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Stage 2. Acquaintance with the main stages of the development of sexological knowledge

Many traditional cultures attached great importance to eroticism, but only modern Western society developed the science of sexuality - sexology. M. Foucault in his famous work “The History of Sexuality” showed that erotic pleasure becomes sexuality when it is started to be researched, analyzed, scientific texts, tracts, and textbooks are written about it. The concept of "sexuality" occurs as a result of research, analysis and description of sexual behavior, reactions, when it is separated from the activity itself and becomes the subject of discussion [3].

The first attempts at understanding sexuality are connected with the mythological views of Taoists in ancient China, tantrists in Nepal and Ancient India, orphics in ancient Greece [14]. The mythopoetic period in the history of sexuality is replaced by metaphysical concepts that, with the development of science, replace scientific theories. Starting from antiquity, partly inside, and partly as opposed to metaphysical discourse, a more mundane analytical discourse arises, based on everyday psychology, everyday mass experience, and then on empirical science [10].

Ancient Greek thinkers viewed eros as a cosmogonic force underlying the creation of the world. The founder of psychoanalysis, Z. Freud, also used the metaphor of Eros to denote the life instinct and its associated libido, which he considered to be a powerful mental and biological force. In the works of Russian philosophers of the Silver Age, who created the direction of the “philosophy of sex and love”, erotic energy seemed to be an eternal source of creativity (V. Soloviev, N. Berdyaev). Eros was a path of spiritual ascent and transfiguration (B. P. Vysheslavtsev).

Empirical science has reduced the complexity and diversity of erotic experiences and aspirations to the concept of "sexual instinct." Some authors, from Luther and Montaigne to the French scientist end of the nineteenth century. Charles Fere, believed that sexual instinct - is the body's need to get rid of the products of the sex glands. Other authors talked about the "reproductive instinct", the need for procreation. However, IP Pavlov's conditional-reflex theory showed the complexity of the connections arising in the human brain. VM Bekhterev, analyzing the nature of sexual desire, identified two components in it: the unconditional inner need of the body for liberation from the accumulated products of the activity of the sex glands and due to individual life experience and upbringing “combined reflexes”, due to which the proper sexual object is selected and mating is provided [ten].

In accordance with the periodization of S. I. Golod, two periods of concrete research in human sexuality can be distinguished: from the mid-nineteenth century. until the first quarter of the twentieth century. and from the first quarter of the twentieth century. so far [5]. The first period was characterized by a psycho-physiological approach and a predominantly clinical research method. The specificity of the second period is associated with the predominance of the sociocultural approach in the study of sexuality and the concentration of scientists' interest on the social aspects of sexual relations. Let us consider successively the ideas concerning the first and second periods.

At the initial stage, the first sexological studies were focused on the departments of psychiatry and forensic medicine and were mainly devoted to the problems of pathology. "Normal" sexual behavior has not yet been recognized as problematic and requiring explanation. His understanding was approached gradually, mainly through the study of anomalies [10, p.18]. Psychiatry XIX and early XX century. described in detail the symptoms of "sexual perversions" (perversions), considering all forms of sexuality that are not related to childbirth, "unnatural".

At the beginnings of the development of the science of sexuality were the German doctor M. Schuring and the French naturalist J.-L. Buffon [15]. In the XIX century, representatives of several sciences dealt with these problems. Practicing doctors, philosophers, sociologists, writers, poets tried to understand the dominant views on human sexuality and gender relations. However, the forefathers of sexology, who began a systematic study of sexuality, were doctors - Professor of Psychiatry of the University of Vienna R. Kraft-Ebing, Swiss psychiatrist and neuropathologist A. Forel, German psychiatrists A. Moll and M. Hirschfeld, Austrian psychiatrist, creator of psychoanalysis Freud Z., German dermatologist and venereologist I. Bloch; and English publicist, education pharmacist G. H. Ellis [10].

