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What is such a PaTriarch T?
In modern scientific literature, patriarchy is commonly referred to as “gender power”, which is expressed in the fact that men occupy a dominant position in society in relation to women. The patriarchate is a characteristic of the structure of the whole society, and not of relations, for example, in individual families and labor collectives: gender inequality is reproduced regardless of personal preferences and intentions of individual men and women; it is supported by social mores and the conditions of the organization of public and private life. Patriarchal gender order ascribes to men and women rigidly defined roles, standards of behavior, the fulfillment of which is demanded by society.
The patriarchate has many faces: it can exist both in the classic version and in more hidden forms. The classical form of patriarchy prevails in traditional societies, where the basis of patriarchal relations is a large family, including representatives of several generations.
“Classical patriarchy” is a family structure, implying the absolute authority of the father in the family, the strong influence of parents on marriage, the primacy of the husband over the wife and the secondary status of the daughter compared to the son. Currently, such a relationship between the sexes is typical for most Muslim countries, India, rural areas of China, some regions of Latin America, etc. The patriarchal society tightly controls the sphere of sexual relations, prescribing a woman to preserve virginity before marriage, limiting her knowledge about sex, linking her sex life mainly with the reproduction of the genus, and not with pleasure. Personal freedom to choose young men at marriage is also limited. The status of women depends on the social position of their husbands, fathers and brothers. In such a society, women are limited not only in the choice of a husband and the decision to have children, but also in freedom of movement and communication. They should not dispute the opinions of elders and men. A woman can get an education and work outside the home only after receiving the consent of her husband and older relatives. Being completely dependent on others, in case of loss of the breadwinner, a woman is left without a livelihood if she is not supported by another man or older women of the clan. However, as long as the patriarchate functions “normally,” it protects and supports those who play by its rules, including its most dependent members. So, the distribution of power under patriarchy implies inequality by sex and age and rigidly fixed sex roles.
* To describe gender relations associated with the dominance of men over women, we use two different terms - “patriarchal” or “patriarchal” - depending on which particular society we are talking about. The patriarchal society is a traditional type of society, dominated by large multi-generation families, in which (as in society as a whole) not only women are subordinate to men, but the younger ones unconditionally obey their elders. We call “patriarchal” more modern societies, where the role of traditions is small, so-called married couples predominate (only spouses and their minor children live together), the influence of elders on younger ones is problematic, but nonetheless men have different advantages and have power over women ( in one form or another).
In real life, the relationship of men and women, even with a pronounced patriarchy, of course, does not look so that all men turn out to be cruel oppressors, and all women are powerlessly oppressed. In fact, the picture is much more complicated. A well-known American researcher of Turkish origin, Deniz Candioti, has proposed the concept of “patriarchal bargain” to describe gender attitudes in a patriarchal society. Such a deal assumes that men and women who follow the established “social contract” receive benefits using the resources available to them. The “Patriarchal Deal” is a guarantee of the protection and safety of subordinates received by them in exchange for unconditional adherence to prescribed roles and the maintenance of strong *. Responsibility for organizing the life of a community (family, clan, or community as a whole) in this case is generally assigned to older men. Confirming their dependency position and following social regulations, women use a variety of strategies, seeking to increase their security and improve their life chances. In the most “tough” systems of patriarchy, women have practically no open levers of power. In less rigid patriarchal societies, women, not having public authority, nevertheless have a certain autonomy and authority within their roles. Accordingly, they use different strategies of influence, manipulating the roles of daughters, mothers, wives, lovers and sexual partners.
The “classic” patriarchy implies minimal autonomy for women or its complete absence, the secondary status of women in the patriarchal parental and matrimonial families. At the same time, the domination of men in society places on them the responsibility for the well-being of subordinates (men and women). However, the example of the Muslim countries of Asia - the countries of the "classical" patriarchy (where girls are married by their parents, submit not only to her husband, but also to older relatives) - shows that older women exercise control over family relations - at least over their daughters-in-law. Their “resource” is the maternal and marital influence.
* The patriarchal bargain can also be illustrated by the mechanisms of reproduction of hazing in the draft army.
the feeling they have on sons and husbands. Older women choose a bride for their son, and later the daughter-in-law submits to her mother-in-law and recognizes her authority in the family. Older women are interested in reproducing their family power, they manipulate their husbands and sons, prevent the separation of young families from the extended family. Such strategies are considered the basis of "female conservatism." They are opposed by the strategies of young men seeking to secede from the family, as well as the spread of romantic love in the modern Muslim world, which creates the need to separate a married couple into an “autonomous unit” independent of older relatives and to restrict control on their part.
