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Introductory notes

Gender identity - the awareness of their belonging to the male or female sex [5]. This concept denotes an aspect of self-consciousness of a person, describing a person's experience of himself as a representative of sex, as a carrier of specific semi-specific characteristics and behavioral characteristics correlated with the concepts of masculinity / femininity [4]. Gender identity along with ethnic, age, professional, national identity is a component of social identity of an individual.

The concept of social identity describes how other people define a person on the basis of broad social categories or characteristics, such as gender, age, profession, or ethnicity [13]. These are the components of the person I, which are experienced by him at the level of awareness of belonging to any = or group [14]. Social identity is the result of the process of social identification, which is understood as the process of determining oneself through membership in a social group [1, 7]. Social identification performs important functions both at the group and at the personal level: it is through this process that society is able to include individuals in the system of social connections and relationships, and the individual realizes the basic need of group membership, which provides protection, opportunities for self-realization, evaluation by others and influence on group [10].

Gender identity is a special kind of social identity that coexists in a person’s self-consciousness in unity with the ideas of professional, family, ethnic, educational and other status [11]. Gender identity is a product of social construction [11]. It begins to form from the birth of a child, when on the basis of the structure of his external genital organs his passport (civil, obstetric) gender is determined. With this, the process of gender socialization begins, during which the child is purposefully brought up in such a way as to conform to the ideas of “male” and “female” accepted in this society. It is on the basis of existing standards in society that the child’s ideas about his own gender identity and role, his behavior, and self-esteem are formed [5].

The primary idea of ​​their own gender is formed in a child as early as 1.5 years, and it is this idea that takes the place of the most stable and core component of self-awareness. With age, gender identity develops, its volume expands and the structure becomes more complex. A two-year-old child knows his gender, but cannot yet determine the reasons for his choice. At 3-4 years old, he is already able to consciously determine the gender of the people around him, but often he connects him with external, random signs; In addition, sex is considered a variable characteristic by children of a given age. The irreversibility of sex is recognized by children about 6–7 years of age, which is accompanied by an increase in sexual differentiation of behavior and attitudes.
The next most important stage in the formation of gender identity is adolescence. Adolescent gender identity is becoming a central component of identity. The gender identity of an adult is a complex-structured education that includes, in addition to awareness of one’s own gender, sexual orientation, “sexual scenarios,” gender stereotypes and gender preferences [5].

The following components can be distinguished in the structure of gender identity:

• cognitive (cognitive) - awareness of belonging to a particular sex and a description of oneself using the categories of masculinity / femininity;

• affective (evaluative) - assessment of psychological traits and features of role-based behavior based on their correlation with masculinity / feminine reference models;

• conative (behavioral) - self-presentation of yourself as a representative of a gender group, as well as ways to resolve identity crises based on choices of behaviors in accordance with personally significant goals and values ​​[4].

In modern psychology, great attention is paid to the phenomenon of the crisis of gender identity, which means the impossibility of achieving internal consistency, self-actualization and external confirmation of gender identity. The gender identity crisis includes misalignment of internal components of gender identity (gender perceptions, gender self-esteem and gender plans, ways and structures of behavior), as well as mismatch of internal components of gender identity with external gender spaces including gender stereotypes and standards, gender corporality and gender roles [6].

As the research results show, a constructive resolution of the crisis of gender identity is the most important factor in preserving the psychological well-being of the individual. In particular, according to J. Cohen (Y. Cohen) [12], intrapersonal conflicts associated with the formation of gender identity are a risk factor for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

Purpose of the lesson

Expand students' understanding of the concept of gender identity, its structure and patterns of development.

Equipment

1. Chalkboard with chalk or drawing paper with markers.

2. Cards for conducting “Terminology workout” (see annex).

Operating procedure

During the practical training, students are invited to perform a number of tasks aimed at achieving the goal of the lesson. All assignments involve work in small groups or dyads. The work takes place in several stages.

Stage 1. Terminology workout.

Stage 2. Drawing up “block = schemes” from the basic concepts related to the topic “Gender Identity”.

Stage 3. Performing the exercise “Gender autobiography”.
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Introductory notes

