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WHAT IS THIS PATRIARCH?
Under patriarchy in modern scientific literature, it is customary to understand "gender power", expressed in the fact that men occupy a position dominant in relation to women in society. The patriarchy is a characteristic of the structure of the whole society, and not of relations, for example, in individual families and work collectives: gender inequality is reproduced regardless of personal preferences and intentions of individual men and women; it is supported by social mores and the conditions for the organization of public and private life. The patriarchal gender order ascribed to men and women rigidly defined roles, standards of behavior, the performance of which requires society from them.
The Patriarchate is quite diverse: it can exist both in the classical version and in more hidden forms. The classical form of patriarchy prevails in traditional societies, where the basis of patriarchal relations is a large family, which includes representatives of several generations.
"Classic patriarchy" is a family structure that assumes the father's unconditional authority in the family, the strong influence of parents on the marriage, the domination of the husband over the wife and the secondary status of the daughter in comparison with the son. At present, such a structure of relations between the sexes is characteristic of most Muslim countries, India, rural areas of China, some regions of Latin America, etc. The patriarchal society strictly controls the sphere of sexual relations, prescribing to the woman the preservation of virginity before marriage, limiting her knowledge about sex, sexual life mainly with the reproduction of the genus, and not with the acquisition of pleasure. The personal freedom to choose young men at marriage is also limited. The status of women depends on the social position of their husbands, fathers and brothers. In such a society, women are limited not only in choosing a husband and deciding on procreation, but also in freedom of movement, of communication. They should not challenge the opinion of elders and men. To receive education and work outside the home, a woman can only get the consent of her husband and older relatives. Being completely dependent on others, in case of loss of a breadwinner, a woman remains without a means of subsistence, unless she is supported by another man or senior women of the clan. However, while the patriarchate functions "normally", it protects and supports those who play by its rules, including the most dependent members. So, the distribution of power under the patriarchy assumes inequality by sex and age and rigidly fixed sexual roles.
* To describe the gender relations associated with the domination of men over women, we use two different terms - "patriarchal" or "patriarchal" - depending on what specific society we are talking about. The patriarchal society is a society of a traditional type, where large, multisubmerged families predominate, in which (as in society as a whole), not only women submit to men, but the younger ones submit unconditionally to the elders. We call "patriarchal" more modern societies where the role of traditions is small, so-called married families predominate (together only spouses and their underage children live), the influence of the elders on the younger is problematic, but nevertheless, men have different advantages and have power over women in one form or another).
In real life, the relationship of men and women, even with a pronounced patriarchy, certainly does not look like all men are cruel oppressors, and all women are powerless oppressed. In fact, the picture is much more complicated. A well-known American researcher of Turkish origin, Denise Candioti, described the concept of "patriarchal bargain" for describing gender issues in patriarchal society. Such a transaction assumes that men and women following the established "social contract" receive benefits using their available resources. "Patriarchal transaction" - a guarantee of protection and safety of subordinates, received by them in exchange for unconditional adherence to the prescribed roles and maintenance of the strong *. Responsibility for organizing the life of the community (family, clan or community as a whole) in this case is generally assigned to older men. Confirming their dependent position and following public regulations, women use a variety of strategies, seeking to strengthen their security and improve their life chances. In the most "rigid" systems of patriarchy, women practically do not have open levers of power. In less rigid patriarchal societies, women, without public authority, nevertheless have a certain autonomy and authority within their roles. Accordingly, they use different strategies of influence, manipulating the roles of daughters, mothers, wives, lovers and sexual partners.
The "classical" patriarchy presupposes minimal autonomy for women or their complete absence, the secondary status of women in a patriarchal parental and married family. At the same time, the dominance of men in society places responsibility on them for the well-being of subordinates (men and women). However, the example of Muslim countries in Asia - the countries of the "classical" patriarchy (where girls marry their parents, obey not only their husbands, but also their older relatives) - shows that older women exercise control over relations in the family - at least over their daughters-in-law. Their "resource" is the maternal and matrimonial
* The patriarchal deal can also be illustrated by the mechanisms of the reproduction of hazing in the draft army.
they have on sons and husbands. Senior women choose a bride for their son, and in the future the daughter-in-law obeys her mother-in-law and recognizes her power in the family. Senior women are interested in reproducing their family power, they manipulate their husbands and sons, and prevent the allocation of young families from the extended family. Such strategies are considered the basis of "female conservatism". They are opposed by the strategies of young men seeking to secede from their families, as well as the spread of romantic love in the modern Muslim world, which creates the need to allocate a married couple to an "autonomous unit" independent of older relatives and to limit their control.