Thus, patriarchy is historically diverse and changeable.
Under capitalism, the traditional gender order begins to collapse under the influence of economic, political, and cultural challenges. Industrial society forms the female roles of a working mother, a housewife, an independent woman.
The basis of the capitalist structure of the industrial society is a certain gender ideology that supports the concept of the natural purpose of the sexes. According to these ideas, men are assigned a public role, and women are assigned responsibilities in the private sphere. In the first half of the 20th century, this ideology was supported in Western societies by various concepts, from psychoanalysis to popular psychology and popular culture. All of them showed and explained the natural feminine purpose, features of female psychology, taught the woman how to be a good housewife, supplying her with appropriate prescriptions and recipes. At the same time, women were offered various articles of consumption for the realization of their natural femininity and the successful fulfillment of the “female role”. At the same time, gender inequalities remained and differences between men and women were emphasized. However, these seemingly unshakeable and quite functional relationships (a man earns money, and a woman is engaged in the household) were challenged in the second half of the 1960s. Challenges to existing gender boundaries came from different directions - from the women's, youth and left movement, avant-garde culture, new infrastructure opportunities. A happy housewife (and all other women were considered either miserable or unlucky, or not quite normal) was a suffering woman whose life was limited to the four walls of a comfortable house. She suffered from a lack of independence, the inability to realize her professional aspirations, the secondary nature of her serving role, loneliness, when children grew up and her husbands made a career. These problems, however, were considered individual psychological rather than social, and for a very long time were not recognized as common to all non-working women.
And only in the 1960s – 1970s did the system supporting such gender norms be understood as patriarchy. Feminist studies show that for the time being women accept the conditions in which the patriarchy puts them, because they receive security guarantees, are not responsible for the most important spheres of life and often - like slaves under the master - are not aware of their position.
However, patriarchy is historically variable, gender is changing as ownership changes, employment patterns, family life patterns, and sexual practices. In the second half of the 20th century, women's independence in choosing their life and profession, in creating a family and making decisions about childbirth, in the ability to earn money and make a career, increased. Gradually, patriarchy loses unconditional legitimacy in the eyes of many people and is interpreted as a violation of a fair order. In a sense, he begins to retreat into the historical past.
Researchers conclude that at the end of the twentieth century there was a breakdown of the main patriarchal structures in North America, Latin America (with some exceptions), in Japan, Korea, the states of Oceania, in Eastern Europe and Russia. In many societies, the post-patriarchal era has come. Nevertheless, the system of gender inequality, in which women’s salaries do not exceed two-thirds of men’s salaries, retains the “glass ceiling” phenomenon, which limits the opportunities for women’s professional and career advancement (it’s harder for them to improve their skills, go on business trips, work overtime the main responsibility for the organization of family life) continues to be reproduced. So, soft and unobtrusive mechanisms of reproduction of the “glass ceiling” are connected, for example, with the organization of working time in modern business (especially in Russia), which requires managers and employees to be at work in the evenings, on weekends, and also to visit places together with colleagues. leisure - baths, pools, bowling clubs, cottages and restaurants. A woman is either limited in such opportunities, or forced to adapt to the so-called male style of behavior, under pressure from the family about the poor performance of household duties. But often she is either not offered a career advancement above a certain level, or she refuses it, considering that she cannot cope or because she cannot afford it. At the same time, neither the leaders nor the women themselves see any discrimination in the existing structure. The post-patriarchal order limits the formation of leadership skills among women, since the “right” femininity is difficult to match with the required leadership qualities - the ability to risk, compete, make management decisions, be responsible for business, and in the Russian case also constantly maneuver between law and crime. This is how the invisible mechanisms of patriarchy work.
How then can a woman achieve her goals? Alas, mainly through manipulation. This particular women's strategy is developed in response to obviously unequal conditions of competition. French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in his work “Male domination” writes that the prevailing point of view ascribes to women such negatively evaluated properties as cunning, intrigue (remember Shakespeare, Tolstoy!), Which are the reverse features of feminine charm and sexual attractiveness. Obviously, both cunning and intrigue are brought up in women in the context of submission.
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What is such a PaTriarch T?
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