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Social identity theory
Brewer (1990) believes that a person has two opposite needs: to confirm his resemblance to other people and to preserve his own individuality. According to Brevera, we want to look like others and at the same time be different from them. Dividing people into members of one’s own and other’s groups helps one to achieve both goals. The fact that we have something in common with other members of our group confirms the correctness of our actions and gives a sense of belonging to it, while the differences of our group from others serve as evidence of our uniqueness. Gender identity and a clear division of all people into men and women serves the realization of these functions. For example, men traditionally seek to avoid any activity that is characterized as female, preferring to engage in something that will emphasize their masculinity (in particular, certain sports). Often this rallies the group and is evidence of the unique social identity of men.
Social identity theory. A person belongs to his group much more favorably than others, and this allows him to increase his self-esteem.
Brewer (1991) noted that a biased attitude toward his group is more often more pronounced among members of groups that are at a disadvantage. Other studies indicate that this happens especially often when a group’s low status is perceived as an injustice (Caddick, 1982; Ellemers et al., 1993; Folger, 1987; Turner & Brown, 1978). According to Breuer (1991, p. 481), groups experiencing similar feelings transform "that which is painfully perceived at the individual level" into "a source of pride at the group level — rather as a sign of distinction, and not as a seal of shame." For example, such “feminists who support differences”, like Harding (Harding, 1986) and Gilligan (Gilligan, 1982), emphasize the desirability of stereotyped female qualities and reject the stereotypical qualities of men (as opposed to “feminists who favor similarities”), who minimize gender differences and pay attention to the similarities of different sexes and androgynism). Feminists of the first type distinguish those qualities that are traditionally considered negative - for example, the tendency to rely on intuition, emotionality, lack of egocentrism, actively emphasize their specificity for women, and then turn them into a source of pride for women of their gender. The bestseller entitled Women Who Run with the Wolves (Estes, 1992) also advocates the idea of an “instinctive female nature” (a term coined by Estes). When women speak of men as “other creatures,” while giving arguments like “a woman would never do that” or “all men are so insensitive,” they often feel pleasure just at the thought of their similarities with other women of their own sex and unlike the representatives of the opposite gender group.
According to a survey conducted by the Gallup Institute in 1993, 43% of Americans considered men and women to be similar in essence, while only 26% of American women held a similar view (Newport, 1993).
Groups often strengthen their internal solidarity by emphasizing the negative qualities of the representatives of other groups and creating an image of an external enemy. This is characteristic of both men and women: both those and others willingly make sharp jokes and make derogatory comments at the address of the opposite sex. Look at the table. 5.1, where jokes about the “stupid man” and answers to the question “Why is a sheep better than a woman?” Are given. However, although jokes about women have been told for decades (and it is possible that in order to justify their social status), women apparently have complained about men throughout the history of mankind since the late 80s.
In our century, relations between gender groups have noticeably worsened. Things and conversations directed against men have become much more common than before. Sometimes this phenomenon is jokingly called "whipping men."
Table 5.1. Jokes on the themes of differences between men and women
Jokes about men
About the stupidity of men
Q: Why do male astronauts need female astronauts?
A: So that they can stop someone and ask in which direction they should go further.
Q: Why do men give names to their sexual members?
A: Because people always want to know the names of their leaders. Q: Do you know that all men are created the same?
A: Yes, our affairs are bad!
Q: What is the difference between government bonds and men? A: Government bonds benefit.
Q: What did the Lord say after creating the man?
A: “Yes, I guess I could have done something better.”
Q: Why do all stupid blondes pronounce exactly the same sharpness? A: To make it easier for men to understand.
Q: What, according to men, is their role in cleaning the house? A: In time to raise your legs when you sweep the floor. Jokes about women
“Why is a sheep better than a woman?”
1. Sheep never argue.
2. Sheep does not make scenes when you break up.
3. A sheep does not mind being one of the herds.
4. Sheep will not take your favorite hunting shirt to the commission.
5. A sheep will never regret that you were too passionate / too indifferent, too drunk / too sober, etc.
6. The sheep will never allow themselves to break your favorite beer mug with annoyance.
7. The Association for processing sheep skins is less repugnant than the National Organization of Women.
Note: Keen on the other sex can reinforce feelings of gender identity and solidarity with other members. However, they can lead to an exaggerated perception of the differences between genders and generate conflicts between their representatives.
