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Previously, this anemia was called panmielophthysis - the consumption of bone marrow.

This is a disease of the blood system, characterized by the inhibition of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow and manifested by the insufficient formation of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets - pancytopenia. There are congenital (constitutional) and acquired hypoplasias. In 1888

Ehrlich first described the disease in a young woman, in which acute bleeding, fever, deep anemia and leukopenia developed acutely, and at the autopsy there were no signs of blood formation in the bone marrow.

Hematopoietic hypoplasia may be due to a number of factors: myelotoxic effect is exerted by ionizing radiation, chemicals, in particular benzene and its derivatives, antimetabolites, antitumor drugs. Myelotoxic effect develops when antibiotics, especially chloramphenicol, antimalarial drugs.

Less commonly, hypoplastic anemia occurs in tuberculosis, in pregnancy, in liver damage. Sometimes the cause of anemia is difficult to identify - idiopathic form. Exogenous anemia, as mentioned above, is called myelotoxic.

There may be endogenous hypoplastic anemia — this is Fanconi’s family aplastic anemia, probably due to recessive inheritance of a gene from one of the parents. It is not excluded that the development of hypoplastic anemia is associated with damage to stem cells.

At the same time, there is no shortage of blood formation factors; on the contrary, their

the content increased due to incomplete use of reduced bone marrow.

The disease can occur acutely, subacutely and chronically.
In acute cases, the process begins with hemorrhagic syndrome. Often there is a gradual increase in symptoms. Appear weakness, weakness, dizziness, fatigue. Marked waxy

pallor of the skin without yellowness. With the development of thrombocytopenia, hemorrhages occur in the skin, mucous membranes, and in the fundus. Myocardial dystrophy takes place. Often, inflammatory and purulent-necrotic processes join.

Anemia is pronounced, sometimes hemoglobin is reduced to 20-30 g / l, anemia is normal, and the number of reticulocytes is reduced. Leukopenia can reach 1x10.9 / l or less. It is caused mainly by neutropenia. There is a sharp decrease in red blood cells and platelets.

The bone marrow punctate is scanty, the nuclear elements are represented, as a rule, by lymphocytes, few granulocytes and normocytes.

Megakaryocytes are often absent. Trephine biopsy of the Ilium reveals a sharp predominance of fatty bone marrow over the blood, sometimes the absence of the latter.

Fanconi anemia in children (constitutional aplastic anemia) or congenital pancytopenia was described in 1927 in 3 children in the same family. Boys are sick more often. Moreover, the combination of bone marrow hypoplasia with other defects: microcephaly, microphthalmia, delayed sexual development. Inheritance of the disease is autosomal recessive. Probably, there is a defect in stem cells.
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  1. Aplastic and hypoplastic anemia
    Anemia is called aplastic, when cells in the bone marrow are few or absent, hypoplastic - when the number of these cells is only reduced. Aplasia that extends to erythrocyte progenitors (pure erythrocyte aplasia) may be congenital [Daymonde-Blackfan syndrome (LK Diamond, KDBlackfan), or erythrogenesis imperfecta] or acquired, arising as
  2. Anemia due to bone marrow drainage, hypothyroidism, and aplastic anemia. MYELOPLASTIC SYNDROME
    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the study of hypo-and aplastic anemias, it is still not possible to create a rational classification of these conditions, since not only the issues of pathomorphogenesis, but even the definition of the very concept of "hypo (a) plastic anemia" is debatable. In accordance with modern concepts of the genesis of hypo- and
    - A disease in which there is a depression of bone marrow hematopoiesis, accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets. Main clinical manifestations. In aplastic anemia, patients most often complain of weakness, fatigue, bleeding gums, nasal bleeding, unformed patients, and patients who have had their onions. When viewed
    In contrast to “genuinic” aplastic anemia (Ehrlich type), acquired hypoaplastic anemias, especially acute forms, are caused by certain etiological factors. Of the antibiotics, hypo-aplastic anemias most often cause chlormycetin (chloramphenicol, levomycetin). According to the literature, chlormicetin contains a free nitro group, which has a toxic effect. In a review paper
  5. Hypo and aplastic anemia
    Hypo- and aplastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by a sharp inhibition of blood formation. Differences between hypo-and aplastic anemias are mainly due to the degree of inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis. Naturally, this distinction leaves its mark on the clinical manifestations of the disease, the effectiveness of the treatment applied and
  6. Aplastic anemia
    Aplastic anemia (AA) - team is a group of diseases whose main symptom is depression of bone marrow hematopoiesis according to aspirate and biopsy of bone marrow and peripheral pancytopenia (anemia of varying severity, thrombocytopenia, and leykogranulotsitopeniya reticulocytopenia) in the absence of diagnostic signs of leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome,
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  8. Congenital aplastic anemia
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  9. Acquired aplastic anemia
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  10. Hypo-and aplastic anemia. Syndrome of bone marrow failure
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  12. Hypoplastic anemia (code D 61)
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