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Acquired hemolytic anemia

1. Immunohemolytic anemia

a) autoimmune

b) isoimmune

2. Acquired membranopathies

a) paroxysmal night hemoglobinuria

b) spore cell anemia

3. Associated with mechanical damage to red blood cells

a) marching hemoglobinuria

b) Moschkovich's disease (microangiopathic thrombocytopenia)

c) arising from prosthetic heart valves

4. Toxic

Immunohemolytic anemias are characterized by the presence in the blood of antibodies against antigens of their own (autoimmune) or against hapten, which is absorbed on erythrocytes (heteroimmune). Autoimmune

hemolytic anemia may be due to the presence of thermal autoantibodies, cold agglutinins. The onset of the disease is often gradual, but may be acute, with a picture of rapid hemolysis and anemic coma.

The skin is pale, icteric, sometimes marked acrocyanosis.
The serum increased the content of unbound bilirubin. The spleen is enlarged moderately, although splenomegaly is possible. The direct Coombs test is positive.

When hemolytic anemia is caused by cold autoantibodies, the hemolytic anemia clinic occurs during cooling. Acrocyanosis is observed, often acrogangrene, Raynaud's syndrome. Autoantibodies can appear when taking a number of drugs.

Isoimmune hemolytic anemia can develop in newborns with an incompatibility of ABO and Rh systems of the fetus and mother, as well as transfusion of incompatible blood. With these anemia, a positive Coombs test is positive, which detects free antibodies in the plasma.

Acquired membranopathy - Markiafai-Micheli disease. The disease is considered as acquired erythrocytopathy with the appearance of an abnormal population of erythrocytes. Hemolysis is triggered by a variety of factors: the state of sleep, menstruation.
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Acquired hemolytic anemia

    Acquired hemolytic anemias include: • immune hemolytic anemia; • drug hemolytic anemia; • traumatic and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia; • anemia caused by hemolytic poisons, chemicals, bacterial toxins; • paroxysmal night
  2. Acquired hemolytic anemia
    This is a heterogeneous group of hemolytic anemias that occur under the influence of a number of factors that have the ability to damage red blood cells and cause their premature destruction. Classification of acquired hemolytic anemia [Idelson LI, 1975] I. Hemolytic anemia associated with exposure to antibodies. 1. Isoimmune hemolytic anemia 1) hemolytic disease of the newborn
    Acute hemolytic processes, accompanied by severe anemia and jaundice, occur in case of poisoning by hemolytic poisons of organic and inorganic origin (snake venom, fungal poison, saponins, arsenic hydrogen, phosphorus, phenylhydrazine), in severe burns or due to septic, streptococcal or anchoic anaemia or anemia. . Hemolytic anemia of infectious nature
    Etiology and pathogenesis. In the light of modern immunohematology, most of the acquired chronic hemolytic anemias are considered from the point of view of autoimmunization of the organism. The cause of immunization can be transferred infectious, in particular viral, diseases (influenza, pneumonia), under the influence of which autoantibodies are formed that have specific agglutination properties according to
  5. Hemolytic anemia
    Hemolytic anemias make up an extensive group of anemic states of various etiologies, a common feature of which is the pathologically increased destruction of red blood cells. It is known that the average lifespan of erythrocytes does not exceed 100-120 days. Hemolytic anemia is characterized by shortening the life span of red blood cells. Hemolysis can occur intracellularly or
  6. Hemolytic anemia
    Hemolytic anemias include an extensive group of anemic conditions that occur when blood destruction processes predominate over blood formation. The clinical picture of hemolytic anemia is very variable and depends both on the nature of the hemolytic agent and the duration of its effects on the body, and on the degree of compensation of the hemolytic process. Classification.
    Hemolytic anemia is a group of anemias characterized by hemolysis syndrome - increased red blood cell destruction. Red blood cells live for about 120 days, then they are destroyed - phagocytosed by macrophages, mainly the spleen. With hemolytic anemia, the life span of red blood cells is significantly shortened, and when it is reduced below 30 days, a hemolytic clinic appears
    The following groups of hereditary hemolytic anemias are distinguished: 1. Caused by violation of the structure of the erythrocyte membrane. 2. Associated with the violation of the activity of erythrocyte enzymes. 3. Associated with the violation of the structure or synthesis of hemoglobin. Hereditary hemolytic anemia due to erythrocyte membrane disorder Hereditary hemolytic anemia associated with
  9. Hemolytic anemia
    A common sign of hemolytic anemia is the increased destruction of red blood cells, causing on the one hand anemia and increased formation of degradation products, on the other - reactively enhanced erythropoiesis. An increase in the decomposition products of erythrocytes is clinically manifested by lemon jaundice, a high content of unbound (unconjugated) bilirubin in the blood, with its
    In contrast to “genuinic” aplastic anemia (Ehrlich type), acquired hypoaplastic anemias, especially acute forms, are caused by certain etiological factors. Of the antibiotics, hypo-aplastic anemias most often cause chlormycetin (chloramphenicol, levomycetin). According to the literature, chlormicetin contains a free nitro group, which has a toxic effect. In a review paper
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