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Step 2. Acquaintance with the main stages of the development of sexological knowledge

Many traditional cultures attached great importance to erotic issues, but only modern Western society developed the science of sexuality - sexology. M. Foucault in his famous work "The History of Sexuality" showed that erotic pleasure becomes sexuality when it begins to explore, analyze, write about it scientific texts, treatises, textbooks. The concept of "sexuality" arises as a result of research, analysis and description of sexual behavior, reactions, when it separates from the activity itself and becomes the subject of discourse [3].

The first attempts to understand sexuality are related to the mythological representations of Taoists in Ancient China, Tantrists in Nepal and Ancient India, Orphics in Ancient Greece [14]. The mythopoetical period in the history of sexuality is replaced by metaphysical concepts, which, with the development of science, replace scientific theories. Beginning with antiquity, partly inside, and partly in opposition to metaphysical discourse, a more mundane analytical discourse arises, based on everyday psychology, everyday mass experience, and then on empirical science [10].

Ancient Greek thinkers regarded Eros as a cosmogonic force underlying the creation of the world. The founder of psychoanalysis, Freud also used the metaphor of eros to denote the instinct of life and the associated attraction "libido", which he considered a powerful psychic and biological force. In the works of the domestic philosophers of the Silver Age, who created the direction of the "philosophy of sex and love," erotic energy seemed to be the eternal source of creativity (V. Soloviev, N. Berdyaev). Eros was a path of spiritual ascent and transformation (BP Vysheslavtsev).

Empirical science has reduced the complexity and variety of erotic experiences and aspirations to the concept of "sexual instinct." Some authors, from Luther and Montaigne to the French scientist of the late nineteenth century. Charles Fere, believed that sexual instinct - is the body's need to be freed from the products of the sexual glands. Other authors talked about the "reproductive instinct", the need for procreation. However, Pavlov's conditional reflex theory showed the complexity of the connections that arise in the human brain. VM Bekhterev, analyzing the nature of sexual desire, distinguished in him two components: the unconditional internal need of the organism to release from the accumulated products of the activity of the sexual glands and the "combined reflexes", conditioned by individual life experience and upbringing, due to which the proper sexual object is selected and mating is ensured [10].

In accordance with the periodization of SI Golod, two periods of specific scientific research on the sexuality of man can be distinguished: from the middle of the 19th century onwards, until the first quarter of the twentieth century. and from the first quarter of the twentieth century. up to the present time [5]. The first period was characterized by a psychophysiological approach and mainly a clinical method of investigation. Specificity of the second period is associated with the predominance of the socio-cultural approach in the study of sexuality and the concentration of scientists' interest in the social aspects of sexual relations. Let us consider successively the ideas concerning the first and second periods.

At the initial stage, the first sexological studies were focused on the departments of psychiatry and forensic medicine and were mainly devoted to the problems of pathology. "Normal" sexual behavior has not yet been recognized as problematic and requires an explanation. His understanding was approached gradually, mainly through the study of anomalies [10, p.18]. Psychiatry of the XIX and early XX century. described in detail the symptoms of "sexual perversions" (perversions), considering all forms of sexuality that are not related to childbearing, "unnatural".

At the root of the development of the science of sexuality were the German physician M. Schuring and the French naturalist J.L. Buffon [15]. In the XIX century, these problems were taken up by representatives of several sciences at once. Practicing doctors, philosophers, sociologists, writers, poets tried to understand the prevailing views on the sexuality of man and the relationship of the sexes. However, the forefathers of sexology, who began systematic study of sex life, were physicians - Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Vienna R. Kraft-Ebing, Swiss psychiatrist and neuropathologist A. Trout, German psychiatrists A. Moll and M. Hirschfeld, Austrian psychiatrist, creator of psychoanalysis Freud Z., German dermatologist and venereologist I. Bloch and English publicist, pharmacist by education G. H. Ellis [10].

The development of psychoanalysis and such human sciences as ethnography and history contributed to the expansion of the circle of sexological problems and the beginning of the second period. Their outstanding work scientists of the humanistic direction (B. Malinovsky, M. Mead, E. Fuchs, VG Bogoraz, L. Ya. Sternberg, V. Ya. Propp, OM Freidenberg, MM Bakhtin and others .) highlighted the social and cultural aspects of human sexuality. The English ethnographer B. Malinovsky in the 1920s. wrote:

"Sex in the broadest sense of the word is a sociological and cultural factor, and not just a carnal connection between two individuals" [Malinowsky, 1929, op. on: 13, p. 2]. Ethnographic and historical facts showed that sexual behavior of people is very diverse and what is considered normal or even compulsory in one cultural environment, in the other - is condemned and prohibited.

