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Thyroid hormones play a large role in the development of pregnancy, therefore dysfunction of the thyroid gland (both increase and decrease) has a significant impact on the development of pregnancy.
With hyperthyroidism, an increased content of sex hormone-binding globulins is noted. As a result, the metabolic clearance rate of androgens and estrogens slows down, and therefore the testosterone content increases and the conversion of testosterone to androstenedione is significantly accelerated. In the peripheral tissues, androstenedione is converted to estrone, resulting in anovulation by the feedback mechanism in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary system.
In hypothyroidism, due to the decrease in sex steroid-binding globulins, the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone increases, and the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione remains normal, and therefore the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone and then to estradiol is accelerated. However, the metabolism of estradiol is disrupted, and a less active estrogen, estriol, is formed as a result.
According to the feedback mechanism, estriol regulates the secretion of gonadotropins weaker than estradiol, inadequate secretion of gonadotropins occurs, and as a result, anovulation.
These disorders lead to infertility and miscarriage. The prognosis for mother and fetus in hyperthyroidism is determined by the quality of thyrotoxicosis compensation. With inadequate therapy, there is a high risk of complications such as premature birth, preeclampsia, malformations of the newborn, intrauterine growth retardation
Decompensated hypothyroidism is accompanied by infertility. During pregnancy, there is an increased risk of fetal death, placental abruption, arterial hypertension, etc. Severe hypothyroidism in pregnant women leads to the development of severe neuropsychiatric disorders in the fetus, as a result of a deficiency of maternal thyroid hormones, which are necessary for the development of the fetus in early pregnancy, when its thyroid iron is not yet functioning.
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- Diseases of the endocrine glands. Diseases of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. Thyroid disease. Thyroid tumors
1. Etiological factors of diabetes 1. intoxication 2. smoking 3. helminth infections 4. viral infections 5. genetic predisposition 2. Pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis 1. duct dyskinesia 4. mushroom poisoning 2. biliary reflux 5. alcohol poisoning 3. gastroduodenal reflux 6. overeating 3. Match functional
- Thyroid disease
The most common thyroid disease detected in the intensive care unit (ICU) is euthyroid syndrome, which is not a thyroid disease itself, but rather a violation of the peripheral connections and metabolism of the thyroid hormone under the influence of a critical illness. Although significant hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism is less common, a deep excess or
- Thyroid disease
Diseases of the thyroid gland in children are quite common and therefore have been studied quite fully. Among thyroid diseases in children, there are diseases accompanied by increased activity or weakening of the function of the gland, inflammatory processes, open and closed injuries, as well as malignant and benign tumors. Thyroid disease is not characterized
- Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy
Anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland The thyroid gland is a small organ weighing 15-20 g, has the shape of a butterfly and is located on the neck in front of the trachea and below the larynx. It consists of two lobes up to 4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, connected by an isthmus. Often, young and thin people can see the thyroid gland. It is felt by most people, for
- Thyroid disease
Most diseases are accompanied by an increase in its size, which is called goiter or struma. According to the prevalence of the process and the appearance of the gland, the goiter is divided into diffuse, nodular and mixed. According to the histological structure, 2 forms of goiter are distinguished - colloidal and parenchymal. Colloidal goiter is characterized by the accumulation and stagnation of a thick colloid in the follicle cavities. IN
- Diseases of the thyroid gland and pathology of the reproductive system
In the system of peripheral endocrine organs, the thyroid gland, along with the ovaries and adrenal glands, plays an important role in the functioning of the reproductive system of women. Various forms of thyroid gland pathology (thyroid gland) can cause puberty disorders, primary and secondary amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles, miscarriage and infertility. The influence of the thyroid gland on the reproductive system
- Thyroid and parathyroid glands. THYMUS
Thyroid and parathyroid glands. Fork
- Thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer is a malignant monoclonal neoplasm that is characterized by invasive autonomous growth and metastasis and originates either from the follicular epithelium or from parafollicular C cells. The first mention of malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland in a child dates back to 1880. T. Winship and WW Chase (1955) were found in world literature by 1951
The thyroid gland (thyroid gland) weighing 15-20 g consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus lying on the front surface of the trachea under the cricoid cartilage. Iron consists mainly of spherical thyroid follicles, between which are located the blood capillaries and nerve endings. The thyroid gland of an adult contains parafollicular cells (K cells) in the connective tissue
The thyroid gland synthesizes two main hormones: triiodothyronine (TK) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are one of the main regulators of the main metabolism, therefore, determine the growth of the child, and also affect the excitability of the nervous system. The function of the thyroid gland is closely related to the function of the pituitary gland, which regulates its activity according to the type of feedback using thyrotropic
The thyroid gland - glandula thyreoidea (Fig. 302) - develops from the endodermal epithelium of the ventral wall of the intestine between the first and second pairs of gill pockets. First, an unpaired outgrowth forms from the epithelium; the latter grows in the caudaventral direction, reaches the area of the thyroid cartilage. Here the cellular strand is divided into two lobes, which, developing, turn into the right and
Physiology Iodine, which enters the human body with food, is absorbed into the digestive tract, where it transforms into iodides. Iodides with blood flow reach the thyroid gland, where they enter the thyrocytes by active transport. In the thyroid gland, iodide is oxidized to iodine, which combines with the amino acid tyrosine. As a result of this chemical process, two hormones are formed -
- Examination of the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland in animals consists of two flat lobes connected by a bridge, and is located on the sides of the first three rings of the trachea. Examine it with examination and palpation. The gland is palpated at the same time with two hands with sliding movements, and its size, consistency, mobility and sensitivity are determined. In horses, thyroid lobes are small and
- Thyroid disease
Thyroid diseases are of particular importance, as they are very widespread. The thyroid gland controls many metabolic processes due to the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The amount of thyroid hormones is an important indicator of the body's metabolic rate, including oxidative reactions. In the blood, T3 and T4 are in a protein-bound state. The control
- Thyroid disease.
The thyroid gland consists of follicles, interfollicular islets and parafollicular cells. Follicles are constructed mainly from A cells, sometimes they contain B cells (eosinophilic thyrocytes, oncocytes, Ashkenazi-Gürtle cells). A-cells are involved in the formation of thyroglobulin (colloid), the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones - iodothyronines (primarily triiodothyronine and thyroxine). B cells in
- Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
The reason is due to hyperfunction of the thyroid gland, an increased content of thyroid hormones in the blood plasma. Symptoms Symptoms associated with a change in the function of the pituitary gland: enlargement of the thyroid gland, ophthalmopathy (eyebrows), skin changes, including pretibial myxedema (thickening of the skin on the lower leg and foot, often with itching and burning), muscle weakness. Symptoms associated with
- THYROID DISEASES
Sydney H. Ingbar (Sidney H. Ingbar) The normal function of the thyroid gland is directed to the secretion of L-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiod-L-thyronine (T3) - iodinated amino acids, which are active thyroid hormones and affect a variety of metabolic processes (Fig. 324-1). Thyroid diseases are manifested by qualitative or quantitative changes in secretion