The development of psychoanalysis and such human sciences as ethnography and history contributed to the expansion of the circle of sexological problems and the beginning of the second period. With their outstanding works, humanistic scholars (B. Malinovsky, M. Mead, E. Fuchs, V. G. Bogoraz, L. Ya. Sternberg, V. Ya. Propp, O. M. Freidenberg, M. M. Bakhtin and others .) identified the social and cultural aspects of human sexuality. English ethnographer B. Malinovsky in the 1920s. wrote:

“Sex in the broadest sense of the word is a sociological and cultural factor, and not just a carnal connection between two individuals” [Malinowsky, 1929, op. by: 13, s. 2]. Ethnographic and historical facts showed that people's sexual behavior is very diverse and that in one cultural environment is considered normal or even obligatory, in the other it is condemned and forbidden.

Psychoanalysis turned out to be one of the most influential psychological concepts of the twentieth century, trying to overcome rigid biological determinism in understanding sexuality. In Freud's ideas, Z. sexuality appears as a property independent of reproduction and irreducible to genital experiences. H. Freud regards sexuality not as a particular aspect of a person’s life, but as its basis, core. The approach to sexuality proposed by Freud concentrated on the peculiarities of individual development. "H. Freud analyzes the finest nuances of psychosexual motivation, the ratio of "sensual" and "gentle" attraction, erotic and non-erotic attachments. Not limited to studying the psyche of an individual, he seeks to identify the relationship of individual sexual behavior with cultural norms, reveal the phylogenetic roots of sexual symbolism, the origins and essence of the most important sexual taboos and prohibitions, such as incest (incest), protection of virginity ”[10, p. 13-14].

Starting from the first quarter of the twentieth century. One can speak of the second stage of concrete research in human sexuality, when the special attention of psychiatrists, ethics, historians, and sociologists is attracted to the social aspects of sexuality and sexual relations. The most prominent among them are the names of A. Kinsey, G. H. Ellis, B. Morse, B. Russell, R. Kevig, H. Shelsky, I. Gelman, P. Blonsky, and others. Scientists concluded that sexual behavior the individual is a social phenomenon, since the ways and methods chosen by a person to satisfy his own sexual needs affect not only the sphere of purely interpersonal relations, but also affect the life of society as a whole. Therefore, the study of the problems of sexual socialization, group norms of sexual behavior, sexual attitudes and motivation has become particularly relevant.

The need for a more in-depth study of human sexual behavior was repeatedly raised in the domestic pedagogical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal literature — in particular, in the works of I. S. Simonov (1909), M. M. Rubinstein and V. E. Ignatieff ( 1926), A. A. Zhizhilenko and L. G. Orshansky (1927), A. B. Zalkind (1930), P. P. Blonsky (1935), etc.

Sexual behavior has been studied not only from the point of view of the individual’s personality, but also as a social phenomenon, inseparable from the historical stages of the development of society and its culture. Already in the early twentieth century. mass polls were conducted in the West and in Russia in order to determine the average statistical norms of sexual behavior. The first of them were initiated by Magnus Hirschfeld, the founder of the first in the world Institute of Sexology in Germany (1919) and one of the initiators of the sex reform movement, gaining strength in the 1920s. However, the most ambitious and well-organized surveys were led by representatives of medicine.

“The most serious is the Viennese sexual census of 1907, which covered many aspects of the problem, as well as a survey conducted by E. Meirovsky among 101 students and 77 doctors in the Breslavskoy skin disease clinic” [15, p. 9].

In Russia, the first questionnaire survey was conducted in 1903–1904. Russian dermatologist, professor of hygiene, M. A. Chlenov, in which 2150 male students of Moscow University were interviewed (the results were published in 1907). In the same year, he organized a census of Yuryevsk and Tomsk students. Somewhat earlier, in 1902, a well-known domestic hygienist V. Favrom conducted a questionnaire survey among 1,299 students of Kharkov University, the Technological and Veterinary Institutes. Another well-known sanitary doctor, a specialist in the field of social medicine and population health statistics, D. N. Zhbankov, tried to “conduct a questionnaire on an extremely detailed program” among female students of the Moscow Higher Women's Courses, but the outbreak of the First World War did not allow him to complete the study [15].