Psychoanalysis turned out to be one of the most influential psychological concepts of the 20th century, trying to overcome rigid biological determinism in the understanding of sexuality. In the representations of Freud Z. sexuality appears as a property independent of reproduction and irreducible to genital experiences. Freud considers sexuality not as a particular aspect of human life, but as its basis, the core. The approach proposed by Z. Freud to sexuality focused on the characteristics of individual development. "H. Freud analyzes the subtle nuances of psychosexual motivation, the ratio of "sensual" and "gentle" attraction, erotic and non-erotic attachments. Not limited to the study of the psyche of a single individual, he seeks to identify the relationship of individual sexual behavior with cultural norms, to reveal the phylogenetic roots of sexual symbolism, the origins and essence of the most important sexual taboos and prohibitions, such as incest (incest), virginity "[10, p. 13-14].

Since the first quarter of the twentieth century. we can talk about the second stage of concrete research of human sexuality, when special attention of psychiatrists, ethics, historians, and sociologists attracts social aspects of sexual life and sexual relations. Among them, the names of A.Kinzi, G.H. Ellis, B. Morse, B. Russell, R.Kevig, H.Shelsky, I.Gelman, P.Blonsky, etc. are the most prominent among them. Scientists came to the conclusion that sexual behavior the individual is a social phenomenon, since the ways and ways chosen by a person to satisfy their own sexual needs affect not only the sphere of purely interpersonal relations, but also affect the life of society as a whole. Therefore, the study of the problems of sexual socialization, group norms of sexual behavior, sexual attitudes and motivation has acquired a particular urgency.

The question of the need for more in-depth study of the person's sexual behavior was repeatedly raised in the domestic pedagogical, psychological, sociological, medical and legal literature - in particular, in the works of IS Simonov (1909), MM Rubinstein and VE Ignatyev ( 1926), AA Zhizhilenko and LG Orshansky (1927), AB Zalkind (1930), PP Blonskii (1935), and others.

Sexual behavior began to be investigated not only from the point of view of the personality of a particular individual, but also as a social phenomenon inseparable from the historical stages of the development of society and its culture. Already at the beginning of the twentieth century. In the West and in Russia, mass surveys were conducted to determine the average statistical norms of sexual behavior. The first of them were conducted on the initiative of Magnus Hirschfeld, the founder of the world's first Institute of Sexology in Germany (1919) and one of the initiators of the movement for sexual reform, gaining strength in the 1920s. However, the most large-scale and well-organized surveys were led by representatives of medicine.

"The most serious is the Vienna Sexual Census of 1907, which covered many aspects of the problem, as well as a questionnaire conducted by E. Meirovski among 101 students and 77 doctors in the Breslav Clinic of Skin Diseases" [15, p. 9].

In Russia, the first questionnaire survey was conducted in 1903-1904. Russian dermatologist, professor-hygienist M. A. Chlenov, in which 2150 male students of Moscow University were interviewed (the results were published in 1907). In the same year, he organized a census of the Juriev and Tomsk students. A little earlier, in 1902, a well-known domestic hygienist V. V. Favre conducted a questionnaire survey among 1299 students of the Kharkov University, the Technological and Veterinary Institutes. Another well-known sanitary doctor, a specialist in public medicine and health statistics, DN Zhbankov, tried to "conduct a questionnaire on an extremely detailed program" among the Moscow high school girls, but the First World War did not allow him to complete the study [15].

The appeal of specialists - representatives of the biomedical approach to the problems of the social aspects of sexual relations characterized the end of the first period. The connection of the sociological toolkit, the use of statistical methods in the processing of primary information in the study of a person's sexual life allowed the researchers to go beyond the clinics and concentrate on the social conditioning and specificity of sexuality of various social groups. However, the shortcoming of the first surveys was that the circle of respondents, as a rule, was limited to students and working youth.

A truly revolutionary one from the point of view of the scale of the research and the representativeness of the sample can be considered the work of A. Kinsey, who conducted about 19 thousand interviews, each of which contained 350 to 520 information points. The results of this truly titanic work are set forth in the two-volume work Sexual Behavior of a Man (1948) and The Sexual Behavior of a Woman (1953), which presented the widest range of individual and social variations in sexual behavior. One of the merits of this work was that "the statistical form allowed to discuss many previously forbidden subjects" [10, p. 20].

Despite the shortcomings of A.
Kinsey associated with the nature of the sample, in terms of accounting for a variety of social factors, his work seems to be sociologically more mature than many later studies, especially medical, whose authors, analyzing the type of sexual behavior of people in the light of certain biological variables, sometimes do not take into account social status, educational level and type of culture, on which the persons surveyed by them are guided [10].

