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DEMOGRAPHIC POLICY OF RUSSIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

Despite the fact that the population of our country began to decline steadily since the beginning of the 1990s, the Russian government began to take measures only in the mid-2000s. The main role in the demographic policy of the Russian Federation is now assigned to measures to stimulate the birth rate and reduce mortality, as well as the so-called replacement migration. It is expected that by 2015 the migration growth of the population can reach 160–170 thousand people a year, and by 2015 it will reach 300 thousand a year. At the same time, the state primarily hopes for an influx of migrants from the CIS and Baltic countries, so their adaptation to Russian conditions will be relatively simple; however, this potential should not be exaggerated, given that most of the migrants prone to resettlement from Russia to neighboring countries have already done this, and those who remain are more and more assimilated in the newly independent states.

In a message from the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly in 2006, a package of measures aimed at increasing the birth rate was announced:

- The Law on State Benefits for Citizens with Children, dated April 26, 1995, as amended: provides for the payment of maternity benefits 70 days before and 70 days after delivery. The amount of the allowance is calculated based on the average earnings of a woman, but should not exceed a certain maximum amount (in 2006 it was 16 625 rubles / month, and in 2007 - 23 400 rubles / month). The restriction of benefits to this amount was declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, however, so far it has been paid exactly the amount that does not exceed the specified amount;

women who are registered in medical institutions in the early stages of pregnancy (up to 12 weeks) are paid a lump sum of 300 rubles .;

at the birth of a child a lump sum is paid (in 2006 it amounted to 8,000 rubles);

a childcare allowance is also paid: monthly up to one and a half years it amounts to 40% of the salary, but should be at least 1,500 and not more than 6,000 rubles / month. (until 2007 it was 700 rubles a month);

- since 2006, birth certificates in the amount of 11,000 rubles were put into effect. This money is transferred to medical institutions: 3000 rubles each. for each patient, women's consultations for pregnancy management, 6000 rubles each. for each patient, maternity hospitals for childbirth, 2000 rubles each. for each born child to pediatricians / children's clinics;

- The Young Family program has been adopted, providing for preferential provision of loans for housing and partial repayment of loans for the birth of each child;

- From January 1, 2007, the Law on Additional Measures of State Support for Families with Children is in force (Law on Maternity Capital). According to this law: a mother who gives birth to a second child (and if there are two or more children of any subsequent child, but only once), receives the right to receive 250 thousand rubles from the state. (the amount is indexed with rising inflation, in 2008 it amounted to 267,500 rubles.);

the possibility of receiving money is postponed for three years after the birth of the child, and in the case of the death of the mother passes to the child upon reaching 18 years of age; You can use “maternal capital” only in non-cash form for one of three purposes: invest in housing, spend on a child’s education, and include the mother in the funded part of the pension.

Increasing the birth rate of all women seeking motherhood has become one of the goals of the national project "Health". As part of this project, in 2006, 3000, and in 2007, already 7000 women received quotas for two cycles of free in vitro fertilization - a high-tech medical procedure that allows couples suffering from both female and male infertility to achieve a desired pregnancy.
Although the scale of this problem in Russia is ambiguously assessed and the average IVF efficiency is about 30%, the two-year quotas alone should have led to the birth of about 7,800 children who would otherwise have no chance of being born.

The central element of the national project "Health" is to increase the average life expectancy of the population of the Russian Federation from the current 66.7 to 70 years, mainly as a result of timely assistance to victims of road accidents and the provision of emergency medical care after strokes and heart attacks - the two most common causes of death in working age ( see table 3).

Table 3.

Deaths in 2005 per 100,000 of the population due to mortality



Source: Rosstat, 2005. With regard to the prevention of mortality in road traffic accidents, it is envisaged to provide 76 medical facilities located along federal highways in 11 constituent entities of the Russian Federation with medical equipment and ambulance vehicles so that the transportation of victims to medical facilities is optimized and they are provided with qualified medical assistance on time. Timely assistance with heart attacks and strokes is also important, which will not only reduce mortality from these diseases, but also reduce disability from them and extend the working ability of people. Given the huge percentage of deaths from cardiovascular diseases in Russia (about half of all annual mortality), the introduction of this program, provided that most of the population has access to it, could reduce mortality by 0.5–2 ppm per year (the first figure if access to high-tech care will be available only to residents of large cities, the second - if the network of high-tech care hospitals for heart attacks and strokes will also cover small towns and villages). According to the government’s plan, in each constituent entity of the Russian Federation, regional specialized centers and primary departments should be created, equipped with modern diagnostic and medical equipment, capable of preventing the death and disability of people affected by these diseases.

However, a comparison of these measures with the experience of developed countries, which at the turn of the 1950s – 1960s, faced with the problem of exhaustion of resources for reducing mortality from infectious and other “simple” diseases, shows that they are truly effective in reducing mortality from cardiovascular diseases , oncology and even traffic accidents are not emergency measures, but social changes: improving the living conditions of the population and combating poverty (supporting socially vulnerable groups of the population); healthier lifestyle; disease prevention and strengthening the overall health system. Experts acknowledge that practically no work is being done in our country in all of these areas, and there are problems caused by deep-rooted and increasingly widespread habits that have become almost elements of national identity (for example, heavy alcohol consumption).

To reduce mortality from the causes caused by them, a truly large-scale, thoughtful, and not just “prohibitive” campaign is needed.
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DEMOGRAPHIC POLICY OF RUSSIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

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