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Introductory remarks

Gender identity - the realization of their belonging to the male or female sex [5]. This concept denotes an aspect of self-awareness of the individual, describing the experience of a person as a representative of the sex, as a carrier of specific poluspecific characteristics and behaviors that are correlated with the notions of masculinity / femininity [4]. Gender identity along with ethnic, age, professional, national identity is a component of the social identity of the individual.

The notion of social identity describes how other people define a person on the basis of broad social categories or attributes, such as gender, age, profession or ethnicity [13]. These are the components of the I am a person who are experienced by him at the level of awareness of belonging to any group [14]. Social identity is the result of the process of social identification, by which is meant the process of defining oneself through membership in a social group [1, 7]. Social identification performs important functions both at the group level and at the personal level: it is thanks to this process that society is able to include individuals in the system of social relations and relationships, and the personality realizes the basic need of group affiliation providing protection, opportunities for self-realization, evaluation by others and influence on group [10].

Gender identity is a special kind of social identity that coexists in the self-consciousness of a person in unity with the concepts of professional, family, ethnic, educational and other statuses [11]. Gender identity is the product of social construction [11]. It begins to form from the birth of the child, when on the basis of the structure of his external genital organs his passport (civil, midwifery) sex is determined. From this begins the process of gender socialization, during which the child is purposefully brought up in such a way that it corresponds to the accepted in the given society notions of "masculine" and "feminine". It is on the basis of the standards existing in society that the child's ideas about his own gender identity and role, his behavior, and self-esteem are formed [5].

The primary idea of ​​one's own sex is formed in the child already at 1.5 years, and this is precisely the view that takes the place of the most stable and core component of self-consciousness. With age, gender identity develops, its scope and structure become more complex. The two-year-old knows his gender, but still can not determine the reasons for his choice. In 3-4 years he is already able to consciously determine the sex of people around him, but often connects him with external, random signs; In addition, sex is considered to be a child of a given age a variable characteristic. Irreversibility of sex is realized by children about 6-7 years, which is accompanied by increased sexual differentiation of behavior and attitudes.
The next most important stage in the formation of gender identity is adolescence. Teenage gender identity becomes the central component of self-awareness. The gender identity of an adult is a complex structure that includes, in addition to awareness of one's own gender, sexual orientation, "sexual scenarios," gender stereotypes and gender preferences [5].

In the structure of gender identity, the following components can be distinguished:

• cognitive (cognitive) - awareness of belonging to a certain sex and a description of oneself using the categories of masculinity / femininity;

• affective (evaluative) - evaluation of psychological features and peculiarities of role behavior on the basis of their correlation with the reference models of masculinity / femininity;

• Conductive (behavioral) self-presentation of oneself as a representative of a gender group, as well as ways of resolving identity crises based on choices of behaviors in accordance with personally significant goals and values ​​[4].

In modern psychology, great attention is paid to the phenomenon of the gender identity crisis, which is understood as the impossibility of achieving internal consistency, self-actualization and external confirmation of gender identity. The crisis of gender identity includes the discrepancy between the internal components of gender identity (gender perceptions, gender self-esteem and gender plans, ways and behaviors), as well as the mismatching of the internal components of gender identity with external gender spaces, including gender stereotypes and standards, gender and gender roles [6].

As the research results show, constructive resolution of the gender identity crisis is the most important factor in preserving the psychological well-being of the individual. In particular, according to Y. Cohen [12], intrapersonal conflicts associated with the formation of gender identity are a risk factor for suicidal behavior in adolescents.


To expand students' ideas about the concept of gender identity, its structure and laws of development.


1. Class board with chalk or sheets of Whatman with markers.

2. Cards for the "Terminological warm-up" (see annex).

Operating procedure

During the practical lesson, students are invited to perform a number of tasks aimed at achieving the goal of the lesson. All tasks involve working in small groups or diads. The work takes place in several stages.

Stage 1. Terminological warm-up.

Stage 2. Drawing "block = scheme" of the basic concepts related to the topic "Gender identity."

Stage 3. Execution of the exercise "Gender autobiography".
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Introductory remarks

