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Stage 2. Discussion of the features of gender socialization
The teacher asks the students questions revealing the essence of gender socialization. The main task of the teacher is to direct the discussion in the right direction, "push" the students to the correct answers. For this, it is possible and necessary to ask additional suggestive questions. After each question, information is provided that shows the teacher what conclusions need to be brought to the discussion.
The proposed questions are arranged in such a sequence that, in answering them, students independently come to the conclusion that society sets strict limits to the free development of the individual as a representative of a certain gender.
1. What do you think, when does the process of gender socialization begin?
It is discussed that the process of gender socialization begins before the birth of a child, when parents buy boys clothes and accessories for blue, and girls - for pink. It is important to note that the process of gender socialization lasts a lifetime. Despite the fact that gender identity is formed in childhood, in adulthood, identity can undergo changes. It is advisable to draw the attention of students to the influence of the ideas about the mission of men and women that have developed in the public mind, for gender stereotypes fixed in the society have been formed for centuries, but now they determine the development of the personality.
2. How much do parents influence the process of gender socialization? How do children's clothes and toys influence the adoption of social norms by them? Are the requirements for the behavior of boys and girls the same?
Parents are the main agent of gender socialization. The parents' gender attitudes, their way of life and the characteristics of relationships are taught to children.
The issue is discussed that parents dress the child in accordance with his gender or in accordance with their ideas, not taking into account the wishes of the child. Influence of clothes on the behavior of the child. Clothes, traditional for the boy, do not hamper the movements, allow the child to be active, the child is not afraid of contaminating it, therefore, such clothes will promote the manifestation of the child's activity. Clothes girls, on the contrary, fetters the movement, makes you be neat (so, parents like to dress girls in smart dresses and shoes), which leads to passivity of girls.
The toys of boys and girls are completely different. Toys boys (cubes, designers, transformers) are more focused on creative activity, on the development of spatial representations. Toys of girls (dolls, sets for playing doctor and hairdresser, dishes) allow you to play role-playing games of a passive nature, ie, in games in which roles are clearly defined and established.
The requirements for the behavior of boys and girls are also different: from the boy they demand activity, initiative, absence of unnecessary emotions (especially tears), girls expect passivity, calmness, accuracy, emotionality.
3. Literature plays an important role in the upbringing of the child. Remember, please, children's tales. Are the roles of men and women in fairy tales very different? What tales are taught to be girls? Boys?
Fairy tales, where the main character of the female.
In most fairy tales, the characters are the embodiment of "traditional femininity", the heroine is usually the object of salvation ("Morozko"), the resignation of the woman is praised ("Cinderella"), the woman must necessarily be an amateur, the reward for patience is a good groom, "sloths" are usually punished . Authoritarianism of "stepmothers" in fairy tales is a great evil, just as a man who can not subordinate a woman is condemned. Fairy tales, in which the main character is a female hero is much less. Fairy tales, where the main character is a man, are mostly fairy tales, in which the bride is the desired "prize", as well as the wealth and recognition attached to her.
4. What values are planted in kindergarten and school? Are there different approaches to the education and training of boys and girls? Censure of femininity of boys (tears) and masculinity of girls (untidiness, aggressiveness, excessive motor activity). The tendency to persuade boys to study exact sciences, and girls - to the humanities.
5. Remember, please, the school textbooks. Are they influenced by sexism?
On the pages of textbooks, girls are more often engaged in the service sector (washing dishes, cleaning, laying on the table), and boys - in the instrumental (digging, building). In addition, girls are more often engaged in passive activity (sew, knit), and boys - active (sports, outdoor games). Thus, textbooks offer simplified patterns of behavior, due to gender.
6. What distribution of roles do men and women broadcast to us in the media (advertising, press)?
A man is basically an object, a woman is a subject of sexual intercourse; a woman is more engaged in the service of the family, a man in the professional sphere. The man's femininity is blamed by the press. The images of men and women in the media are stereotyped.
7. Is there discrimination against women? If so, in which spheres of life?
Increased responsibility of women in comparison with men for raising children and for housekeeping, discrimination in hiring, existing stereotypes that women are weaker than men, that they are less intelligent, have a "female" logic that is inferior to "male" logic.
8. Is there discrimination for men? If so, in which spheres of life?
First of all, a man is discriminated against in the family (from a man it is required to support a family, if he is not able to do so, his status falls significantly). Discrimination is the increased requirements for normative male masculinity, manifested, for example, in reproaching the manifestation of emotions in men (for example, tears). At the legislative level, the discrimination of men is manifested in the fact that only men are obliged to serve in the army.
9. Does discrimination against the free development of men and women interfere? Does it set any limits for which it is difficult to get out? It is advisable that the answer to this question be given by all students in turn. Alternatively, a written answer is possible, since this question is generalizing and makes students think about an important problem.