  1. Introductory notes
    Dividing people into men and women is the central setting for our perception of ourselves and those around us [2]. At the everyday level of reasoning, many are convinced that the psychological differences between men and women are associated with the genetic, anatomical and physiological characteristics of the male and female body. However, the fact of physical dissimilarity between men and women does not yet indicate that
  2. Introductory notes
    In the program of any gender-oriented courses, there should be classes aimed at mainstreaming and problematization of the existing gender perceptions of students. The main goal of such studies is to remove the “gender censorship”. Without such work, as the long-term and diverse practice of teaching gender courses has shown, the possibility of students moving towards mastering the content of gender
  3. Introductory notes
    In the process of studying gender psychology, it is important to familiarize students with the biological aspects of gender differences, with basic data on the physiological features of the male and female body, as well as the degree of their influence on the personal characteristics and behavior of men and women. In biology, the floor is defined as the combination of morphological and physiological characteristics of the organism,
  4. Introductory notes
    It is difficult to come up with a more popular topic for scientific and everyday discussions than the psychology of men and women. Of course, the collected huge amount of data and reflection needs some systematization. In this article, we propose to consider gender issues through the prism of the socio-psychological analysis of large groups. In our opinion, this is extremely important for the development of gender
  5. Introductory notes
    Feminist theory is a generalized complex system of views on social life and human experience, providing for the starting point of women's priority [1]. The study of the history of feminism, different directions of feminism (radical, liberal, socialist and others) is an integral part of the study of gender courses by students, since the feminist theory is
  6. Introductory notes
    Socialization is the process of mastering social norms, rules, behavioral patterns, the process of entering the social environment. Gender socialization is the process of assimilation of norms, rules of behavior, social attitudes in accordance with cultural ideas about the role, position and purpose of men and women in society. Gender socialization - the direction of gender psychology, formed
  7. Introductory notes
    Classes on this topic are held after students are familiarized with the problems of gender socialization and the personal development features of modern girls / women and boys / men and imply knowledge of the main psychological aspects of self-affirmation of women and men, the specifics of those restrictions that traditional female and male gender roles impose. Literature as a social
  8. Introductory notes
    Personality cognition in fiction Along with scientific cognition, there is the comprehension of man in art, religion, etc. If science uses concepts, then in art there are figurative means for this. “The method of literature is the method of art; The method of psychology is the method of science. Our question is which approach is most appropriate for studying the personality ”[12, p. 228].
  9. Introductory notes
    Classes on this topic are held after consideration of general issues related to the phenomenon of gender socialization, and highlighting the features of the main social institutions of gender socialization. Features of the socialization functions of the school at the present stage The school is the first and main model of the social world for the child. That school experience helps to master those laws, according to
  10. Introductory notes
    A lesson on the topic “Gender Autobiography” may precede the study of issues of gender socialization, and may also complete the study of this entire section in the course “Gender Psychology”, “Gender Studies” and other gender disciplines. To conduct this lesson, students need theoretical knowledge of various theories of assimilating gender roles, as well as general information about gender
  11. Introductory notes
    Classes on this topic are conducted as a summary of the problem of gender socialization in childhood. They involve students' knowledge of basic institutions and agents of primary gender socialization, the content of traditional gender stereotypes, the specifics of gender role and gender approaches in psychology, the most important conceptual provisions of the theory of gender scheme. New life - new
  12. Introductory notes
    The gender stereotype is “a simplified schematized, emotionally colored image of a man and a woman” [9, p. 188]. In the work of I. S. Kletsina [9] three groups of gender stereotypes are distinguished. The first group includes stereotypes of masculinity-femininity. Men and women are attributed concrete socio-psychological qualities and personality traits, style of behavior. "Male" (masculine)
  13. Introductory notes
    The development of mental qualities, behaviors does not have strict biological prescriptions. This fully applies to sexual differentiation. Awareness of one’s own gender and the formation of a person’s gender identity is one of the directions of his socialization. Gender socialization is a process of mastering a person’s norms and patterns of behavior accepted (permitted) in a given
  14. Introductory notes
    The concept of "identity" - one of the relatively new and at the same time popular concepts in the psychology of personality - gained fame through the work of Eric Erickson. Erickson noticed that the result of adolescence is becoming more or less formed person's image of himself as a whole person, what = something similar to others, what = something different. In the approval process in
  15. Introductory notes
    The formation of an individual's gender identity is not directly and directly caused by the presence of a gender role and the social stereotypes, perceptions, and expectations included in it. They should become the means of awareness of one’s own gender and gender identity, i.e., from an external, “given” by society and culture plan to move into the area of ​​internal, personally meaningful acceptance
  16. Introductory notes
    The concept of “gender role” is one of the main ones in the study of the course “Gender Psychology”, since it is inextricably linked with the problems of “gender socialization”, “gender stereotypes” and “gender relations”. In an applied sense, this topic provides the key to understanding psychological problems such as interpersonal and intrapersonal role conflicts (for example, role conflict
  17. Introductory notes
    "Competence" in the modern dictionary of foreign words is defined as "possession of knowledge, allowing to judge about something." [16, p. 295]. The word "competent" comes from the Latin competentis - appropriate, capable, knowledgeable, well-versed in a certain area, i.e. having the right to know about something based on knowledge, take appropriate decisions and carry out specific actions.
  18. Introductory notes
    Gender psychology of sexuality reveals the specifics of sexual relations, given the hierarchy of roles of the gender scheme. In order to form an idea of ​​the methodological principles of the study of sexuality in gender psychology, it is necessary to analyze the stages and factors of the development of the scientific discourse of sexuality, as well as the formulation of the concept of sexuality within the framework of various scientific approaches.
  19. Introductory notes
    At all times, attitudes toward sexuality depended on cultural traditions, the economic situation in the country and on the specifics of political tasks being solved at the moment by the ruling circles, respectively, has always been ambiguous and contradictory. In the twentieth century. little by little, sexuality became a topic open for public discussion, which stimulated the interest of researchers and focused on
  20. Introductory notes
    The position of women in the sphere of economic relations and employment is associated with the concepts of “socio-economic dependence” and “economic discrimination”. The following levels of dependence can be distinguished: • societal; • socio-economic; • family. At each level there are specific factors and mechanisms for the formation of socio-economic dependence. Let's analyze
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