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Stage 2. Discussion of the features of gender socialization
The teacher asks students questions that reveal the essence of gender socialization. The main task of the teacher - to direct the discussion in the right direction, "push" students to the correct answers. To do this, you can and should ask additional leading questions. After each question is given information that shows the teacher, to what conclusions you need to lead the discussion.
The proposed questions are structured in such a sequence that, in answering them, the students independently come to the conclusion that society sets a rigid framework that hinders the free development of the individual as a representative of a certain sex.
1. In your opinion, when does the process of gender socialization of a person begin?
The question is being discussed that the process of gender socialization begins even before the birth of the child, when the parents buy the boys blue clothes and accessories and the girls pink colors. It is important to note that the process of gender socialization lasts a lifetime. Despite the fact that gender identity is formed in childhood, identity can undergo changes in adulthood. It is advisable to draw students' attention to the influence of ideas about the purpose of men and women in the public mind, because gender stereotypes fixed in society have developed over the centuries, but now they determine personality development.
2. How strongly do parents influence the process of gender socialization? How do children's clothes and toys affect their social norms? Are the behavioral requirements of boys and girls the same?
Parents are the main agents of gender socialization. Gender attitudes of parents, their lifestyle and relationships are imparted to children.
It is discussed that parents dress the child in accordance with his sex or in accordance with their ideas, not taking into account the wishes of the child. The influence of clothing on the behavior of the child. The clothes, traditional for the boy, do not hold down movements, allows the child to be active, the child is not afraid to dirty them, therefore, such clothes will contribute to the manifestation of the child's activity. The girls' clothes, on the contrary, constrain movement, make it necessary to be careful (for example, parents like to dress girls in elegant dresses and shoes), which leads to the passivity of girls.
Toys boys and girls are fundamentally different. Boys' toys (cubes, constructors, transformers) are more focused on creative activities, on the development of spatial representations. The toys of girls (dolls, kits for playing doctors and a hairdresser, dishes) allow you to play role-playing games of a passive nature, i.e. games in which the roles are clearly defined and established.
Requirements for the behavior of boys and girls are also different: they require activity, initiative, the absence of excessive emotions (especially tears) from the boy, girls are expected to be passive, calm, accurate, emotional.
3. Literature plays a big role in raising a child. Remember, please, children's fairy tales. Are the roles of men and women in fairy tales very different? What kind of fairytales are taught to be girls? Boys?
Fairy tales, where the main protagonist of the female sex.
In most fairy tales, characters are the embodiment of “traditional femininity”, the heroine is usually the object of salvation (“Frost”), the woman’s resignation is praised (“Cinderella”), the woman must be a needlewoman, the reward for patience is a good groom, “sloths” are usually punished . Authoritarianism “stepmother” in fairy tales is a great evil, and a man who is unable to subjugate a woman is condemned in the same way. Fairy tales, in which the main character - a female hero, is much smaller. Fairy tales, where the main actor is a man, are mostly fairy tales, in which the bride’s hero is the desired “prize” to the hero, as well as the wealth and recognition attached to her.
4. What values are instilled in kindergarten and school? Are the approaches to the education and training of boys and girls different? Censure of boys' femininity (tears) and masculinity of girls (sloppiness, aggressiveness, excessive motor activity). The tendency to incline boys to study the exact sciences, and girls - to the humanities.
5. Please recall school textbooks. Are they affected by sexism?
On the pages of textbooks, girls are more often engaged in the service sector (washing dishes, cleaning, setting the table), and boys - in the tool room (digging, building). In addition, girls are more often engaged in passive activities (sew, knit), and boys - active (sports, outdoor games). Thus, textbooks offer simplified behaviors based on gender.
6. What is the distribution of the roles of men and women broadcast media to us (advertising, press)?
The man is basically the object, the woman is the subject of the sexual relationship; a woman is more engaged in family services, a man in a professional sphere. The femininity of a man is criticized by the press. Images of men and women in the media are stereotypical.
7. Is there discrimination against women? If so, in what spheres of life?
Women’s increased responsibility compared to men for raising children and housekeeping, discrimination in hiring, existing stereotypes that women are weaker than men, that they are less intelligent, have “female” logic, which is inferior to “male” logic.
8. Is there discrimination against men? If so, in what spheres of life?
First of all, a man is subjected to discrimination in the family (a man is required to support his family, if he is not able to do this, then his status drops significantly). Discrimination is the increased demands on the normative male masculinity, manifested, for example, in the censure of the manifestation of emotions in men (for example, tears). At the legislative level, discrimination against men is manifested in the fact that only men are required to serve in the army.
9. Does discrimination hinder the free development of men and women? Does it set any framework beyond which it is difficult to get out? It is advisable that the answer to this question be given by all students in turn. Alternatively, a written answer is possible, since this question is generalizing and makes students think about an important problem.
