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Introductory remarks

Gender identity - the realization of their belonging to the male or female sex [5]. This concept denotes an aspect of self-awareness of the individual, describing the experience of a person as a representative of the sex, as a carrier of specific poluspecific characteristics and behaviors that are correlated with the notions of masculinity / femininity [4]. Gender identity along with ethnic, age, professional, national identity is a component of the social identity of the individual.

The notion of social identity describes how other people define a person on the basis of broad social categories or attributes, such as gender, age, profession or ethnicity [13]. These are the components of the I am a person who are experienced by him at the level of awareness of belonging to any group [14]. Social identity is the result of the process of social identification, by which is meant the process of defining oneself through membership in a social group [1, 7]. Social identification performs important functions both at the group level and at the personal level: it is thanks to this process that society is able to include individuals in the system of social relations and relationships, and the personality realizes the basic need of group affiliation providing protection, opportunities for self-realization, evaluation by others and influence on group [10].

Gender identity is a special kind of social identity that coexists in the self-consciousness of a person in unity with the concepts of professional, family, ethnic, educational and other statuses [11]. Gender identity is the product of social construction [11]. It begins to form from the birth of the child, when on the basis of the structure of his external genital organs his passport (civil, midwifery) sex is determined. From this begins the process of gender socialization, during which the child is purposefully brought up in such a way that it corresponds to the accepted in the given society notions of "masculine" and "feminine". It is on the basis of the standards existing in society that the child's ideas about his own gender identity and role, his behavior, and self-esteem are formed [5].

The primary idea of ​​one's own sex is formed in the child already at 1.5 years, and this is precisely the view that takes the place of the most stable and core component of self-consciousness. With age, gender identity develops, its scope and structure become more complex. The two-year-old knows his gender, but still can not determine the reasons for his choice. In 3-4 years he is already able to consciously determine the sex of people around him, but often connects him with external, random signs; In addition, sex is considered to be a child of a given age a variable characteristic. Irreversibility of sex is realized by children about 6-7 years, which is accompanied by increased sexual differentiation of behavior and attitudes.
The next most important stage in the formation of gender identity is adolescence. Teenage gender identity becomes the central component of self-awareness. The gender identity of an adult is a complex structure that includes, in addition to awareness of one's own gender, sexual orientation, "sexual scenarios," gender stereotypes and gender preferences [5].

In the structure of gender identity, the following components can be distinguished:

• cognitive (cognitive) - awareness of belonging to a certain sex and a description of oneself using the categories of masculinity / femininity;

• affective (evaluative) - evaluation of psychological features and peculiarities of role behavior on the basis of their correlation with the reference models of masculinity / femininity;

• Conductive (behavioral) self-presentation of oneself as a representative of a gender group, as well as ways of resolving identity crises based on choices of behaviors in accordance with personally significant goals and values ​​[4].

In modern psychology, great attention is paid to the phenomenon of the gender identity crisis, which is understood as the impossibility of achieving internal consistency, self-actualization and external confirmation of gender identity. The crisis of gender identity includes the discrepancy between the internal components of gender identity (gender perceptions, gender self-esteem and gender plans, ways and behaviors), as well as the mismatching of the internal components of gender identity with external gender spaces, including gender stereotypes and standards, gender and gender roles [6].

As the research results show, constructive resolution of the gender identity crisis is the most important factor in preserving the psychological well-being of the individual. In particular, according to Y. Cohen [12], intrapersonal conflicts associated with the formation of gender identity are a risk factor for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

Purpose

To expand students' ideas about the concept of gender identity, its structure and laws of development.

Equipment

1. Class board with chalk or sheets of Whatman with markers.

2. Cards for the "Terminological warm-up" (see annex).

Operating procedure

During the practical lesson, students are invited to perform a number of tasks aimed at achieving the goal of the lesson. All tasks involve working in small groups or diads. The work takes place in several stages.

Stage 1. Terminological warm-up.

Stage 2. Drawing "block = scheme" of the basic concepts related to the topic "Gender identity."

Stage 3. Execution of the exercise "Gender autobiography".
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Introductory remarks

  1. Introductory remarks
    The division of people into men and women is the central setting of the perception of ourselves and others [2]. At the ordinary level of reasoning, many are convinced that the psychological differences between men and women are related to the genetic, anatomical and physiological characteristics of the male and female body. However, the fact of bodily dissimilarity between men and women does not mean that
  2. Introductory remarks
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  3. Introductory remarks
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  4. Introductory remarks
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  5. Introductory remarks
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  6. Introductory remarks
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  7. Introductory remarks
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  8. Introductory remarks
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  9. Introductory remarks
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  10. Introductory remarks
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  11. Introductory remarks
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  12. Introductory remarks
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  13. Introductory remarks
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  14. Introductory remarks
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  16. Introductory remarks
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  17. Introductory remarks
    "Competence" in the modern dictionary of foreign words is defined as "the possession of knowledge that allows you to judge something." [16, p. 295]. The word "competent" comes from the Latin competentis - appropriate, capable, knowledgeable, knowledgeable in a certain area, ie, having the right to judge on the basis of knowledge, to make appropriate decisions and perform specific actions.
  18. Introductory remarks
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  20. Introductory remarks
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