the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
Next >>

Anemia. Hemorrhagic syndrome

Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes (the norm in men is 4–5.1x10.12 / l, in women it is 3.9–4.7 × 10.12 / l) and a decrease in the hemoglobin content per unit blood volume (the norm men 130-160 g / l, for women - 120-140 g / l).

At the same time, qualitative changes of erythrocytes, their size, shape and color are often detected. Hemodilution should be distinguished from true anemia, that is, blood thinning due to abundant influx.

tissue fluid, observed6 for example, in patients during the period of convergence of edema, after surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass.

At the same time, true anemia can be masked by thickening of the blood with abundant fluid loss (abundant vomiting, profuse diarrhea, heavy sweat). A characteristic feature of true anemia is either an absolute decrease in the mass of erythrocyte-erythrone or functional insufficiency of erythron due to a decrease in the hemoglobin content in a single erythrocyte.

With anemia in the body, oxidative processes are disturbed and hypoxia develops. Moreover, the clinician often observes the discrepancy between the severity of anemia and the patient's condition. The most important role in eliminating anemia and restoring the normal composition of the blood belongs to the bone marrow, its erythropoietic function.

The state of blood formation in anemias can be divided into 4 types: regenerative normoblastic, hyporegenerative, normoblastic, megaloblastic, and regenerative (aplastic).

Regenerative normoblastic when there is an accelerated rate of maturation of erythrocytes, an increase in the content of erythronormoblasts, reticulocytes in the bone marrow, where their number is higher than in peripheral blood. Anemia is usually normochromic. Often

such a state of hemopase is characteristic of blood loss.

When hyporegenerative normoblasticheskom type imet place slowed down the rate of maturation of red blood cells. Hypochromic anemia and a decrease in the number of reticulocytes are observed in peripheral blood. This type of hematopoiesis is typical for iron deficiency.

The megaloblastic type is characterized by the transfer of blood formation to the embryonic type. The presence of megalocytes in the bone marrow causes a delay in the maturation of normal red blood cells. In the peripheral blood, megalocytic hyperchromic anemia is noted with an increased number of reticulocytes and the presence of such pathological elements as basophilic

red blood cells, Jolly calf and Cabot rings.

With the regenerative, aplastic (hypoplastic) type, the poverty of the bone marrow is determined by the nucleated cells of the leuko- and erythropoiesis, the picture of the fatty replacement of the bone marrow is growing. Peripheral blood is marked by pronounced pancytopenia.

Etiology and pathogenesis.
Anemia occurs either when the loss of red blood cells in the blood due to blood loss or hemorrhage at a given time interval exceeds the maximum capacity for bone regeneration.

brain, or due to insufficient erythropoietic function of the bone marrow, which depends both on the deficiency of substances necessary for normal blood formation (iron, vitamin B12, folic acid) - the so-called deficient anemia, and on the non-assimilation (non-use) of these substances by the bone marrow (so-called achrestic anemia).

Essentially, the classification of anemias is based on their division into 3 large groups, as suggested by MPKonchalovsky, and later modified by IA Kassirsky and GAAlekseev.

1. Anemia due to blood loss (post-hemorrhagic)

a) acute post-hemorrhagic (normochromic) anemia

b) chronic (hypochromic) post-hemorrhagic anemia

11. Anemias due to impaired blood formation

A) Iron deficiency anemia

1. Exogenous (alimentary) iron deficiency

2. Exogenous iron deficiency due to increased demands of the body

3. Resorption of iron deficiency in pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, "surgical" iron deficiency anemia

B) Iron-refractory (sideroahresticheskie) anemia

a) hereditary

b) acquired

C) B-12 folic deficiency anemias

1. Exogenous vitamin B-12-folic acid deficiency

2. Endogenous vitamin B-12-folic acid deficiency due to impaired assimilation of dietary vitamin B-12 due to loss of gastromucoprotein secretion

3. Violation of the assimilation of vitamin B-12-folic acid in the intestine

4. Increased consumption of vitamin B-12-folic acid

D) B-12-folic-achrestic anemias due to impaired assimilation of vitamin B-12-folic acid by the bone marrow