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Stage 2. Discussion of the features of gender socialization
- Stage 2. Introduction to the text "An Example of Early Gender Socialization"
The teacher read out the text "An Example of Early Gender Socialization" to students (see annex). To analyze the text, the teacher can ask students the following questions. 1. What attitudes of perception of the grandson and granddaughter are reflected in the statements of the grandfather and grandmother? 2. What psychological mechanisms of gender socialization will be actively used by the grandfather and grandmother (the participants of the described
- Stage 4. Discussion of the concept of "Gender stereotype"
Students are given materials (glossary) with definitions of the concepts "social stereotype", "gender stereotype". It is appropriate to ask for examples of stereotypes of national, age, gender (relative to women, relative to men), to discuss where they come from. After discussion, we ask students to express their views on the appropriateness of following gender stereotypes.
- Stage 4. Development of the concept of psychological and pedagogical support for the process of personal development of the child from the perspective of non-traditional (alternative) gender socialization
This concept must necessarily contain: • the goal; • tasks; • areas of work; • forms of work; • Main activities. In its development, students identify the main priorities of alternative female / male socialization; formulate the commandments of the education of girls / boys from a gender perspective. On a flannelograph or magnetic board they make out these
- Lesson 5. Gender autobiography as a method of studying the mechanisms of gender socialization
This activity, first of all, is aimed at actualization of the participants' own experience at the stage of early gender socialization. In the process of this work, participants will try to understand the ways and mechanisms of designing their own gender identity. Goals: replenishment and consolidation of participants' knowledge about theories and mechanisms of gender socialization; development of skills of self-reflection in actualization
- Step 3. Comparison of the features and effectiveness of gender and gender-based approaches
After playing each situation, students compare psychological approaches in counseling from a gender and gender perspective. At the conclusion of the seminar, each student is given a set of cards with the characteristics of gender and gender roles in education (see annex). The student must divide the characteristics into two groups according to the essence of the approaches. Eventually
- Lesson 4. Gender socialization
Aim: to supplement and deepen knowledge about socialization, to consider the process of gender socialization of a person in ontogenesis, to realize the degree of influence of society on the process of gender socialization (see Section 1.7.2 and 22.214.171.124). Equipment: cards with preset situations and family characteristics (traditionally patriarchal or egalitarian). Understanding and understanding the characteristics of gender socialization
- Gender autobiography as a method of studying the mechanisms of gender socialization
Gender autobiography as a method of studying the mechanisms of gender
- Gender socialization
Socialization is the process of assimilating social norms, rules, behaviors, the process of entering the social environment. Accordingly, gender socialization is the process of assimilating norms, rules of behavior, attitudes that are consistent with cultural perceptions of the role, position and purpose of men and women in society. The main aspects of socialization: appropriation (the process of assimilation
- Step 3. Discussion of the results
After completing the protocol, the participants of the lesson discuss in micro groups for 4-5 people the results obtained in the following positions: • the dominant tendencies in describing the situation and the characters; • the extent to which gender is expressed in the description of the conflict. Then it is recommended to discuss the results obtained and the questions that have arisen during the work on the compositions in the general group. At the end
- Step 6. Discussion of results
After the presentation of the plots, a discussion is held in the group, where each participant in the lesson, including those who played the role, talks about his own impressions, relying on the following questions. 1. How typical / atypical did the stories depicting situations of making personnel decisions seem to you? 2. What gender biases manifested in the statements, attitudes or behavior of the leader and
- Step 6. Discussion of results
The number of points scored from 19 to 27 indicates that the personality characterizes itself as a corresponding gender stereotype; the number of points from 10 to 18 - about the fact that their own gender characteristics are poorly understood or "superseded"; the number of points from 0 to 9 indicates that the personality characterizes itself as not corresponding to the gender stereotype.
- THE FOURTH STAGE: DILEMMAS OF THE GENDER DIFFERENCE AND GENDER EQUALITY
In the post-Soviet period, the position of women and men in society changes at both the political and ideological levels, and at the level of the daily organization of the private sphere. New gender norms are emerging, but at the same time the Soviet models of the social organization of relations between the sexes are preserved. In this case, not only the rules of the game change, but also the situation of ambiguity in self-determination arises
- Stage 2. Execution and discussion of Exercise 2
Instructions. "Write the qualities of personality that shape sports activities." Instructions for discussion. "Compare the qualities that are formed in sports, with those qualities that you attributed to masculine and feminine. Under what image of a "real" man or "real" woman is the image of an athlete more appropriate? What are the qualities of sports: those that we refer to traditionally male or
- Stage 3. Discussion and conclusions
To make the discussion more lively, students can be invited to sit in a circle. Students are invited to share their observations in turn. The teacher notes the results of observations of students (except for recurrent ones) in the Final Expert Card. Such a card can be filled on a paper or a board in the course of statements of students. The final expert card is, therefore,
- Step 2. Discussion of personal presentations
During the discussion, the facilitator can draw the participants' attention to the fact that in the self-image of the group they mainly speak not about the biological characteristics of men and women, but about such personal qualities that arise and manifest themselves only in the process of interpersonal interaction and in social space. Also it is necessary to draw the participants' attention to the fact that the sex
- Step 3. Discussion of the results
An important result of the study of the gender identity of the individual during the lesson is the discussion on individual results. In small groups (4-5 people), participants discuss their individual results of quantitative and qualitative analysis, where the central is the identification of general trends (middle group) in the following positions: • the quantitative predominance of social or