In the 1990s. For the first time, representative national surveys were conducted in the United States, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Norway and some other countries devoted to sexual behavior. Conducting large-scale national surveys made it possible to obtain scientifically reliable information about sexual behavior and attitudes of representatives of different cultures and generations.

Parallel to the development of the problematic of sexuality in the humanities, information was accumulated in the natural sciences, and discoveries were made that revealed the patterns of sexual development and sexual functioning. "Genetics has developed strict and at the same time simple methods for determining chromosomal sex; the discovery of a number of genetic abnormalities allowed us to begin a systematic study of the deepest hidden determinants of sexual differentiation and their influence on gender differences in general and on the sexual behavior of humans and animals in particular. Endocrinologists have learned to measure the level of sex hormones and their effect on the psyche and behavior, including sexual behavior, animals and humans. Neuroscientists have found that sexual differentiation affects not only the reproductive system of the body, but also the brain. Embryology revealed the patterns of sexual differentiation in the uterine period of development, and evolutionary biology - phylogenetic patterns and specificity of reproductive behavior in different animal species "[9, p. 33].

Another revolutionary breakthrough in the field of knowledge about sexuality was the book of American scientists gynecologist William Masters and psychologist Virginia Johnson "Human Sexual Reaction" (1966) - the first study in which physiological manifestations of sexual arousal were analyzed in detail. U. Masters and V. Johnson initiated numerous experimental studies of various physiological parameters of sexual responses (pulse, arterial pressure, electrocardiogram, encephalogram, etc.). They first described the phases of the copulative cycle as a system of pair interaction. The results of their studies significantly enriched the knowledge of the physiology of female orgasm. Of great practical importance were also the principles of pair sexotherapy developed by them and adopted in most clinics of the world, facilitating mutual adaptation of the partner couple.

However, the statement of W. Masters and V. Johnson that the scheme of the sexual cycle described by them on the basis of numerous experiments is a universal model of sexual reaction, was criticized fairly by L. Taifer. The reason for the criticism was that the concept of sexual desire was not included in the model and, thus, there was no "element that is extremely variable within populations" [20, p. 4]. Many researchers - O. Kernberg (1995), Weimar Schultz and Van de Wil (Schultz & Wiel, 1991), de Bruijn (Bruijn, 1982), Schechter and Singer (1962), W. Ivard and E (Everaerd & Laan, 1994) and others also pointed out that there is a difference between subjective sexual arousal and genital arousal. The assessment of the situation (stimulus) plays a decisive role in the onset of subjective sexual arousal. However, the emotional experience becomes erotic only if it is included in the appropriate motivational system, i.e., perceived and evaluated as sexual. Here, not only physiological excitement, but also its explanation, interpretation is of great importance. "What serves as an erotic stimulus for one person can leave the other indifferent or even disgust. It depends on education, habits and motivation, as well as the corresponding norms of culture "[9, p. 162].

Fundamentally new theoretical ideas about the understanding of sexuality were formulated with the support of the principles of social constructionism set out in the book of American sociologists Peter Berger and Thomas Lukman "The Social Construction of Reality" (1966). American sociologists John Ganyon and William Simon in the book Sexual Behavior: The Social Sources of Human Sexuality (1973) came to the conclusion that we should not just talk about the "influence" of culture on sexuality, but about the sociocultural construction of sexual behavior and motivation, both as even the very distinction between "sexual" and "non-sexual" is conditional. The French philosopher Michel Foucault in a three-volume "History of Sexuality" (1976-1984) stated more radically that the history of sexuality is not simply an evolution of the ways of social regulation of the same sexual "drive," "instinct" or "need," but the process of constant creation and redesign of new socio-psychological realities [9]. These works determined the beginning of a new phase - the third stage in the study of sexuality.

The works of Michel Foucault, especially the three volumes of The History of Sexuality, which include The Will to Truth (1976), The Use of Pleasures (1984) and Self-Care (1984), were of great methodological importance for the development of the problematics of sexuality. First, M. Foucault pointed to the discursive nature of sexuality:

"Sexual desire is fluid and fluid, it does not exist beyond awareness and symbolization by specific human societies and is embodied in certain forms of conversation, discourse" [9, p. 37]. A person can classify a phenomenon as "sexual" only in the context of existing in the given society and known to him norms and practices of sexual representation. More important is not what people do, but what they say. Each epoch, every culture, every social group formulates its discourse, its means of awareness and symbolization of sexuality. For example, for medieval Europe it is a theme of sinfulness. Проявление сексуальности могло осуществляться только «в сопровождении» признания и раскаяния [4].