The appeal of specialists - representatives of the biomedical approach to the problems of the social aspects of sexual relations characterized the end of the first period. The inclusion of sociological tools, the use of statistical methods in the processing of primary information in the study of the sexual life of a person allowed the researchers to go beyond the limits of clinics and focus on social conditionality and the specificity of sexuality of various social groups. However, the disadvantage of the first polls was that the circle of respondents, as a rule, was limited to students and young workers.

A truly revolutionary in terms of the scale of the study and the representativeness of the sample can be considered the work of A. Kinsey, who conducted about 19 thousand interviews, each of which contained from 350 to 520 items of information. The results of this truly titanic work are set forth in the two-volume work Sexual Behavior of a Man (1948) and Sexual Behavior of a Woman (1953), which presented the widest range of individual and social variations of sexual behavior. One of the advantages of this work was that “the statistical form allowed discussing many previously forbidden subjects” [10, p. 20].

Despite the shortcomings of the study A.
Kinsey, related to the nature of the sample, from the point of view of taking into account a variety of social factors, his work seems to be more sociologically more mature than many later studies, especially medical ones, the authors of which, analyzing the type of human sexual behavior in the light of certain biological variables, sometimes do not take into account social status, educational level and type of culture, on which the persons examined by them are oriented [10].

In the 1990s. for the first time, representative national surveys were conducted in the USA, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Norway and some other countries on issues of sexual behavior. Conducting large-scale national surveys provided scientifically reliable information about sexual behavior and attitudes of different cultures and generations.

In parallel with the development of the problematics of sexuality in the humanities, in a natural-scientific direction, information also accumulated and discoveries were made revealing the patterns of sexual development and sexual functioning. “Genetics has developed rigorous and at the same time simple methods for determining the chromosomal sex; the discovery of a number of genetic anomalies allowed us to begin a systematic study of the most profound hidden determinants of sexual differentiation and their impact on sex differences in general and on the sexual behavior of people and animals in particular. Endocrinologists have learned to measure the level of sex hormones and their impact on the psyche and behavior, including sexual behavior, animals and humans. Neuroscientists have found that sexual differentiation affects not only the reproductive system of the body, but also the brain. Embryology revealed patterns of sexual differentiation in the uterine period of development, and evolutionary biology revealed phylogenetic patterns and specificity of reproductive behavior in different animal species ”[9, p. 33].

Another revolutionary breakthrough in the field of knowledge about sexuality was the book by American gynecologist William Masters and psychologist Virginia Johnson, Human Sexual Response (1966), the first study that analyzed in detail the physiological manifestations of sexual arousal. W. Masters and W. Johnson laid the foundation for numerous experimental studies of various physiological parameters of sexual reactions (pulse, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, encephalogram, etc.). They first described the phases of the copulative cycle as a system of pair interaction. The results of their research significantly enriched the knowledge of the physiology of the female orgasm. The principles of paired sex therapy, which were adopted in most clinics around the world and facilitated the mutual adaptation of a partner couple, also had great practical significance.

However, the statement of W. Masters and W. Johnson, that the sexual cycle scheme described by them on the basis of numerous experiments is a universal model of sexual reaction, was subjected to fair criticism by L. Tyfer. The basis for criticism was that the model did not include the concept of sexual desire and, thus, it lacked “an element that is extremely variable within populations” [20, p. four]. Many researchers - O. Kernberg (Kernberg, 1995), Weimar Schultz and Van de Ville (Schultz & Wiel, 1991), de Bruijn (Bruijn, 1982), Schechter and Singer (Schachter & Singer, 1962), W. Ivard and E Laan (Everaerd & Laan, 1994) et al. Also pointed out that there is a difference between subjective sexual arousal and genital arousal. The decisive role in the emergence of subjective sexual arousal is played by the assessment of the situation (stimulus). However, an emotional experience becomes erotic only if it is included in the appropriate motivational system, that is, it is perceived and evaluated as sexual. Here not only physiological arousal, but also its explanation and interpretation are of great importance. “What serves as an erotic stimulus for one person may leave another person completely indifferent or even disgust. It depends on upbringing, habits and motivation, as well as corresponding cultural norms ”[9, p. 162].