The reason for the strengthening of this trend within the female gender group lies in the fact that women have felt their inequality with men. Attempts to belittle men are for women a source of their feelings of solidarity and a means of justifying attempts to violate the status quo. In addition, such actions help women maintain a sense of pride in their gender in a society that, by all indications, values them lower than men. Although this behavior is caused by the perception of personal inequality, they can nevertheless stimulate the perception of inequality at the group level. For example, a lot of jokes are made at the address of men, who very rarely and very reluctantly take part in domestic work. These jokes stem from women's awareness of their inequality with men and at the same time help to draw their attention to this problem. Since such acuteness is told in an appropriate social environment, the very fact of their distribution tells women that the manifestation of discontent with such inequality is not only acceptable, but also positively perceived behavior. In several papers, it was suggested that the perception by one group of its more disadvantaged position compared to others is related to the collective actions of members of this oppressed group (Dion 1986; Walker & Mann, 1987). Thus, various feminist movements actively emphasized that women are a discriminated social group, and actively opposed this state of affairs - this united women and made them different from men.
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Social identity theory
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- Sex role identity at different age stages: tasks, social roles, family development stages
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- Ilyin V. A. Psycho-social theory as a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of social processes in modern society, 2009
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- Harmonization of the social environment of an educational institution. Social protection and self-defense of students
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- Determining Gender Identity
Sex-role identity is specific psychological attitudes and methods of interpersonal behavior. Studies related to the definition of gender identity were mainly carried out by psychiatrists, sexologists and social psychologists. Sexologists and psychiatrists - from the point of view of psychosexual development, connected with the formation of primarily biological and psychological gender,
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Gender identity is part of the identity of the individual and depends on the specific cultural and historical conditions, as already discussed above. The Problem of Identity of Identity There are several approaches to the problems associated with the general identity of a personality. From the point of view of EP Belinskaya and OA Tikhomandritskaya (EP Belinskaya, OA A. Tikhomandritskaya, 2001) for the majority of researchers
- "The implementation of the psychosocial approach to the problem of development in the development of the theory of identity"
The second chapter presents an overview of the main approaches to the problem of identity in modern psychological science, outlines the theoretical foundations of the psychosocial concept of development laid down in the studies of the identity of E. Erickson and his followers, identifies the main problems associated with the refinement of this concept to a multidisciplinary level -psychological
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- Gender Identity Training
At the core of gender identity training is a program of psychological “accompaniment” for growing up of adolescents or psycho-correctional work with adults already. Gender identity plays an important role in the processes of adaptation and self-regulation. This is one of the basic structures of self-awareness. If self-consciousness is disharmonious and inconsistent, a person may suffer from emotional reactions of rejection.
- Lesson 8: Gender Identity
Objective: to expand the participants' perception of the concept of gender identity, its structure and patterns of development. All assignments involve work in small groups or dyads. Equipment: blackboard with chalk or drawing paper with markers; cards for the "Terminology warm-up" (see Appendix). Stage 1. Terminology workout The main task of this stage:
- Age-psychological features of the affective component of sex-role identity
In this subsection, hypothesis 1 is tested: there are age-psychological features of the development of the affective component of sex-role identity, due to the solution of the tasks of personality development in adolescence and adulthood. Testing hypothesis 1 is carried out according to the following scheme: 1) For each test subject, the type is determined according to the psychosemantic method described above.
- Theories of the formation of gender role identity
Psychological mechanisms for the emergence of sex-role identification were considered within the framework of various psychological theories. For example, as J.L. Hampson and D.G.Hampson (Kolominsky, L.L., Melteas, M.Kh., 1985) state, the orientation towards the sexual role of a boy or girl does not have a congenital, pre-educated base. Psychological self-determination of gender begins with the second and
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In this subsection, hypothesis 2 is tested: there are gender differences in the affective component of sex-role identity, manifested in age dynamics. Testing hypothesis 2 is carried out according to the following scheme: 1) Using univariate analysis of variance, the authenticity of differences in the affective component of sex-role identity between female and male age is checked.
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The presence in the youth environment of several types of image, identified in the previous paragraph, allows us to raise the question of the determinants of differences in the images of the RF Armed Forces formed by young people and the impact of these differences on the behavioral attitudes of young people. A theoretical analysis showed, on the one hand, the role of identity in shaping the image of the surrounding world (including the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation), on the other