Chemical methods of barrier contraception (spermicides)
Spermicides are chemical agents that inactivate sperm in the vagina and prevent its passage into the uterus. Modern spermicides consist of two components: a chemical that inactivates spermatozoa, and a base that promotes the spread of spermicides in the I vagina. One of the currently most common active ingredients in spermicides is benzalkonium.
- The mechanism of contraceptive action of the Navy
According to numerous studies, the so-called aseptic inflammation develops in the endometrium against the background of an intrauterine contraceptive due to a reaction to a foreign body characterized by lymphocytic and leukocyte infiltration of the endometrium, the presence of plasma cells, increased vascular permeability and congestion, most pronounced in places
- Contraceptive sponge
Contraceptive sponge combines the effects of mechanical and chemical methods - prevents the penetration of sperm into the cervical canal and secretes a spermicidal substance. Product form: 1. natural sea sponge impregnated with spermicide, 2. polyurethane sponge containing 1 g of Nonoxynol-9. Available in one size. Contraceptive sponge has the form of round pads, with
- Injectable contraceptives
Contraceptives used as injections are progestins of prolonged action. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are currently used for this purpose. The mechanism of contraceptive action of long-acting progestins (in the form of a depot) is based on the blockade of ovulation, changes in the mucus of the cervical canal and transformation
- Protective (protective) effect of contraceptive hormones
The protective effect of contraceptive hormones is manifested in a number of pathological conditions of the reproductive system. Inflammatory processes of the genital organs Numerous studies have shown that the likelihood of the development of inflammatory processes in the genital organs, especially ascending infection, is significantly reduced when using hormonal contraception. However it is necessary
- Therapeutic effect of contraceptive hormones
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- Extragenital pathology and contraceptive hormones
The introduction into clinical practice of various hormonal contraceptives significantly expanded their therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of not only various gynecological pathologies, but also a number of extragenital diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis. The main pathogenetic mechanism of development of iron deficiency anemia is a deficiency in the body.
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