Fundamentally new theoretical ideas about the understanding of sexuality were formulated based on the principles of social constructionism set forth in the book “Social Construction of Reality” (1966) by American sociologists Peter Berger and Thomas Lukman. American sociologists John Guenon and William Simon in their book Sexual Behavior: The Social Sources of Human Sexuality (1973) concluded that it is necessary to talk not only about the "influence" of culture on sexuality, but about the sociocultural design of sexual behavior and motivation, how even the very distinction between “sexual” and “non-sexual” is conditional. The French philosopher Michel Foucault in the three-volume "History of Sexuality" (1976–1984) more radically argued that the history of sexuality is not just an evolution of the ways of social regulation of the same sexual "attraction", "instinct" or "need", but a process of constant creation and redesigning new socio-psychological realities [9]. These works determined the beginning of a new - third stage in the study of sexuality.

The works of Michel Foucault, especially the three volumes of The History of Sexuality, which include The Will to Truth (1976), The Use of Pleasures (1984) and Care of Yourself (1984), were of great methodological importance for the development of the perspective of sexuality. Firstly, M. Foucault pointed out the discursive nature of sexuality:

“Sexual desire is fluid and fluid, it does not exist outside the awareness and symbolization of specific human societies and is embodied in certain forms of conversation, discourse” [9, p. 37]. A person can classify a phenomenon as “sexual” only in the context of the norms and practices of sexual representation that exist in this society and are known to him. What is more important is not what people do and what they say. Each era, each culture, each social group formulates its own discourse, its own means of awareness and symbolization of sexuality. For example, for medieval Europe, this is a topic of sinfulness. The manifestation of sexuality could only be accompanied by recognition and repentance [4].

Secondly, he substantiated that speech, words, ways of representing the sexual are not just an expression of our feelings and thoughts, but also a form of social control. In The History of Sexuality, M. Foucault described how the change of historical epochs was accompanied by the creation of new mechanisms of social control over the manifestation of sexuality. Например, общество блокирует осознание нежелательных, «нелегальных» чувств, препятствуя появлению языковых средств, необходимых для их обозначения и выражения. Для Викторианской эпохи было характерно «табуирование» сексуальности, доходящее до абсурда. Другим ярким примером эффективности социального контроля через репрессивную сексуальную мораль являлась Советская Россия. Локализация проблематики сексуальности в рамках медицинского дискурса и после «перестройки» выступала препятствием адекватной общественной рефлексии таких социальных проблем, как сексуальное просвещение, сексуальное насилие, соотношение понятий порнографии и эротики и т. д. «Главная трудность состояла в выработке “пристойного” языка о сексе, и, несомненно, важнейшую роль в кодификации его играл И. С. Кон» [11, с. 9].

К механизмам социального контроля сексуальности можно также отнести нормативные модели, с которыми люди идентифицируют себя в процессе социализации. Поведение, выходящее за рамки нормативности, расценивается как «девиантное», «делинквентное», «асоциальное» и т. д. М. Фуко анализирует гетеросексуальность также как нормативную модель. В его концепции гомосексуальность и гетеросексуальность — это социальные конструкты, коренящиеся не в психике индивида, а в общественном сознании.

В-третьих, творчество М. Фуко оказало огромное влияние на философскую теорию феминизма, на основе которой сформировался гендерный подход в исследовании сексуальности. В центре философии Фуко находилась проблематика тела — проблемы сексуальности, власти, безумия, желания, маргинальных практик и типов субъективности, которые являются центральными и для теории феминизма [И. Жеребкина, 2000, с. 30]. Фуко считал, что женская история в европейской культуре и есть история сексуальности, а история полов и есть история власти [17]. Такие же взгляды развивали теоретики феминизма Г. Рубин («Торговля женщинами», 1975), К. Миллетт («Сексуальная политика», 1970), С. Браунмиллер («Против нашей воли: мужчины, женщины и изнасилование», 1975), А. Дворкин («Порнография: мужчины обладают женщинами», 1981), А. Рич («О рождении женщины: материнство как опыт и институция», 1976). Идеи социального конструирования гендера через жесткое требование гетеросексуальности нашли развитие в работах Г. Рубина, Д. Батлера, Э. Гросса, Т. Лауретиса, И. С. Косовски.