Thus, the patriarchy is historically diverse and changeable.
Under capitalism, traditional gender order begins to collapse under the impact of economic, political and cultural challenges. The industrial society forms women's roles of a working mother, a housewife, an independent woman.
At the heart of the capitalist structure of an industrial society is a certain gender ideology that supports the notions of the natural destiny of the sexes. According to these ideas, men are prescribed a public role, and women - responsibilities in the private sphere. This ideology in the first half of the XX century in Western societies was supported by various concepts - from psychoanalysis to popular psychology and mass culture. All of them showed and explained the natural female destiny, the peculiarities of female psychology, taught the woman how to be a good housewife, supplying her with appropriate prescriptions and recipes. Simultaneously, the woman was offered various commodities for the realization of her natural femininity and the successful fulfillment of the "female role". At the same time, inequality remained on the basis of gender and differences between men and women were emphasized. However, these seemingly unshakable and fully functional relationships (the man earns money and the woman is engaged in the household) were challenged in the second half of the 1960s. Challenges to existing gender boundaries came from different sides - from the female, youth and left movement, avant-garde culture, new infrastructure opportunities. A happy housewife (and all other women were considered either unhappy, or unsuccessful, or not quite normal) turned out to be a suffering woman whose life is limited to the four walls of a comfortable house. She suffered from a lack of independence, the inability to realize professional aspirations, the secondary role of her serving role, loneliness, when the children grew up, and husbands made a career. These problems, however, were considered more individual psychological than social, and for a long time were not recognized as common to all non-working women.
And only in the 1960s and 1970s the system that supported such gender norms was interpreted as patriarchy. Feminist studies show that women for the time being accept the conditions in which they are placed by the patriarchate, because they receive security guarantees, are not responsible for the most important spheres of life and often - as slaves to the master - do not realize their position.
However, patriarchy is historically changeable, the gender structure changes with the change in property relations, employment structure, family life forms, sexual practices. In the second half of the 20th century, the independence of women in the choice of the life path and profession, in creating a family and making decisions about childbearing, in the ability to earn money and make a career increased. Gradually, the patriarchate loses its unconditional legitimacy in the eyes of many people and is treated as a violation of a just order. In a sense, he begins to retreat into the historical past.
Researchers come to the conclusion that at the end of the twentieth century, the major patriarchal structures broke down in North America, Latin America (with some exceptions), in Japan, Korea, the states of Oceania, in Eastern Europe and Russia. In many societies, the post-patriarchal era has come. Nevertheless, the system of gender inequality, in which the salary of women does not exceed two thirds of the male salary, preserves the phenomenon of the "glass ceiling" limiting the opportunities for women's professional and professional advancement (they find it more difficult to improve their qualifications, travel, work overtime, the main responsibility for the organization of family life), continues to be reproduced. So, soft and subtle mechanisms for the reproduction of the "glass ceiling" are connected, for example, with the organization of working time in modern business (especially in Russia), requiring managers and employees to be at work in the evenings, on weekends, and also with colleagues to visit places leisure - baths, swimming pools, bowling alleys, clubs, villas and restaurants. A woman is either limited in such opportunities, or is forced to adapt to the so-called male style of behavior, experiencing family pressure on poor performance of household duties. But often she is either not offered promotion above a certain level, or she refuses it, believing that she will not cope, or because she can not afford it. At the same time, neither leaders nor women themselves see any discrimination in the existing system. The post-patriarchal order restricts the formation of leadership skills among women, since "correct" femininity is difficult to reconcile with the required qualities of the leader-the ability to take risks, compete, make managerial decisions, take responsibility for business, and in the Russian case, constantly maneuver between law and crime. This is how the invisible mechanisms of patriarchy work.
How then can a woman achieve her goals? Alas, mainly through manipulation. This special women's strategy is developed in response to obviously unequal conditions of competition. The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in his work "Male domination" writes that the dominant point of view ascribes to women such negatively evaluated properties as cunning, intrigue (we remember Shakespeare, Tolstoy!), Which are the turning points of female charm and sexual attractiveness. It is obvious that both cunning and intrigue are brought up in women in the context of subordination.
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