Во-вторых, он обосновал, что речь, слова, способы репрезентации сексуального — это не просто выражение наших чувств и мыслей, но и формы социального контроля. В «Истории сексуальности» М. Фуко описал, как смена исторических эпох сопровождается созданием новых механизмов социального контроля за проявлением сексуальности. Например, общество блокирует осознание нежелательных, «нелегальных» чувств, препятствуя появлению языковых средств, необходимых для их обозначения и выражения. Для Викторианской эпохи было характерно «табуирование» сексуальности, доходящее до абсурда. Другим ярким примером эффективности социального контроля через репрессивную сексуальную мораль являлась Советская Россия. Локализация проблематики сексуальности в рамках медицинского дискурса и после «перестройки» выступала препятствием адекватной общественной рефлексии таких социальных проблем, как сексуальное просвещение, сексуальное насилие, соотношение понятий порнографии и эротики и т. д. «Главная трудность состояла в выработке “пристойного” языка о сексе, и, несомненно, важнейшую роль в кодификации его играл И. С. Кон» [11, с. 9].

К механизмам социального контроля сексуальности можно также отнести нормативные модели, с которыми люди идентифицируют себя в процессе социализации. Поведение, выходящее за рамки нормативности, расценивается как «девиантное», «делинквентное», «асоциальное» и т. д. М. Фуко анализирует гетеросексуальность также как нормативную модель. В его концепции гомосексуальность и гетеросексуальность — это социальные конструкты, коренящиеся не в психике индивида, а в общественном сознании.

В-третьих, творчество М. Фуко оказало огромное влияние на философскую теорию феминизма, на основе которой сформировался гендерный подход в исследовании сексуальности. В центре философии Фуко находилась проблематика тела — проблемы сексуальности, власти, безумия, желания, маргинальных практик и типов субъективности, которые являются центральными и для теории феминизма [И. Жеребкина, 2000, с. 30]. Фуко считал, что женская история в европейской культуре и есть история сексуальности, а история полов и есть история власти [17]. Такие же взгляды развивали теоретики феминизма Г. Рубин («Торговля женщинами», 1975), К. Миллетт («Сексуальная политика», 1970), С. Браунмиллер («Против нашей воли: мужчины, женщины и изнасилование», 1975), А. Дворкин («Порнография: мужчины обладают женщинами», 1981), А. Рич («О рождении женщины: материнство как опыт и институция», 1976). Идеи социального конструирования гендера через жесткое требование гетеросексуальности нашли развитие в работах Г. Рубина, Д. Батлера, Э. Гросса, Т. Лауретиса, И. С. Косовски.

В одной из своих работ У. Саймон и Д. Х. Гэньон. наделяют эпохальным значением в истории дискурса сексуальности два десятилетия во второй половине ХХ в. (1965–1985). Интеллектуальная атмосфера того времени совершила теоретико-методологический прорыв в области знания о сексуальности. Наиболее важное значение имели постструктуралистские перспективы во Франции (Р. Барт, Ж. Бодрияр и др.) и Великобритании (Э. Гидденс и др.), развитие феминистскими теоретиками гендерной проблематики, а также работы М. Фуко, сформировавшие контекст, наиболее располагающий для исследования проявлений сексуальности [19]. Фуко заложил, по существу, еще одну традицию исследования сексуальности — постмодернистскую [16], которая выступила в качестве альтернативы позитивистской и предопределила следующий этап оформления научного дискурса сексуальности. Один из основных принципов данной традиции — выход за пределы бинаризмов мужское/женское, норма/патология, взрослая/детская и т. д. — позволил анализировать не сексуальность, а сексуальности на разных уровнях: макросоциальном, межгрупповом, межличностном и внутриличностном.

Таким образом, исторический экскурс становления научного дискурса сексуальности позволяет выделить три этапа. Первый — описательный этап — имеет границы с середины XIX в. до 1920-х гг., второй — этап позитивистских эмпирических исследований — начинается с первой четверти ХХ в. Наряду с позитивистским подходом с 1970–1980-х гг. в гуманитарных науках появляется постмодернистская традиция в исследовании сексуальности, характеризующая третий этап в развитии научного дискурса сексуальности.
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Этап 2. Знакомство с основными этапами развития сексологического знания