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Stage 2. Discussion of the features of gender socialization
- Stage 2. Acquaintance with the text “Example of early gender socialization”
The teacher reads to the students the text “An example of early gender socialization” (see annex). For text analysis, the teacher can ask students the following questions. 1. What attitudes of the grandson and granddaughter's perception are reflected in the statements of the grandfather and grandmother? 2. What psychological mechanisms of gender socialization will be actively used by grandparents (participants of the
- Stage 4. Discussion of the concept “Gender stereotype”
Students are given materials (glossary) with definitions of the concepts “social stereotype”, “gender stereotype”. It is appropriate to ask for examples of stereotypes of national, age, gender (relative to women, regarding men), to discuss where they come from. After discussion, we ask students to express their views on the desirability of following gender stereotypes.
- Stage 4. Development of the concept of psychological and pedagogical support of the process of personal development of the child from the standpoint of non-traditional (alternative) gender socialization
This concept must contain: • purpose; • tasks; • areas of work; • forms of work; • main events. During its development, students determine the main priorities of alternative female / male socialization; Formulate the commandments of educating girls / boys from a gender perspective. On the flannel or magnetic board they make these
- Lesson 5. Gender autobiography as a method for studying the mechanisms of gender socialization
This lesson is primarily aimed at updating the participants' own experience at the stage of early gender socialization. In the process of this work, participants will try to understand the ways and mechanisms for constructing their own gender identity. Objectives: to replenish and consolidate participants' knowledge about theories and mechanisms of gender socialization; development of self-reflection skills during actualization
- Stage 3. Comparison of the characteristics and effectiveness of gender and gender role approaches
After playing each situation, students compare psychological approaches in counseling from the perspective of gender and gender roles. At the conclusion of the seminar, each student is given a set of cards with characteristics of gender and gender role approaches in education (see the appendix). The student must divide the characteristics into two groups in accordance with the essence of the approaches. Eventually
- Lesson 4: Gender Socialization
Objective: to replenish and deepen knowledge of socialization, to consider the process of gender socialization of a person in ontogenesis, to realize the degree of influence of society on the process of gender socialization (see section 1.7.2 and 188.8.131.52). Equipment: cards with given situations and family characteristics (traditionally patriarchal or egalitarian). Understanding and awareness of the characteristics of gender socialization This
- Gender autobiography as a method of studying the mechanisms of gender socialization
Gender autobiography as a method of studying the mechanisms of gender
- Gender socialization
Socialization is the process of mastering social norms, rules, behavioral patterns, the process of entering the social environment. Accordingly, gender socialization is the process of mastering the norms, rules of behavior, attitudes, consistent with cultural ideas about the role, position and purpose of men and women in society. The main aspects of socialization: appropriation (the process of mastering
- Stage 3. Discussion of the results
After filling in the protocol, the participants in the lesson discuss in microgroups of 4–5 people the results obtained in the following positions: • dominant trends in describing the situation and characters; • the severity of gender attitudes in the description of the conflict. Then it is recommended to discuss the results obtained and the questions arising during the work on the essays in the general group. In the end
- Stage 6. Discussion of the results
After playing the plots, a discussion is held in a group where each participant in the class, including those who played the roles, speaks about his own impressions, based on the following questions. 1. How typical / atypical did you find the plots depicting situations of making personnel decisions? 2. What gender biases are manifested in the statements, attitudes or behavior of the leader and
- Stage 6. Discussion of the results
The number of points from 19 to 27 indicates that the person characterizes himself as an appropriate gender stereotype; the number of points from 10 to 18 - that the personality is poorly understood or “crowded out” its own gender characteristics; the number of points from 0 to 9 indicates that the person characterizes himself as not corresponding to the gender stereotype.
- FOURTH STAGE: DILEMMAS OF GENDER DIFFERENCE AND GENDER EQUALITY
In the post-Soviet period, the position of women and men in society changes both at the political and ideological levels, and at the level of the daily organization of the private sphere. New gender norms emerge, but at the same time Soviet patterns of social organization of relations between the sexes are preserved. In this case, not only the rules of the game change, but also a situation of ambiguity in self-determination arises.
- Stage 2. Execution and discussion of exercise 2
Instructions. "Write the qualities of the personality that sports activity forms." Instruction for discussion. “Compare the qualities that are formed in the sport, with those qualities that you attributed to the male and female. Under what image of a “real” man or a “real” woman is the image of an athlete more suitable? What qualities does sport form: those that we attribute to traditionally masculine or
- Stage 3. Discussion and conclusions
To give greater vitality to the discussion, you can invite students to sit in a circle. Students are invited to take turns to share the results of their observations. The teacher notes in the Final Expert Card the results of students' observations (except for repetitive ones). Such a card can be filled on a drawing paper or blackboard as the students speak. The resulting expert card is, therefore,
- Stage 2. Discussion of personal presentations
During the discussion, the moderator can draw the attention of the participants to the fact that in the group’s self-perception they mostly speak not about the biological signs of men and women, but about such personal qualities that arise and manifest only in the process of interpersonal interaction and in the social space. You should also pay attention to the fact that the actual sex
- Stage 3. Discussion of the results
An important outcome of the study of gender identity of the individual during the lesson is the discussion about individual results. In small groups (4–5 people), participants discuss their individual results of quantitative and qualitative analysis, where the central is the allocation of general trends (group average) in the following positions: • quantitative prevalence of social or