  1. Introductory remarks
    The division of people into men and women is the central setting of the perception of ourselves and others [2]. At the ordinary level of reasoning, many are convinced that the psychological differences between men and women are related to the genetic, anatomical and physiological characteristics of the male and female body. However, the fact of bodily dissimilarity between men and women does not mean that
  2. Introductory remarks
    In the program of any gender-oriented courses there should be classes aimed at updating and problematizing existing gender perspectives among students. The main purpose of such classes is to remove "gender censorship". Without such work, as the long-term and varied practice of reading gender courses has shown, the possibility of promoting students to master the content of gender
  3. Introductory remarks
    In the process of studying gender psychology, it is important to familiarize students with the biological aspects of gender differences, with basic data on the physiological characteristics of the male and female organism, and also the extent to which they influence the personality characteristics and behavior of men and women. In biology, sex is defined as the totality of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the organism,
  4. Introductory remarks
    It is difficult to come up with a more popular topic for scientific and everyday discussions than the psychology of men and women. Undoubtedly, the huge amount of data and reflections that we have gathered requires a certain degree of systematization. Within the framework of this article, we propose to consider gender issues through the prism of the socio-psychological analysis of large groups. In our view, this is extremely important for the development of gender
  5. Introductory remarks
    Feminist theory is a generalized complex system of views on social life and human experience, providing as a starting point the priority of women [1]. Studying the history of feminism, the different directions of feminism (radical, liberal, socialist and others) is an integral part of students' study of gender courses, because feminist theory is
  6. Introductory remarks
    Socialization is the process of assimilating social norms, rules, behaviors, the process of entering the social environment. Gender socialization is the process of assimilation of norms, rules of behavior, social attitudes in accordance with cultural ideas about the role, position and purpose of men and women in society. Gender socialization - the direction of gender psychology, formed
  7. Introductory remarks
    Classes on this topic are held after acquaintance of students with the problems of gender socialization and the peculiarities of the personal development of modern girls / women and boys / men and suggest knowledge of the basic psychological aspects of self-affirmation of women and men, the specifics of the limitations imposed by traditional female and male gender roles. Literature as a social
  8. Introductory remarks
    Cognition of the individual in fiction Along with scientific cognition, there is a comprehension of man in art, religion, etc. If science operates with concepts, then in art there are graphic means for this. "The method of literature is a method of art; the method of psychology is a method of science. Our question is, which approach is most appropriate for studying the personality "[12, p. 228].
  9. Introductory remarks
    Classes on this topic are held after consideration of general issues relating to the phenomenon of gender socialization, and highlighting the characteristics of the main social institutions of gender socialization. Features of socialization functions of the school at the present stage The school is for the child the first and the main model of the social world. It is the school experience that helps to master those laws,
  10. Introductory remarks
    The lesson on the topic "Gender autobiography" can precede the study of gender socialization issues, or may finish the study of this entire section within the framework of the course "Gender psychology", "Gender studies" and other gender disciplines. To conduct this lesson, students need theoretical knowledge of the various theories of gender roles, as well as general information about gender
  11. Introductory remarks
    Classes on this topic are held as a result of the problem of gender socialization in childhood. They presuppose students' knowledge of the main institutions and agents of primary gender socialization, the content of traditional gender stereotypes, the specifics of gender and gender approaches in psychology, the most important conceptual provisions of the theory of the gender scheme. New life - new
  12. Introductory remarks
    The gender stereotype is "a simplified schematized, emotionally colored image of a man and a woman" [9, p. 188]. In the work of IS Kletsina [9] three groups of gender stereotypes were singled out. The first group includes stereotypes of masculinity-femininity. Men and women are credited with specific socio-psychological qualities and personality traits, a style of behavior. "Man's" (masculine)
  13. Introductory remarks
    The development of mental qualities, modes of behavior does not have strict biological prescriptions. This fully applies to sexual differentiation. Awareness of one's own gender and the formation of a person's gender identity is one of the directions of his socialization. Gender socialization is the process by which a person assimilates norms and patterns of behavior accepted (permissible) in a given
  14. Introductory remarks
    The concept of "identity" - one of the relatively new and at the same time popular concepts in the psychology of the individual - has become known through the work of Eric Erickson. Erickson drew attention to the fact that the result of adolescence is a more or less formalized representation of a person about himself as a whole person, in something similar to others, which is something different. During the approval process in
  15. Introductory remarks
    The formation of the gender identity of an individual is not directly and directly related to the presence of a gender role and the social stereotypes, ideas, expectations that are included in it. They should become a means of comprehension of one's own gender identity and gender identity, that is, from an external plan "assigned" by the society and culture to move into the sphere of internal, personally meaningful acceptance
  16. Introductory remarks
    The notion of "gender role" is one of the main ones in the study of the course of "Gender psychology", as it is inextricably linked with the problems of "gender socialization", "gender stereotypes" and "gender relations". In applied meaning, this topic provides the key to understanding such psychological problems as interpersonal and intrapersonal role conflicts (for example, the role conflict of the working
  17. Introductory remarks
    "Competence" in the modern dictionary of foreign words is defined as "the possession of knowledge that allows you to judge something." [16, p. 295]. The word "competent" comes from the Latin competentis - appropriate, capable, knowledgeable, knowledgeable in a certain area, ie, having the right to judge on the basis of knowledge, to make appropriate decisions and perform specific actions.
  18. Introductory remarks
    The gender psychology of sexuality reveals the specifics of sexual relations, given by the hierarchy of roles of the gender scheme. To form an idea of ​​the methodological principles of the study of sexuality in gender psychology, it is necessary to analyze the stages and factors of the development of the scientific discourse of sexuality, as well as the formulation of the concept of sexuality within the framework of different scientific approaches.
  19. Introductory remarks
    At all times, the attitude towards sexuality depended on cultural traditions, the economic situation in the country and the specific political tasks currently being addressed by the ruling circles, and were always ambiguous and contradictory. In the twentieth century. sexuality gradually became a topic open to public discussion, which stimulated the interest of researchers and focused on
  20. Introductory remarks
    The situation of women in the sphere of economic relations and employment is associated with the concepts of "socioeconomic dependence" and "economic discrimination". The following levels of dependence can be distinguished: • societal; • socio-economic; • Family. At each level, specific factors and mechanisms for the formation of socio-economic dependence operate. Let's analyze
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