В одной из своих работ У. Саймон и Д. Х. Гэньон. наделяют эпохальным значением в истории дискурса сексуальности два десятилетия во второй половине ХХ в. (1965–1985). Интеллектуальная атмосфера того времени совершила теоретико-методологический прорыв в области знания о сексуальности. Наиболее важное значение имели постструктуралистские перспективы во Франции (Р. Барт, Ж. Бодрияр и др.) и Великобритании (Э. Гидденс и др.), развитие феминистскими теоретиками гендерной проблематики, а также работы М. Фуко, сформировавшие контекст, наиболее располагающий для исследования проявлений сексуальности [19]. Фуко заложил, по существу, еще одну традицию исследования сексуальности — постмодернистскую [16], которая выступила в качестве альтернативы позитивистской и предопределила следующий этап оформления научного дискурса сексуальности. Один из основных принципов данной традиции — выход за пределы бинаризмов мужское/женское, норма/патология, взрослая/детская и т. д. — позволил анализировать не сексуальность, а сексуальности на разных уровнях: макросоциальном, межгрупповом, межличностном и внутриличностном.

Таким образом, исторический экскурс становления научного дискурса сексуальности позволяет выделить три этапа. Первый — описательный этап — имеет границы с середины XIX в. до 1920-х гг., второй — этап позитивистских эмпирических исследований — начинается с первой четверти ХХ в. Наряду с позитивистским подходом с 1970–1980-х гг. в гуманитарных науках появляется постмодернистская традиция в исследовании сексуальности, характеризующая третий этап в развитии научного дискурса сексуальности.
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Этап 2. Знакомство с основными этапами развития сексологического знания

