home
about the project
News of medicine
Authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

WHAT IS THIS PATRIARCH?

Under patriarchy in modern scientific literature, it is customary to understand "gender power", expressed in the fact that men occupy a position dominant in relation to women in society. The patriarchy is a characteristic of the structure of the whole society, and not of relations, for example, in individual families and work collectives: gender inequality is reproduced regardless of personal preferences and intentions of individual men and women; it is supported by social mores and the conditions for the organization of public and private life. The patriarchal gender order ascribed to men and women rigidly defined roles, standards of behavior, the performance of which requires society from them.

The Patriarchate is quite diverse: it can exist both in the classical version and in more hidden forms. The classical form of patriarchy prevails in traditional societies, where the basis of patriarchal relations is a large family, which includes representatives of several generations.

"Classic patriarchy" is a family structure that assumes the father's unconditional authority in the family, the strong influence of parents on the marriage, the domination of the husband over the wife and the secondary status of the daughter in comparison with the son. At present, such a structure of relations between the sexes is characteristic of most Muslim countries, India, rural areas of China, some regions of Latin America, etc. The patriarchal society strictly controls the sphere of sexual relations, prescribing to the woman the preservation of virginity before marriage, limiting her knowledge about sex, sexual life mainly with the reproduction of the genus, and not with the acquisition of pleasure. The personal freedom to choose young men at marriage is also limited. The status of women depends on the social position of their husbands, fathers and brothers. In such a society, women are limited not only in choosing a husband and deciding on procreation, but also in freedom of movement, of communication. They should not challenge the opinion of elders and men. To receive education and work outside the home, a woman can only get the consent of her husband and older relatives. Being completely dependent on others, in case of loss of a breadwinner, a woman remains without a means of subsistence, unless she is supported by another man or senior women of the clan. However, while the patriarchate functions "normally", it protects and supports those who play by its rules, including the most dependent members. So, the distribution of power under the patriarchy assumes inequality by sex and age and rigidly fixed sexual roles.

* To describe the gender relations associated with the domination of men over women, we use two different terms - "patriarchal" or "patriarchal" - depending on what specific society we are talking about. The patriarchal society is a society of a traditional type, where large, multisubmerged families predominate, in which (as in society as a whole), not only women submit to men, but the younger ones submit unconditionally to the elders. We call "patriarchal" more modern societies where the role of traditions is small, so-called married families predominate (together only spouses and their underage children live), the influence of the elders on the younger is problematic, but nevertheless, men have different advantages and have power over women in one form or another).

In real life, the relationship of men and women, even with a pronounced patriarchy, certainly does not look like all men are cruel oppressors, and all women are powerless oppressed. In fact, the picture is much more complicated. A well-known American researcher of Turkish origin, Denise Candioti, described the concept of "patriarchal bargain" for describing gender issues in patriarchal society. Such a transaction assumes that men and women following the established "social contract" receive benefits using their available resources. "Patriarchal transaction" - a guarantee of protection and safety of subordinates, received by them in exchange for unconditional adherence to the prescribed roles and maintenance of the strong *. Responsibility for organizing the life of the community (family, clan or community as a whole) in this case is generally assigned to older men. Confirming their dependent position and following public regulations, women use a variety of strategies, seeking to strengthen their security and improve their life chances. In the most "rigid" systems of patriarchy, women practically do not have open levers of power. In less rigid patriarchal societies, women, without public authority, nevertheless have a certain autonomy and authority within their roles. Accordingly, they use different strategies of influence, manipulating the roles of daughters, mothers, wives, lovers and sexual partners.

The "classical" patriarchy presupposes minimal autonomy for women or their complete absence, the secondary status of women in a patriarchal parental and married family. At the same time, the dominance of men in society places responsibility on them for the well-being of subordinates (men and women). However, the example of Muslim countries in Asia - the countries of the "classical" patriarchy (where girls marry their parents, obey not only their husbands, but also their older relatives) - shows that older women exercise control over relations in the family - at least over their daughters-in-law. Their "resource" is the maternal and matrimonial

* The patriarchal deal can also be illustrated by the mechanisms of the reproduction of hazing in the draft army.

they have on sons and husbands. Senior women choose a bride for their son, and in the future the daughter-in-law obeys her mother-in-law and recognizes her power in the family. Senior women are interested in reproducing their family power, they manipulate their husbands and sons, and prevent the allocation of young families from the extended family. Such strategies are considered the basis of "female conservatism". They are opposed by the strategies of young men seeking to secede from their families, as well as the spread of romantic love in the modern Muslim world, which creates the need to allocate a married couple to an "autonomous unit" independent of older relatives and to limit their control.