D) Dizerythropoietic anemia due to ineffective

erythropoiesis

E) Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia

G) Metaplastic anemia due to bone replacement

brain

111. Anemias due to increased blood destruction (hemolytic)

A) Anemia caused by exo-erythrocyte factors

B) Anemia due to endo-erythrocyte factors

1. Erythrocytopathy

2. Erythrocytosis

3. Hemoglobinopathy
Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Anemia. Hemorrhagic syndrome

  1. Lecture. Anemia Hemorrhagic syndrome, 2010
    Post-hemorrhagic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia. Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia. Hemolytic
  2. Anemia due to bone marrow drainage, hypothyroidism, and aplastic anemia. MYELOPLASTIC SYNDROME
    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the study of hypo-and aplastic anemias, it is still not possible to create a rational classification of these conditions, since not only the issues of pathomorphogenesis, but even the definition of the very concept of "hypo (a) plastic anemia" is debatable. In accordance with modern concepts of the genesis of hypo- and
  3. Hemorrhagic syndrome
    This syndrome is manifested by bleeding - hemorrhagic diathesis. There are several types of bleeding. - Capillary, or microcirculatory (petechial-bruising) - characterized by petechial rashes, bruises and ecchymosis on the skin and mucous membranes; often combined with increased bleeding of the mucous membranes (nosebleeds, menorrhagia); possibly
  4. Hemorrhagic syndrome (bleeding)
    Hemorrhagic syndrome is a symptom complex based on bleeding (internal and external; venous, arterial, capillary) and bleeding (hemorrhagic diathesis). Leading symptoms: • fainting (sometimes the first sign of bleeding); • bleeding; • bleeding. Etiology. Causes of bleeding are damage to the integrity of the vascular wall as a result of injury;
  5. Bleeding (hemorrhagic syndrome).
    Bleeding (hemorrhage) is the outflow of blood from a blood vessel in violation of the integrity or permeability of its wall. There are adequate early bleeding injuries that begin immediately after damage to the vessel. Bleeding syndrome is characterized by inadequate habitual, as well as late, delayed bleeding from the moment of injury, that occurs several hours after the injury or
  6. Hemorrhagic syndrome
    Priority measures for a child with bleeding: 1. Identify symptoms indicating the source of the bleeding and take measures to stop the bleeding locally. 2. To determine whether the bleeding has not led to the development of hemorrhagic shock, and during its development immediately begin anti-shock therapy. Rate signs of circulatory decompensation: pale skin, cold, sticky sweat, decreased
  7. Hemorrhagic syndrome
    style = "text-align: left; text-indent: 14pt; margin-right: 1pt; margin-left: 2pt;"> Hemorrhagic syndrome is a tendency to bleeding, recurrent hemorrhages and persistent bleeding associated with impaired hemostasis. Under the bleeding understand the outpouring of blood from blood vessels in violation of the integrity of their walls. Bleeding and bleeding in children are common. By
  8. Hemorrhagic syndrome in hemophilia
    Hemorrhagic syndrome in hemophilia - acute hemorrhages and / or hemorrhages, which are based on the hereditary deficiency of one of the plasma coagulation factors. In clinical practice, patients with hemophilia A, who have factor VIII deficiency, are most common. Rarely there is a deficiency of factor IX - hemophilia B, factor XI - hemophilia C and even less others. Most
  9. Hemorrhagic syndrome in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
    Hemorrhagic syndrome in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) - spontaneously arising hemorrhages and bleeding from the skin and mucous membranes, which are based on a sharp decrease in the number of platelets. The most frequent provoking factors of bleeding in ITP: 1. Viral and bacterial infections. 2. Prophylactic vaccinations. 3. Household injuries. 4. Medicinal products
  10. Hemorrhagic syndrome in liver diseases
    Coagulopathy with liver disease occurs as a result of multiple disorders of hemostasis. During pregnancy, the main causes of liver damage are acute fatty liver (pregnant hepatosis), HELLP syndrome (one of the most severe forms of preeclampsia), concomitant chronic hepatitis or cholecystopancreatitis with intrahepatic cholestasis. Against intrahepatic cholestasis worsens
  11. Hypo-and aplastic anemia. Syndrome of bone marrow failure
    Anemia of this group can be acquired (secondary) and hereditary, congenital (primary). Acquired forms may develop under the influence of physical (ionizing radiation); chemical (benzene, arsenic, etc.) factors, drugs (some antibiotics, sulfonamides, antimetabolites - methotrexate, etc.), as well as due to a lack of hormones (myxedema,
  12. 79.HEMORRAGIC DIETASES. CLASSIFICATION. Hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, haemorrhagic vasculitis.
    Gamma-cue diathesis is a form of pathology, a tendency to increased bleeding. Classif: 1). hereditary (hemofelia, Willebrand b-n) acquired (thrombocytopenia). 2). Pathogenesis: A). Caused by violations of coagulability, stabilization of fibrin or increased fibrinolysis. B) Caused by a violation of platelet-vascular hemostasis (thrombocytopenia). B). Conditioned
  13. ANEMIA DUE TO TOXIC EXPOSURE OF THE BONE MARROW (MYETHOXICAL ANEMIA)
    THYROORTHEUS ANEMIA Thyroid stimulation anemia is anemia that develops on the basis of hypothyroidism. Experimental work confirms the important role of thyroid hormone - thyroxin - in stimulating normal blood formation. Animals deprived of the thyroid gland, quickly anemiziruyutsya, the introduction of the same thyroid drugs to thyroidectomized animals cures them from the effects of thyroid-induced
  14. ANEMIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF FUNCTIONAL AGASTRY (AGASTRAL ANEMIA)
    In contrast to the actual agastric anemia associated with partial or complete anatomical removal of the stomach, we distinguish anemia that develops in conditions of functional agastria, when the anatomically preserved stomach partially or completely turns off from the physiological process of digestion and, in particular, loses the ability to assimilate the external antianemic factor - Vitamin B12.
  15. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA (megaloblastic anemia)
    Megaloblastic anemia unites a group of acquired and hereditary anemias, a common feature of which is the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. Regardless of the etiology of the patients, hyperchromic anemia with characteristic changes in the erythrocyte morphology is revealed - oval red blood cells, large (up to 12-14 microns or more). There are red blood cells with basophilic cytoplasm, in many of
  16. Anemia associated with impaired synthesis or utilization of porphyrins (sideroachrestic, sideroblastic anemia)
    This is a heterogeneous group of diseases, hereditary and acquired, associated with a violation of the activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis of porphyrins and heme. The term "sideroahresticheskaya anemia" was introduced by Iewer (1957). In case of sideroachrestric anemia, serum iron levels are elevated. In the bone marrow detect ring-shaped sideroblasts - nucleated red blood cells with a nucleolus corolla,
  17. Anemia due to blood loss, post-hemorrhagic anemia
    Anemia due to blood loss, post-haemorrhagic
  18. Syndrome of premature arousal. Lowna-Ganonga-Levin syndrome. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
    Code for ICD-10 I45.6 Diagnosis When making a diagnosis Mandatory Level of consciousness, frequency and effectiveness of respiration, heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, ECG, if possible, a minimum history In the process of treatment Monitoring in accordance with clause 1.5. After the restoration of the rhythm - ECG in the dynamics, hourly diuresis, Laboratory studies: hemoglobin, blood gases, KOS indicators, electrolytes
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com