  1. Stage 1. Acquaintance. Presentation of personal gender image
    Participants (students and presenter) sit in the audience in a circle. The leader of the class offers everyone to introduce themselves in an arbitrary manner: give the name that the participant prefers as an address to himself, one adjective, the most succinctly characterizing the participant’s personality from his / her point of view, and also to tell a little about himself (which he considers necessary for the presentation of his public I).
  2. Stage 2. Acquaintance with the concept of gender manipulation
    Objective: study the specifics of gender manipulation. The study of conditions affecting the development of manipulation in relationships, based on the personal experience of students. Task 1. “Working with an example of gender manipulation” (an example of gender manipulation is given in the appendix). The teacher distributes to students the previously printed sheets describing an example of manipulation taken from the literature and suggests with him
  3. Stage 2. Acquaintance with the text “Example of early gender socialization”
    The teacher reads to the students the text “An example of early gender socialization” (see annex). For text analysis, the teacher can ask students the following questions. 1. What attitudes of the grandson and granddaughter's perception are reflected in the statements of the grandfather and grandmother? 2. What psychological mechanisms of gender socialization will be actively used by grandparents (participants of the
  4. Developmental and Developmental Psychology - an interdisciplinary branch of scientific knowledge
    In recent decades, age psychology (developmental psychology) has changed both in content and interdisciplinary communication. On the one hand, it influences other scientific disciplines, and on the other, it itself is influenced by them, assimilating everything that expands its substantive content. Biology, genetics, developmental physiology. These disciplines are primarily important.
  5. Stage 1. Fixing and elaboration of the basic concepts of the topic
    The first stage is aimed at consolidating such concepts as “gender socialization”, “gender stereotypes”, “gender roles”, “gender conflicts”. Task 1 The teacher offers to discuss the following questions. 1. How do you define the concept of "gender socialization"? 2. How do gender stereotypes affect the behavior of men and women? 3. Where do you see the specifics of gender
  6. Stage 2. Filling the table "The main directions of feminism"
    In the future, students are divided into three groups. Each group is offered a text describing one of the types of the feminist movement (see Appendix 2). Students familiarize themselves with the text and find in it the information necessary to fill in the corresponding line in the table “Main directions of feminism”. After completing work on microgroups, students report the information found. The outcome of this
  7. Stage 2. Drawing up “block = schemes” from the basic concepts related to the topic “Gender Identity”
    The task of this stage is the development of skills for analyzing and structuring scientific categories related to this subject area. To complete the task, students are divided into groups of 4-6 people. If there are a small number of students in the class, the group can be left the same as in the first task. The teacher reads the list of terms used in
  8. Maturity as a stage and quality in human mental development
    The period of maturity in terms of age and the state of the spirit of man was called by the ancient Greeks the time of "akme", which meant the peak, the highest degree of something, the moment of the greatest flourishing of the human person, the "identity of self." Domestic psychologist N.N.Rybnikov proposed to designate the term "acmeology" a special section of age psychology - about the heyday of all vital forces.
  9. The current stage of development of the theory of expert assessments
    At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, US healthcare began a move toward higher medical standards. In 1910, Abraham Flexner summarized the results of an inspection trip to 163 American and Canadian medical schools. In his famous “Flexner Report,” he recommended closing 124 medical schools. Reason: poor material and technical base, lack of funds and
  10. Growth and development of the child. The main stages of the development of the body
    Growth is an increase in the mass and linear dimensions of an organism, as well as its constituent organs, which occurs due to an increase in the number and mass of cells, non-cellular formations, as a result of the predominance of anabolism over catabolic processes. Each organism has a genetically predetermined growth potential, but its realization depends on how favorable the external environment is. On growth
  11. DAY THREE - ACQUAINTANCE WITH YOURSELF
    Two grapes taste the same as one. What does it matter how many they will be if they all turn into a memory in a minute? Our new task: let's see if we really want to eat when we are going to eat something. At the same time find out how much we actually eat. This work rests entirely on our tiny notebook and pen, which should always be at hand. When I
  12. Acquaintance with SQVID, or Practical exercise in applied imagination
    SQVID is a simple mechanical rule consisting of letters SQVID. Each letter represents one of the five questions that we can ask ourselves in order to activate the eyes of thinking and think about the possibilities. I used the example of opening the bottle, however SQVID activates our brains in all cases when we want to imagine something. SQVID can be considered a kind
  13. Прикладная акмеология в структуре акмеологического знания
    Акмеологическое знание, независимо от его уровня, характеризуется двумя функциями: объяснение и преобразование соответствующего комплекса проблем (объекта — предмета). Деление акмеологии на теоретическую и эмпирическую связано с уровнем знания (теоретическое и эмпирическое). Деление на фундаментальные и прикладные теории — с ориентацией (функцией) акмеологии: решает ли она собственно научные
  14. Прикладная акмеология в структуре акмеологического знания
    Акмеологическое знание, независимо от его уровня, характеризуется двумя функциями: объяснение и преобразование соответствующего комплекса проблем (объекта – предмета). Деление акмеологии на теоретическую и эмпирическую связано с уровнем знания (теоретическое и эмпирическое). Деление на фундаментальные и прикладные теории – с ориентацией (функцией) акмеологии: решает ли она собственно научные
  15. Psychological knowledge in art
    Важнейший источник психологических знаний — произведения искусства. Эти знания носят образный характер. Хорошими психологами, по мнению немецкого философа Вильгельма Дильтея (1833-1911), являются писатели, историки, актеры. Он желал появления психологии, способной уловить в сети своих описаний то, чего в произведениях поэтов и писателей заключается больше, нежели в существовавших тогда учениях о
  16. Медицинские знания Древней Греции.
    About the most ancient forms of medical art in Greece can be judged by the poems of Homer "Iliad" and "Odyssey", created about a thousand years before our era. Their heroes most needed “medicinal drinks” and surgical care for various injuries. "The doctor," Homer writes, "is a man who is worth many others." Medical education included familiarity with medicinal plants,
  17. Психологические знания в XV — XIX веках
    Лишь в XV-XVII веках складываются представления о мире и человеке, близкие к научным. Они были основаны главным образом на разуме независимо от веры. Так, ставя под сомнение догму о божественном сотворении мира, неподвижно покоящемся в центре Вселенной, Коперник (1543), Кеплер (1604) и Галилей (1633) утверждали, что Земля совершает одновременно вращение вокруг своей оси и обращение вокруг Солнца.
  18. ТЕХНОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ФИЛОСОФСКО- ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ЗНАНИЯ
    ТЕХНОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ФИЛОСОФСКО- ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО
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