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Hyporegenerative anemia is not so much a nosological as a functional-morphological concept. Essentially, hyporegenerative anemia is the biological variant of any anemia. Most often, it occurs as the final stage of development of chronic post-hemorrhagic or auto-aggressive hemolytic anemia with many years of process duration, as well as due to general intoxication (azotemia, etc.), cachexia (cancerous, wound, general intoxication - alimentary, etc.) and depletion of necessary for the construction of erythrocyte substances - iron, proteins, vitamins, microelements.
Blood picture in hyporegenerative anemia is characterized by anemia of normo-hypochromic, rarely hyperchromic type with pronounced degenerative changes in erythrocytes (anisopocylocytosis), with a normal or slightly reduced white blood cell count (due to granulocytes) and a normal number of blood plates.
The bone marrow punctate is characterized by the inhibition of erythropoiesis until the almost complete disappearance of hemoglobinizing normoblasts, but with the preservation of basophilic forms of erythroblasts, which indicates a certain safety of hematopoietic reserves. There is also a disorder of granulopoiesis with delayed aging at the myelo-promyelocytic stage and impaired thrombocytopoiesis, however, the bone marrow megakaryocytes are preserved.
This form may give rise to displacement with partial bone marrow hypoplasia (see below). The peculiarity of hyporegenerative (non-hypoplastic) anemia is its reversible nature, which is proved by the positive results of therapy, both pathogenetic and etiotropic (up to the removal of the source of hidden blood loss, etc.
P.). In this regard, those states of depletion of bone marrow erythropoiesis, which are observed on the soil of long-term, blood loss, require special consideration.
We consider such conditions to be referred to as the proper hypoplastic anemia incorrect for the following reasons: 1) the primary point in the development of anemia is bleeding, therefore, according to its pathogenesis, this anemia is post-hemorrhagic; 2) unlike true hypoplastic anemias, this anemia does not have a progressive flow - it never goes into panmylophytosis; 3) the picture of bone marrow hematopoiesis corresponds more to the state of hyporegeneration (not hypoplasia): among erythroblasts, the basophilic forms predominate; therefore, there is not aplasia of the parent elements of hematopoiesis, but the depletion of iron, protein and vitamins, necessary to build mature forms of red blood; 4) despite the state of severe "dystrophy", close to hypoplasia, yet this condition is fundamentally reversible: a long and systematic complex treatment ultimately removes the bone marrow from the torpid state and brings about a practical recovery.
In view of the above, it seems more correct to consider this anemic state as chronic post hemorrhagic anemia in the r and pre-operative stage.
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- ANEMIA DUE TO TOXIC INFLAMMATION OF THE BONE MARROW (MYETHOXIC ANEMIA)
THYROORTHEUS ANEMIA Thyroid stimulation anemia is anemia that develops on the basis of hypothyroidism. Experimental work confirms the important role of thyroid hormone - thyroxin - in stimulating normal blood formation. Animals deprived of the thyroid gland, quickly anemiziruyutsya, the introduction of the same thyroid drugs to thyroidectomized animals cures them from the effects of thyroid-induced
- ANEMIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF FUNCTIONAL AGASTRY (AGASTRAL ANEMIA)
In contrast to the actual agastric anemia associated with partial or complete anatomical removal of the stomach, we distinguish anemia that develops in conditions of functional agastria, when the anatomically preserved stomach partially or completely turns off from the physiological process of digestion and, in particular, loses the ability to assimilate the external antianemic factor - Vitamin B12.
- Anemia associated with impaired synthesis of DNA and RNA (megaloblastic anemia)
Megaloblastic anemia unites a group of acquired and hereditary anemias, a common feature of which is the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow. Regardless of the etiology of the patients, hyperchromic anemia with characteristic changes in the erythrocyte morphology is revealed - oval red blood cells, large (up to 12-14 microns or more). There are red blood cells with basophilic cytoplasm, in many of
- Anemia associated with impaired synthesis or utilization of porphyrins (sideroachrestic, sideroblastic anemia)
This is a heterogeneous group of diseases, hereditary and acquired, associated with a violation of the activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis of porphyrins and heme. The term "sideroahresticheskaya anemia" was introduced by Iewer (1957). In case of sideroachrestric anemia, serum iron levels are elevated. In the bone marrow detect ring-shaped sideroblasts - nucleated red blood cells with a nucleolus corolla,
- Anemia due to bone marrow drainage, hypothyroidism, and aplastic anemia. MYELOPLASTIC SYNDROME
Despite the large number of studies devoted to the study of hypo-and aplastic anemias, it is still not possible to create a rational classification of these conditions, since not only the issues of pathomorphogenesis, but even the definition of the very concept of "hypo (a) plastic anemia" is debatable. In accordance with modern concepts of the genesis of hypo- and
- Anemia due to blood loss, post-hemorrhagic anemia
Anemia due to blood loss, post-haemorrhagic
- ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
Acquired hemolytic anemias include: • immune hemolytic anemia; • drug hemolytic anemia; • traumatic and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; • anemia caused by hemolytic poisons, chemicals, bacterial toxins; • paroxysmal night
- Anemia. Hemorrhagic syndrome
Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes (the norm in men is 4–5.1x10.12 / l, in women it is 3.9–4.7 × 10.12 / l) and a decrease in the hemoglobin content per unit blood volume (the norm men 130-160 g / l, for women - 120-140 g / l). At the same time, qualitative changes of erythrocytes, their size, shape and color are often detected. From true anemia
- Lecture. Anemia Hemorrhagic syndrome, 2010
Post-hemorrhagic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia. Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia. Hemolytic
Anemia - a condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin per unit volume of blood by reducing its total amount in the body. In most cases, anemia is also accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells per unit volume of blood. From true anemia should be distinguished hydremia - blood thinning due to tissue fluid. At the heart of the development of anemia are various pathological processes in
- Dizerythropoietic anemia (due to impaired erythropoiesis)
This group of diseases includes: a) anemia, combined by a common mechanism of occurrence associated with impairment or termination of erythropoiesis as a result of a deficiency of substances necessary for normal blood formation - deficient anemia (B12 -, B6 -, B2 - folic acid, iron-copper cobalt-deficient, protein-deficient), as well as anemia, arising from the inability of the bone marrow
- Acquired hemolytic anemia
This is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic anemias that occur under the influence of a number of factors that have the ability to damage red blood cells and cause their premature destruction. Classification of acquired hemolytic anemia [Idelson LI, 1975] I. Hemolytic anemia associated with exposure to antibodies. 1. Isoimmune hemolytic anemia 1) hemolytic disease of the newborn
- Deficient anemia
-Anamnesis: eating disorders, digestive disorders -sm anemia: pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, reducing the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells -hyperplastic sm: an increase in the liver and spleen according to the severity of the disease -hemolytic cm: jaundice, splenomegaly, increase in indirect bilirubin in the blood - hemorrhagic sm is expressed only in severe forms - laboratory