Thus, the patriarchy is historically diverse and changeable.
Under capitalism, traditional gender order begins to collapse under the impact of economic, political and cultural challenges. The industrial society forms women's roles of a working mother, a housewife, an independent woman.

At the heart of the capitalist structure of an industrial society is a certain gender ideology that supports the notions of the natural destiny of the sexes. According to these ideas, men are prescribed a public role, and women - responsibilities in the private sphere. This ideology in the first half of the XX century in Western societies was supported by various concepts - from psychoanalysis to popular psychology and mass culture. All of them showed and explained the natural female destiny, the peculiarities of female psychology, taught the woman how to be a good housewife, supplying her with appropriate prescriptions and recipes. Simultaneously, the woman was offered various commodities for the realization of her natural femininity and the successful fulfillment of the "female role". At the same time, inequality remained on the basis of gender and differences between men and women were emphasized. However, these seemingly unshakable and fully functional relationships (the man earns money and the woman is engaged in the household) were challenged in the second half of the 1960s. Challenges to existing gender boundaries came from different sides - from the female, youth and left movement, avant-garde culture, new infrastructure opportunities. A happy housewife (and all other women were considered either unhappy, or unsuccessful, or not quite normal) turned out to be a suffering woman whose life is limited to the four walls of a comfortable house. She suffered from a lack of independence, the inability to realize professional aspirations, the secondary role of her serving role, loneliness, when the children grew up, and husbands made a career. These problems, however, were considered more individual psychological than social, and for a long time were not recognized as common to all non-working women.

And only in the 1960s and 1970s the system that supported such gender norms was interpreted as patriarchy. Feminist studies show that women for the time being accept the conditions in which they are placed by the patriarchate, because they receive security guarantees, are not responsible for the most important spheres of life and often - as slaves to the master - do not realize their position.

However, patriarchy is historically changeable, the gender structure changes with the change in property relations, employment structure, family life forms, sexual practices. In the second half of the 20th century, the independence of women in the choice of the life path and profession, in creating a family and making decisions about childbearing, in the ability to earn money and make a career increased. Gradually, the patriarchate loses its unconditional legitimacy in the eyes of many people and is treated as a violation of a just order. In a sense, he begins to retreat into the historical past.

Researchers come to the conclusion that at the end of the twentieth century, the major patriarchal structures broke down in North America, Latin America (with some exceptions), in Japan, Korea, the states of Oceania, in Eastern Europe and Russia. In many societies, the post-patriarchal era has come. Nevertheless, the system of gender inequality, in which the salary of women does not exceed two thirds of the male salary, preserves the phenomenon of the "glass ceiling" limiting the opportunities for women's professional and professional advancement (they find it more difficult to improve their qualifications, travel, work overtime, the main responsibility for the organization of family life), continues to be reproduced. So, soft and subtle mechanisms for the reproduction of the "glass ceiling" are connected, for example, with the organization of working time in modern business (especially in Russia), requiring managers and employees to be at work in the evenings, on weekends, and also with colleagues to visit places leisure - baths, swimming pools, bowling alleys, clubs, villas and restaurants. A woman is either limited in such opportunities, or is forced to adapt to the so-called male style of behavior, experiencing family pressure on poor performance of household duties. But often she is either not offered promotion above a certain level, or she refuses it, believing that she will not cope, or because she can not afford it. At the same time, neither leaders nor women themselves see any discrimination in the existing system. The post-patriarchal order restricts the formation of leadership skills among women, since "correct" femininity is difficult to reconcile with the required qualities of the leader-the ability to take risks, compete, make managerial decisions, take responsibility for business, and in the Russian case, constantly maneuver between law and crime. This is how the invisible mechanisms of patriarchy work.

