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Stage 3. Application of the knowledge obtained

Purpose: to consolidate knowledge on the topic.

Procedure: students in microgroups explain, comment or interpret the phenomena or facts described in the tasks using the knowledge gained.

Equipment: cards describing phenomena or facts.



Examples of tasks

Task 1. Determine which socio-psychological phenomena are described in excerpts from the interview.

Excerpt # 1 from a research interview

"The relations were excellent, everyone was happy with my work. Then abruptly, it means that for no apparent reason it turned out that I find out that they are going to dismiss me. - Why? - Because our accountant, i.e. we were such good friends, then bam! And something abruptly, I do not know what happened, I still do not understand. From his wife, I find out that I'm supposed to be very clever, as he says. In general, it is unclear where this word is taken from - clever? This is generally some negative word - to be clever. So, show off, yakat, expose yourself, right? As I understand it, it means a word. And they understand the word to be clever, that is, if I work as a secretary, then I must sit here and so be ... at least try to put myself lower, not on equal terms even there, and how much higher ... Understand , what's the matter? - And what was the composition on the floor? The bosses - were the men all? "Yes, of course, men, yes." [14].

Purpose: on the example of this excerpt from a research interview with a woman, a secretary by profession, one can show the effect of social stereotypes about typically "female" occupations and "female" professional behavior. Stereotypes limit the possibility of women's self-realization, even in those jobs that are socially constructed as typically "feminine".

Excerpt No. 2 from the research interview

"I tried to find another job as a nanny. A friend of mine tells me that there is one such family, they are young and want to go somewhere in the evenings, we must sit with the child. They are wealthy people. Since I'm a grandmother and I have two grandsons, I was ready. I came to them, met. They themselves invited. But when the landlady saw that I was complete, she did not like it. She says: "I think it will be difficult for you to sit with your child because of your fullness. The girl is 3.5 years old. " I smiled to myself, because to me my fullness does not interfere with my grandchildren. But the fact is that all my attempts to find myself in a new life have ended with nothing "[14].

Aim: on the example of an excerpt from a research interview with a woman in search of work, it can be shown that external data are a factor of employment for women, and social perceptions of the "external standard" have become a common cultural norm.

Task 2. Name the phenomenon that illustrates excerpts from the interview. Identify the forms, mechanisms and consequences of manifesting this phenomenon.

Excerpts from research interviews

"We bought this unfortunate jacket, now we have no money. I say: "Lesch, how will we live on?" "It's your problems," she says. I get a salary, I give it to you "(housewife, 22) [12].

"The husband has a very large amount of pocket money, but it's all past me. I can ask for something, and if he has a good mood, he will. Often the question arises: why do you need this? If it comes to a dress for me on the way out - there are no questions: I am a part of his prestige "(housewife, 32) [12].

Purpose: to consolidate the notion of the social and economic dependence of women in the family, its forms, mechanisms and psychological consequences.

Task 3. Comment on the results of the study. Respondents of both sexes were invited to name several typical, in their opinion, "male" or "female" professions. As a result, the following list was obtained [8] (Table 2).

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the notion of "social construction of ideas about male and female professions".

Task 4. What phenomena illustrate the data presented in the tables? Identify trends in the employment of men and women in the labor market from 1990 to 2004.

Table 2.

List of "male" and "female" professions



The statistical data given in the tables is taken from the statistical collection "Labor and employment in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region" [15].

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the notions of "gender segregation of the labor market", "horizontal and vertical segregation of the labor market" (Table 3).

Table 3.

The proportion of women in the total number of employees in organizations by industry in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Table 4.

The ratio of the average monthly nominal salary of employees of organizations in the economic sectors to the average level for St. Petersburg

(at %)

As a result of the analysis of Table. 3 and 4, the following trends can be identified.

1. Reduction in the number of employed women in industry, communications, construction, trade, management and finance. And these are industries in which wages are above the average for the region. Sometimes several times. For example, in connection - in 1,7 times; in finance, credit, insurance, pensions - 2.4 times.

2. Almost invariable number of women in the social sphere - health, education, culture, where wages are below the average for the region.

3. The proportion of women has increased in agriculture, transport and forestry. But within these industries, payment depends heavily on the type of particular activity. Female conductors will always receive fewer public transport drivers.

On the basis of these data, it can be concluded that gender segregation of the labor market does not decrease, but increases, women are still being pushed into employment with lower wages.

Table 5.

Distribution of employment in the economy by status of employment and sex in 2004 in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Table 6.

Average monthly nominal wages of men and women by branches of the economy in 2004 in St. Petersburg

(at %)

Tables 5 and 6 illustrate the vertical segregation of the labor market. Women are less in groups "employers" and "self-employed", which points to the problems of women's entrepreneurship. The average monthly salary of women in the same professional group is less than that of men.

Task 5. Conduct a gender analysis of the legislative initiative.

In February 2002, in Zlatoust (Chelyabinsk region), a round table was held on gender asymmetry. The round table was attended by: deputies of representative bodies of the region, women who did not pass into power structures, representatives of women's sections of territorial branches of political parties, representatives of women's public organizations of the region. The reason for the meeting was the preparation for consideration in the first reading in the State Duma of Russia of the draft law "On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women in the Russian Federation". The main provisions of the bill were:

• Conducting gender expertise of normative legal acts adopted by public authorities;

• introduction of quotas for jobs for women;

• imposing sanctions when releasing more women from the enterprise than men;

• introduction of women's quotas for hiring;

• the introduction of women's quotas in the formation of public authorities and local self-government;

• Inclusion of gender indicators in the statistical reports of population changes.

The result of the round table was the adoption of an "Appeal to Deputies, Political Parties" with an appeal to support this bill. However, the City Assembly subsequently did not support the appeal for supporting the bill. According to the participants in the discussion, this happened because most of the deputies of the city Duma are men [3].

Purpose: the task is aimed at consolidating the notion of "gender equality in the labor market". An analysis of the contents of this legislative project leads to the conclusion that a protectionist policy on women in the field of employment can serve as a means of legislative infringement of the rights of men.



Control questions

1. What levels of analysis of social and economic dependence of women can be distinguished?

2. In what way, through what mechanisms does the state influence the socioeconomic status of women?

3. What legislative measures would you propose to achieve gender equality?

4. Expand the content of the concept of "gender segregation of the labor market."

5. What are theories explaining segregation by gender?

6. Describe the mechanism of feminization of the profession.

7. How do gender perspectives affect the choice of profession in women?

8. How do gender perspectives affect employers?

9. Expand the concept of "double employment".

10. Open the concept of "role conflict of a working woman".

11. How does the social and economic dependence of women in the family manifest themselves?
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