  1. Этап 1. Знакомство. Презентация личного гендерного образа
    Участники (студенты и ведущий) рассаживаются в аудитории по кругу. Ведущий занятия предлагает всем представиться в произвольной манере: назвать имя, которое участник предпочитает в качестве обращения к себе, одно прилагательное, наиболее емко характеризующее личность участника с его/ее точки зрения, а также немного рассказать о себе (что считает нужным для презентации своего публичного Я).
  2. Этап 2. Знакомство с понятием гендерной манипуляции
    Цель: исследование специфики гендерной манипуляции. Изучение условий, влияющих на развитие манипуляции в отношениях, на основе личного опыта студентов. Задание 1. «Работа с примером гендерной манипуляции» (пример гендерной манипуляции дан в приложении). Преподаватель раздает студентам напечатанные ранее листы с описанием примера манипуляции, взятого из литературы, и предлагает с ним
  3. Stage 2. Introduction to the text "An Example of Early Gender Socialization"
    The teacher read out the text "An Example of Early Gender Socialization" to students (see annex). To analyze the text, the teacher can ask students the following questions. 1. What attitudes of perception of the grandson and granddaughter are reflected in the statements of the grandfather and grandmother? 2. What psychological mechanisms of gender socialization will be actively used by the grandfather and grandmother (the participants of the described
  4. Developmental psychology and developmental psychology is an interdisciplinary branch of scientific knowledge
    In recent decades, age psychology (developmental psychology) has changed both in content and in interdisciplinary relations. On the one hand, it influences other scientific disciplines, and on the other hand it itself experiences influence on their part, assimilating all that expands its substantive content. Biology, genetics, developmental physiology. These disciplines are important first of all
  5. Этап 1. Закрепление и проработка основных понятий темы
    Первый этап направлен на закрепление таких понятий темы, как «гендерная социализация», «гендерные стереотипы», «гендерные роли», «гендерные конфликты». Задание 1 Преподаватель предлагает обсудить следующие вопросы. 1. Как вы определите понятие «гендерная социализация»? 2. Как гендерные стереотипы влияют на поведение мужчин и женщин? 3. В чем вы видите специфику гендерных
  6. Этап 2. Заполнение таблицы «Основные направления феминизма»
    В дальнейшем студенты делятся на три группы. Каждой группе предлагается текст с описанием одного из видов феминистского движения (см. приложение 2). Студенты знакомятся с текстом и находят в нем информацию, необходимую для заполнения соответствующей строки в таблице «Основные направления феминизма». После завершения работы по микрогруппам студенты сообщают найденную информацию. Итогом данного
  7. Этап 2. Составление «блок=схемы» из основных понятий, относящихся к теме «Гендерная идентичность»
    Задача данного этапа — развитие навыков анализа и структурирования научных категорий, относящихся к данной предметной области. Для выполнения задания студенты разбиваются на группы по 4–6 человек. Если на занятии присутствует небольшое количество студентов, состав групп можно оставить тем же, что и при выполнении первого задания. Преподаватель зачитывает перечень терминов, использованных в
  8. Зрелость как этап и качество в психическом развитии человека
    Период зрелости по возрасту и по состоянию духа человека назван был древними греками временем «акмэ», что означало вершину, высшую степень чего-нибудь, момент наибольшего расцвета человеческой личности, «тождественности себе». Отечественный психолог Н.Н.Рыбников предложил обозначить термином «акмеология» специальный раздел возрастной психологии, - о периоде расцвета всех жизненных сил
  9. Современный этап развития теории экспертных оценок
    На переломе XIX-XX веков в здравоохранении США началось движение к повышению медицинских стандартов. В 1910 г. Авраам Флекснер обобщил результаты инспекционной поездки по 163 американским и канадским медицинским учебным заведениям. В своем знаменитом «Докладе Флекснера» он рекомендовал закрыть 124 медицинские школы. Причина: плохая материально-техническая база, отсутствие финансовых средств и
  10. Growth and development of the child. The main stages of the development of the body
    Growth is an increase in the mass and linear dimensions of the body, as well as the constituent organs of it, due to the increase in the number and mass of cells, the noncellular formations, as a result of the prevalence of anabolism over the processes of catabolism. Each organism has a genetically predetermined growth potential, but its realization depends on how much the external environment favors it. On growth
    У двух виноградин вкус такой же, как и у одной. Какая разница, сколько их будет, если все они превратятся через минуту в воспоминание? Наше новое задание: разберемся, хотим ли мы есть на самом деле, когда мы собираемся что-то съесть. Заодно выясним, сколько мы едим на самом деле. Эта работа целиком ложится на наш крохотный блокнотик и ручку, которые постоянно должны быть под рукой. Когда я
  12. Знакомство со SQVID, или Практическое упражнение в прикладном воображении
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  15. Психологические знания в искусстве
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