How then can a woman achieve her goals? Alas, mainly through manipulation. This special women's strategy is developed in response to obviously unequal conditions of competition. The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in his work "Male domination" writes that the dominant point of view ascribes to women such negatively evaluated properties as cunning, intrigue (we remember Shakespeare, Tolstoy!), Which are the turning points of female charm and sexual attractiveness. It is obvious that both cunning and intrigue are brought up in women in the context of subordination.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to the content of the tutorial =

WHAT IS THIS PATRIARCH?

  1. What is a trigger, or how does the ventilator know that it's time to start breathing in?
    The word trigger is translated as a trigger, starting device, starting relay, start. For the ventilator, this is a start-up scheme that includes inhalation. At the moment, various parameters can be used to activate the inspiration: 1. Time. 2. Pressure. 3. Flow. 4. The volume. 5. Electric pulse passing through the diaphragmatic nerve. 6. Signal from the intra-esophageal pressure sensor. 7.
  2. What is video training?
    Performing exercises and tasks of the program "Ultra Rapid", you not only train your attention. We remind you that we are solving the complex task of affecting three factors of our body: physical, emotional and intellectual. We hope that you have already felt the favorable changes that have taken place in your health, your health, your intellectual development and,
  3. What is a toxin?
    Toxin is something that disrupts the normal course of physiological processes and has a negative effect on the body's functions. Toxins are divided into many different types, having completely different properties, originating from many different sources and possessing different mechanisms of destructive effect. Regardless of how you feel about this problem, knowledge of what is
  4. What is man?
    A person is a brightly colored energy system full of dynamic aspirations. Like any energy system, he always tries to come to rest. He has to do it. For this, energy is also used; its mysterious function is to restore one's own balance. A person is arranged in such a way that, at any internal or external event, sooner or later,
  5. What is intuition?
    The narrative below is a true description of some personal experiences and does not pretend to any other meaning. Similar things were demonstrated to colleagues-psychiatrists and groups of doctors; of course, patients and other witnesses can confirm the authenticity of the described incidents, but there is no other way to convince the individual reader. Intuition is the acquisition
  6. What is a precancer?
    Who is the author of the term "precancer", is still unknown. Different authors call different surnames of the inventor of this term. In the opinion of T. Venkei and J. Sugar (1962), he first occurs in the work of the dermatologist V. Dyubreil (1896). Until now, it is also unclear what a precursor is. In terms of meaning and meaning, the precancer must meet two criteria: always precede cancer and turn into cancer inevitably, i.e. in
  7. WHAT IS INFERTILITY
    Let's start with a scientific definition. Infertility (Latin - sterilitas) refers to the lack of fertility in women (female infertility) and in men (male infertility). A little more statistics. In the first year of marriage, pregnancy occurs in 80-90% of women; absence of pregnancy after 3 years of marriage indicates that the chances of its occurrence are decreasing every year. Marriage
  8. What is creative thinking?
    We have already talked about how parents can help develop the intelligence of their child, for example, through programs for developing creative thinking, or creativity. There are similar technologies for adults. A number of programs and tests are based on the ideas of the psychologist DP Gilford, on his model of the structure of intelligence. In these technologies, creative (divergent) thinking is contrasted
  9. What is watchfulness
    Sometimes people meet, just not used to being attentive from childhood. They look around, but see little. Here we are faced with a second cause of absent-mindedness - the lack of habit of watching. If your comrades in the class are asked in detail, to remember in detail and describe something from memory (for example, visiting the assembly hall where meetings are usually held), it turns out that for some
  10. What is hypnosis?
    The Indian yogi once demonstrated to the Calcutta Medical Society that he is able to stop the beating of his pulse. The doctors suspected some trick; They placed this man in front of an X-ray machine and began to observe his heart through a fluoroscope. They found, to their surprise, that his heart had indeed stopped beating and that he could stop it
  11. What is homosexuality?
    Homosexuality is love for the same sex. Some people are able to receive almost equal pleasure from relations with any gender. They are called bisexual. From homosexual relations, a lot of beautiful things happened, for example, something from the philosophy of Socrates; and yet happy homosexuals are very rare. Homosexuality almost always means a suppressed physis and an indignant superego. She is
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com