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Stage 3. Apply the knowledge gained

Objective: to consolidate knowledge on the topic.

Procedure: students in microgroups explain, comment or interpret the phenomena or facts described in the tasks using the knowledge gained.

Equipment: cards with descriptions of phenomena or facts.

Examples of tasks

Task 1. Determine the effect of any socio-psychological phenomena described in excerpts from the interview.

Fragment number 1 from a research interview

“It was a great relationship, everyone was happy with my work. Then abruptly, it means that for no reason at all it turned out that I would find out that they were going to fire me. - Why? - Because our accountant, that is, we were such good friends, then bam! And something abruptly, I don’t know, happened, I still don’t understand. From his wife, I find out that I allegedly am cleverly clever, as he says. In general, it is not clear where such a word comes from - to be clever? This is generally some kind of negative word - to be clever. So show off, yak, expose yourself, right? I understand that means a word. And they understand the word to be clever, that is, if I work as a secretary, then I have to sit here and be like this ... at least try to put myself lower, not even on an equal footing, and what higher there is ... Understand , what's the matter? - And then what was the composition of the floor? The bosses - were the men all? “Yes, of course, men, yes” [14].

Purpose: the example of this excerpt from a research interview with a woman, the secretary by profession, can show the effect of social stereotypes about typical "female" professions and "female" professional behavior. Stereotypes limit the possibility of women's self-realization even in those workplaces that are socially designed as typically “female”.

Fragment number 2 from a research interview

“I tried to find another job as a nanny. A friend of mine says to me that there is one such family, they are young and in the evenings they want to go somewhere, we must sit with the child. They are wealthy people. Since I am a grandmother and I have two grandsons, I was ready. I came to them, met. They invited themselves. But when the hostess saw that I was so full, she did not like it. She says: “I think it will be difficult for you to sit with your child because of your fullness. The girl is 3.5 years old. ” I smiled to myself, because my fullness does not prevent me from communicating with my grandchildren. But the fact is that all my attempts to find myself in a new life have so far ended in nothing ”[14].

Purpose: using the example of a passage from a research interview with a woman in search of work, it can be shown that external data are a factor of employment for a woman, and social ideas about the “external standard” have become a common cultural norm.

Task 2. What are the phenomena that illustrate passages from the interview. Determine the forms, mechanisms and consequences of the manifestation of this phenomenon.

Excerpts from research interviews

“We bought this unfortunate jacket, now we have no money. I say: “Lesh, how will we continue to live?” “This,” he says, “is your problem. I get a salary, I give it to you ”” (housewife, 22) [12].

“My husband has a very large amount of pocket money, but this is all past me. I can ask for something for myself, and if he has a good mood, he will. Often the question arises: why do you need it? If it comes to some kind of dress for me to leave, there are no questions: I am part of his prestige ”(housewife, 32 years) [12].

Objective: to consolidate ideas about the socio-economic dependence of women in the family, its forms, mechanisms and psychological consequences.

Task 3. Comment on the results of the study. Respondents of both sexes were asked to name several typical, in their opinion, "male" or "female" professions. As a result, the following list was obtained [8] (Table 2).

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the concept of "social construction of ideas about male and female professions."

Task 4. What phenomena illustrate the data presented in the tables? Identify trends in the employment of men and women in the labor market from 1990 to 2004

Table 2.

List of "male" and "female" professions

The statistical data given in the tables are taken from the statistical compendium "Labor and Employment in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region" [15].

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the concepts of "gender segregation of the labor market", "horizontal and vertical segregation of the labor market" (Table 3).

Table 3.

The proportion of women in the total number of employees in organizations by industry in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Table 4.

The ratio of the average monthly nominal accrued wages of workers of organizations of economic sectors to the average level in St. Petersburg

(at %)

As a result of the analysis table. 3 and 4, the following trends can be identified.

1. Reducing the number of employed women in industry, communications, construction, trade, management and finance. And these are industries in which wages are above the average for the region. Sometimes several times. For example, in communication - 1.7 times; in finance, credit, insurance, pensions - 2.4 times.

2. A practically unchanged number of women in the social sphere - health care, education, culture, where wages are lower than the regional average.

3. The share of women has increased in agriculture, transport and forestry. But within these industries, payment is highly dependent on the type of specific activity. Female conductors will always receive fewer public transport drivers.

Based on these data, it can be concluded that gender segregation of the labor market is not declining, but increasing, women are still being pushed into employment with a lower wage level.

Table 5.

Distribution of employment in the economy by employment status and sex in 2004 in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Table 6.

Average monthly nominal wages of men and women by branches of the economy in 2004 in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Tables 5 and 6 illustrate the vertical segregation of the labor market. There are fewer women in the “employers” and “self-employed” groups, which indicates the problems of women's entrepreneurship. The average monthly salary of women in the same professional group is lower than that of men.

Task 5. Conduct gender expertise of the legislative initiative.

In February 2002, a round table was held in Zlatoust (Chelyabinsk region) on gender asymmetry. In the "round table" took part: deputies of representative bodies of power of the region, women who did not enter the power structures, representatives of the women’s sections of the territorial divisions of political parties, representatives of women’s public organizations of the region. The reason for the meeting was the preparation for the first reading in the State Duma of Russia of the draft law “On state guarantees of equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women in the Russian Federation”. The main provisions of the bill were:

• carrying out gender expertise of regulatory legal acts adopted by state authorities;

• introduction of quotas for jobs for women;

• the imposition of sanctions for the release of more women than men from enterprises;

• the introduction of female quotas for admission to work;

• the introduction of female quotas in the formation of public authorities and local self-government;

• inclusion in statistical reports of gender indicators of changes in the situation of the population.

The result of the "round table" was the adoption of the "Appeal to the deputies, political parties" with an appeal to support this bill. However, the City Assembly subsequently did not support the appeal for support of the bill. According to the participants of the discussion, this happened because the majority of deputies of the city Duma are men [3].

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the concept of "gender equality in the labor market." An analysis of the content of this legislative draft leads to the conclusion that protectionist policies regarding women in the sphere of employment can serve as a means of legislatively infringing the rights of men.

test questions

1. What levels of analysis of the socio-economic dependence of women can be identified?

2. How, by what mechanisms, does the state influence the socio-economic status of women?

3. What legislative measures would you suggest to achieve gender equality?

4. Expand the content of the concept of "gender segregation of the labor market."

5. What are theories explaining gender segregation?

6. Describe the mechanism of feminization of the profession.

7. How do gender perceptions affect women's choice of profession?

8. How do gender perceptions affect employers?

9. Expand the concept of "double employment".

10. Expand the concept of "role conflict working women."

11. How is the socio-economic dependence of women in the family?
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