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CLASSIFICATION OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA

(Vorobev A.I., 1988)

Groups

I. Non-immune hemolytic anemia (GA).

1. Hereditary and congenital:

a) membranopathies associated with a violation of protein components:

• microspherocytosis,

• elliptocytosis,

• stomatocytosis,

• pyropoikilocytosis;

b) membranopathies associated with a violation of the lipid bilayer:

• acanthocytosis,

• deficiency of acetylcholinesterase activity;

c) fermentopathy (enzymopathy):

• impaired activity of the enzymes of the pentose phosphate cycle, impaired activity of glycolysis enzymes, impaired glutathione metabolism,

• violation of the activity of enzymes involved in the use of ATP;

g) hemoglobinopathies:

• violation of the structure and synthesis of hemoglobin,

• violation of the synthesis of globin chains,

• violation of the structure of the globin chains.

2. Acquired:

a) HA caused by mechanical damage to red blood cells:

• marching hemoglobinuria,

• destruction of red blood cells by prostheses of the valves of the heart and blood vessels,

• erythrocyte polyagglutinability syndrome;

b) HA with a violation of the structure of the erythrocyte membrane as a result of mutations:

a) paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNGU);

c) HA caused by chemical damage to red blood cells:

• salts of heavy metals,

• hemolytic poisons;

d) HA due to a lack of vitamin E;

d) HA caused by the destruction of red blood cells by intracellular parasites.


II. Immune GA.

1. Autoimmune (AIHA):

a) AIHA with incomplete thermal agglutinins:

• idiopathic,

• symptomatic (secondary),

b) AIHA with complete cold agglutinins:

• idiopathic cold hemagglutinin disease,

• symptomatic (secondary);

c) AIHA with biphasic hemolysins (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria):

• acute form,

• chronic form;

d) AIHA with thermal and acid hemolysins:

• idiopathic,

• symptomatic (secondary);

2. Heteroimmune.

3. Isoimmune (alloimmune):

• hemolytic disease of the newborn,

• post-transfusion,

• postallotransplantation;

1. Transimmune.



Classification of hemolytic anemia depending on the location of hemolysis

(Besa et al., 1992)

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CLASSIFICATION OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA

  1. The structure of hemolytic anemia
    At present, the allocation of hereditary and acquired forms of hemolytic anemia is generally accepted. Among hereditary hemolytic anemia, depending on the nature of the damage to red blood cells, forms associated with a violation of the erythrocyte membrane (violation of the structure of the membrane protein or violation of the lnpid membrane) are distinguished; forms associated with impaired activity of red blood cell enzymes
  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    TREATMENT PROGRAM: Dietotherapy. Mode. Treatment of hemolytic crisis. 1. Oxygen therapy. 2. Infusion therapy. 3. Stimulation of diuresis. 4. Glucocorticoid therapy. 5. Treatment with immunoglobulin. 6. Bilirubin binding agents. 7. Relieving anemia. 8. Antibacterial therapy. 9. Antithrombotic therapy. 10. Membrane stabilizers (more often with
  3. THERAPY OF COMPLICATIONS OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    A list of the most frequent complications in various forms of hemolytic anemia in children (systematization of the author) {foto12} THERAPY OF SOME MOST FREQUENT COMPLICATIONS: • with anemic coma - blood transfusion, replenishment of BCC, drugs that increase blood pressure; • in acute renal failure - solving the issue of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis - hemodialysis at urea level 25
  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM OF TREATMENT OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    DIETHERAPY • table number 5 according to Pevzner. Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration and increase hemolysis. MODE • limitation of physical activity, hypothermia, sufficient exposure to fresh air (in order to prevent tissue hypoxia and increase hemolysis in sickle cell anemia), for the period of hemolytic crisis -
  5. FEATURES IN THE TREATMENT OF SEPARATE FORMS OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    with thalasemia: • planned blood transfusions are the main treatment method, • desferalotherapy, • folic acid, • bone marrow transplantation, • splenectomy. • for sickle cell anemia: • prevention of tissue dehydration and hypoxia, • prevention of infectious complications, • transfusion of washed or thawed red blood cells, • folic
  6. THERAPY OF HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA OUTSIDE THE CRISIS
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  7. Classification of Aplastic Anemia
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  8. General characteristics of anemia. Classification
    Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in the total volume of the erythron, occurring with a decrease in the number of red blood cells and / or Нb in a unit of blood volume, often accompanied by their qualitative changes. This is in most cases a syndrome that develops with various diseases, sometimes being the main, central manifestation of the disease. True anemia represents
  9. Classification of Anemia
    Anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the hemoglobin content and / or the number of red blood cells per unit volume of blood, leading to a disruption in the supply of oxygen to tissues (hypoxia). Anemia should be considered a decrease in the level of red blood cells to 3.8-3.6 x 10'2 / l and below, the hemoglobin content to 115-110 g / l and below. Since the body undergoes a continuous intensive formation of red blood cells and
  10. BRIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME KINDS OF ANEMIA. (Markers of the main types of anemia).
    BRIEF CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME KINDS OF ANEMIA. (Markers of the main types
  11. ACUTE HEMOLITIC ANEMIA CONDITIONED BY EXOGENOUS HEMOLYTIC FACTORS
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  12. Anemia Treatment
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  13. TREATMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    The pathogenetic treatment for iron deficiency anemia is iron. Indications for the therapeutic use of iron are all iron deficiency anemias, especially chronic blood loss anemia, occurring with a low plasma iron content, which indicates the depletion of the iron depot in the body. The therapeutic value of iron in anemic conditions is determined by its
  14. Treatment of siderochrestic anemia
    Treatment of patients with hereditary sidereal anemia 1. Vitamin B6 in large doses - 4-8 ml of 5% solution per day intramuscularly. In the absence of effect, the appointment of coenzyme of vitamin Ba - pyridoxalphosphate is indicated. The daily dose of the drug is 80-120 mg when taken orally. 2. Desferal (for binding and excretion of iron from the body) - 10 mg / kg / day in monthly courses 3-6 times a day
  15. Prevention of megaloblastic anemia
    Good nutrition - a diet with the obligatory use of meat, milk, liver, cheese, vegetables (tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, asparagus). The appointment of folic acid at a dose of 5-10 mg / day in the last trimester of pregnancy, 1-5 mg per day for premature babies and children with malabsorption syndrome in courses of 14 days. Dispensary observation in the period of remission ¦ Hematologist examination once a month, during
  16. Hereditary forms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
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  18. Early active detection of anemia
    Risk groups: children, pregnant women, elderly people, representatives of low-income groups of the population (unemployed, large families, etc.). Level 1 screening involves the determination of hemoglobin. At low numbers, a detailed blood test is performed, specified
  19. Treatment of acquired aplastic anemia
    /. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of BMT from a fully histocompatible donor is considered the treatment of choice for initially diagnosed severe AA and should be done immediately, since this type of treatment is most effective in children. The frequency of long-term survival in children undergoing BMT in the early stages of the disease from a fully HLA-compatible donor, according to the literature
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